Choose an apricot variety for a summer residence near Moscow
Apricot in the suburbs is not widespread, but in summer cottages it is planted more and more often. This is due to the fact that new varieties constantly appear, resistant not only to severe frosts, but also to unexpected weather changes: apricot trees are very afraid of winter thaws. Of course, it is impossible to get a good harvest of southern varieties in the suburbs of Moscow, but the circle of zoned ones is not so narrow.
The best apricot varieties for Moscow region
Apricot has been known for a very long time: already about 7 thousand years ago, people used its fruits for food. Usually it is a large tree growing up to 7 meters tall. Agriculture experts say that all apricots available in the world can be divided into 8 species, but only three are found on the territory of Russia, and one of them (Manchurian apricot) is listed in the Red Book, and only two can be seriously mentioned.
The most common apricot, whose homeland is Central Asia. It is a tree with a wide-round crown. Apricot blossoms with beautiful pink flowers abundantly and very early, even before the first leaves appear, in the conditions of the Moscow Region this happens at the very beginning of May. This fact is the main one in that the cultivation of apricots in the middle lane poses a considerable risk: during flowering, frosts very often occur.
Siberian apricot grows in a relatively low tree with a wide crown, found in the territory from southern Transbaikalia to the Far East. The fruits are not eaten, but due to the high frost resistance and drought tolerance, Siberian apricot is often used as rootstock for vaccination of cultivated varieties.
Siberian apricot grows in the wild, including in completely seemingly inconvenient places
For such a risky zone as the Moscow Region, it is necessary to choose varieties characterized by increased frost resistance and resistance to weather whims. Since heat and sun for complete ripening in some years may not be enough, early apricots are especially popular here. In the suburbs they are planted in cottages, and our “6 acres” require saving space, so it is also important that the tree is compact and preferably self-fertile, that is, it does not require second or third apricot for pollination.
Many apricots that are good from the point of view of fruit taste are self-infertile, almost alone do not produce a crop, they bear fruit well only in a group. They try to plant such varieties in large orchards, and in small areas apricots should be chosen that do not require pollinators. As a rule, they bear fruit annually, if weather disasters do not happen: the wood does not freeze in a harsh winter or the flowering does not fall on unexpected severe frosts. True, self-fertile varieties usually do not yield such high yields as self-infertile varieties, but apricots bring so many fruits in good years that this is quite enough for an ordinary family.
Among the self-made apricots in the Moscow region, the most popular are Hardy, Alyosha and Lel.
The name of the variety shows that this apricot normally tolerates harsh conditions, including severe frosts. Not only the tree itself, which is characterized by thick-breastedness, but also the fruit organs hardly suffers from spring frosts. Hardy - one of the most winter-hardy varieties recommended for the center of Russia, as well as the Ural and Siberian regions.
The tree grows quickly, has a rounded crown, which is usual for most apricot varieties. The fruits are of medium size (weight 30–45 g), golden to orange-pink in color, slightly pubescent, sweet, with a usual apricot aroma. Sugar content is above average, the bone separates easily. The purpose of the fruits is universal: with equal success they can be eaten fresh and subjected to various types of culinary processing: cook stewed fruit, marshmallows, dry. The variety is not early: harvesting occurs in the first half of August.
The fruits of the Hardy look strict in their own way, which is quite consonant with the name
The relative disadvantage of the Hardy is the late onset of fruiting: the first flowering is observed no earlier than the fifth year after the planting of an annual seedling. The undoubted advantages, in addition to self-fertility, include:
- high productivity (60–80 kg);
- resistance to most diseases;
- excellent winter hardiness.
The variety is known for about 30 years. Unlike Hardy, the tree grows low, up to 3 meters. It grows slowly, pruning in the early years requires minimal. It is considered one of the most beautiful varieties both in terms of the shape of the tree and the aesthetics of its fruits. Winter-hardy and precocious, one of the best in terms of the ratio of these parameters for the center of Russia. Some experts call it even prematurely maturing.
Bloom Lelya in the Moscow region rarely falls under frost, so the crops are almost every year. Pests are damaged to a minimum extent. Lelia’s autonomy is partial: planted next to an apricot of another variety slightly increases productivity.
Lel’s fruits are not very elegant, but quite tasty
The fruits are orange, slightly below average, weigh about 20 g, slightly flattened, shiny. Easily detachable bone is quite large. The pulp is dense, orange, very tasty. Sugar content and acidity are well balanced. The main advantages that allow you to grow Lel in the suburbs are as follows:
- the grade withstands frosts to -30 ° C;
- easily tolerates drought, without requiring mandatory watering;
- grows slowly, not reaching gigantic sizes;
- begins to bear fruit early.
Apricot Alyosha grows in the form of a tree about 4 meters high. The crown is dense: annual shoots also begin to branch rapidly. The variety, created in 1988, is included in the State Register of Russia for the Central region. Winter hardiness is good, it begins to bear fruit in the third year after planting or inoculation. Fruitful are all shoots and young twigs that branch from them.
It is considered an early ripe variety, but it does not belong to the premature variety. Harvest is ripening by the end of July. The flowers are large, white, with pink veins. The fruits are roundish, slightly smaller than the average size, weighing about 20 g. Coloring is bright yellow, pubescence is weak. Orange flesh is characterized as delicious, without frills. The acid content is slightly higher than that of many other varieties, juiciness at an average level.
The early ripe variety Alyosha has a classic apricot color
The main disadvantage of the variety is considered to be too large a bone, but it is easily separated. Among the advantages, in addition to frost resistance, include high preservation and transportability of the fruit.
Column-shaped in our time are not only apple trees that have already become familiar. Apricot varieties have also appeared, which are conveniently grown in the form of a compact tree resembling a pillar. This “pillar” has a very small diameter, of the order of 15–20 cm, and the main part of the tree, which determines all its properties, is the trunk, which has a height of about two meters. Short lateral branches directed upward at an acute angle. The flowering column is like a single rod of pink color, the fruits are also located close to the trunk.
Video: columnar apricot
The obvious advantages of columnar trees are their small size, decorativeness and ease of maintenance. However, such apricots require a specific approach to pruning and are more moody with growing conditions. But on the usual square, occupied by one huge tree, they can be planted several copies, moreover, of different varieties.
Ordinary apricots not only occupy a large area and obscure the space around them. They also spread their powerful roots very far, greatly depleting the soil at a great distance. So much so that practically nothing can be planted nearby.
Column-shaped apricot almost does not interfere with the cultivation of most garden crops. True, there are not very many varieties that fit the definition of "columnar". The most prominent representatives are Prince Mart and Star.
Prince Mart is characterized by ultra-high frost resistance: it withstands a temperature drop of -35 ° C. Resistance to diseases and pests is also one of the highest among the known varieties of apricot. It begins to bear fruit early, but experts advise cutting off all the flowers that appeared in the first year, so that next year the tree grows stronger and gives a full crop. Ovaries form on lateral branches.
Prince Mart takes very little space in the country
The crops are stable, high, the fruits ripen in early or mid-August, although Prince March blooms early. Fruits have a very large spread in weight, but most of them are larger than average: up to 60 g, and sometimes even higher. The color is bright orange, browned, the taste is closer to sweet, the bone separates easily. The purpose of the fruit is universal.
By most characteristics, the Star tree is similar to Prince March: it is also winter-hardy and very resistant to diseases and pests. The variety is also characterized by early maturity, it is desirable to cut off the flowers appearing in the first year. However, the fruit size of this variety is even higher than that of the Prince: some reach a mass of 100 g, that is, they already resemble a peach. They look like many peaches and coloring.
The taste of the fruits is rated as very good, they are used both for direct consumption and for the manufacture of various desserts. Suitable for drying. The variety is self-fertile, medium ripening (ready by mid-August). Productivity is up to 10 kg, and since the tree takes up little space, planting on a plot of several copies completely solves the issue of providing apricots to the average family.
Winter-hardy and frost-resistant varieties
Apricot varieties are characterized by varying degrees of frost resistance and winter hardiness. Given the apparent similarity of these two terms, they represent different concepts. If everything is clear from the name with frost resistance, then winter hardiness is understood to mean the ability of an apricot to tolerate the whole set of adverse winter conditions. These are temperature fluctuations and unexpected thaws, here also include late spring frosts.
Apricot by its nature is characterized by a relatively high potential winter hardiness, however, its real level is highly dependent on agricultural technology, that is, on how well it is looked after, starting from the moment of planting. Damage to apricot buds is observed on average at -28 ° C, but closer to spring, the temperature becomes -22 ° C, and with significant temperature fluctuations - and around -15 ° C. The buds of different varieties die at -1 ... -5 ° C, and the opened flowers and the formed ovaries - at the slightest transition of temperatures to negative values. Apricots growing under conditions of constant soil moisture are more frost-resistant, and drought reduces their frost resistance.
Apricots for the suburbs must withstand the frost to -30 ° C and respond little to prolonged spring thaws. Such properties are possessed, for example, by Krasnoshchekiy, Hardy, Snegiryok and Russian.
Variety Krasnoshchekoy, perhaps, is better known than other apricot varieties, since it was bred back in 1947. In turn, it served as the starting material in the selection of other varieties. Red-cheeked is highly adaptable to adverse climatic conditions. The tree grows above average growth, sometimes clearly large, a crown of the usual form. The composition of the soil is unpretentious variety. Krasnoshchekoy is one of the most popular varieties in the Moscow region.
Relatively hasty, begins to bring crops in the fourth year. Harvest ripening period is average, approximately the end of July. Fruits annually, but with poor care proceeds to periodic fruiting, and the fruits are smaller. With proper agricultural technology, they are of medium and higher than average size (weighing up to 50 g), roundish or somewhat elongated, medium pubescence, golden color with a slight blush. The taste is excellent, with acidity, the aroma is strong, common for apricots. Fruits are suitable for direct consumption, and for any processing.
Red-cheeked - as they often say, “a classic of the genre”
The main advantages of the variety:
- very good winter hardiness: one of the leaders among apricot varieties near Moscow for this indicator;
- good yield;
- fruit transportability;
- great taste;
- good disease resistance.
Apricot variety Russian is a relatively low tree that grows as if wide, which is convenient for caring for the crown and harvesting. The variety is very frost-resistant, easily withstands cold up to –30 ° C. Resistance to diseases is average. Fruiting begins late: as a rule, not earlier than 5 years after planting.
Fruits are yellow-orange in color, the tan is small, pubescence is weak, rounded, above average size (about 50 g). The pulp is friable, juicy, bright yellow, very sweet, the fruits are used mainly fresh.
Russian - a variety with a native name, is characterized by high productivity
The main advantages of the variety include excellent winter hardiness, excellent fruit taste and high productivity.
One of the leaders in terms of frost resistance is the Snegiryok variety, grown not only in the Moscow Region, but also in regions with more severe climatic conditions. This is facilitated by a small growth (maximum - up to two meters), as a result of which, if necessary, the tree can be partially covered for the winter, however, even when open, the declared frost resistance is -42 ° C, which is an undeniable record. Unpretentious to the composition of the soil, self-fertile. The yield for such a small tree is quite sufficient (about 10 kg).Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The fruits ripen in mid-August, but are perfectly stored (at least until the New Year) and transported, because they are not soft and loose, but are characterized as elastic. Small, weighing from 20 to 25 g, light yellow with a slight tan, sweet and juicy, with a characteristic aroma.
Snegirёk - champion in frost resistance
Being the undoubted leader in advancing to the north, Snegiryok has a significant drawback: he resists diseases very weakly, and the most terrible for him are various spotting and moniliosis. This fact adds to the problems when growing apricot, since periodic preventive spraying with suitable chemicals is required, and in case of a disease, serious treatment is required. Snowflake feels especially bad in seasons with prolonged rains.
Undersized apricot varieties
Habitual apricot trees occupy a lot of space in the garden, grow both in breadth and in height; as a rule, they are higher than an ordinary country house. Therefore, many gardeners tend to have undersized varieties, even dwarf ones. Their advantages are not only that their trees are compact and much easier to care for: their height does not exceed 2.5 meters. As a rule, low-growing varieties earlier bear fruit, giving the first harvest in the third year after planting, and earlier reach the age at which the crop is maximum. Moreover, per unit area of the garden, it is even higher than that of giant trees.
Of course, a seven-meter tree, surrounded by beautiful fruits, causes joy in the summer resident. That's just to collect all this harvest is unrealistic: a seven-meter stepladder is a rarity, and there is nowhere to put it. Climbing such a tree is incredibly difficult, but still can’t get to the periphery of the branches. And ripe apricots that fall to the ground almost always break, and it is impossible to use them.
For the conditions of the Moscow Region, the most suitable variety growing in the shape of a small tree is the Snowflake considered above. You can plant a cup.
The calyx is one of the so-called dwarf varieties, reaches a height of no more than one and a half meters. Moreover, its winter hardiness allows you to plant a tree not only in the Moscow region, but also in more northern regions. The cup-shaped crown gave the name to this variety. The yield for a miniature tree is decent, but the main thing is that it bears fruit annually and steadily. They are small, weighing no more than 30 g, light yellow, rather, even cream-colored. Blush is their decoration. The pulp is friable, sweet.
Another representative of dwarf varieties is the Black Mouse apricot, but black apricots stand apart as if: this, as we now say, is a completely different story.
Video: black apricot
Early varieties of apricots are especially important in the conditions of a short summer, because for the ripening of any fruit, the total amount of positive temperatures that the fruits have time to collect is important. Therefore, in the conditions of the Moscow region it is advisable to plant early varieties. However, on the other hand, they are more sensitive to spring temperature fluctuations and tolerate frosts worse. But in the case of normal weather, you can enjoy delicious healthy fruits very early: the earliest varieties are able to produce ripe fruits already in mid-July. True, caring for them is more difficult than for apricots of medium or late ripening. Qualified pruning, top dressing and preventive spraying from diseases and pests are required.
In the conditions of the Moscow Region, the best early varieties are Iceberg, Alyosha, Tsarsky and Lel. Varieties Alyosha and Lel were considered above, since they are also one of the best representatives of self-made apricots.
Apricot varieties Iceberg was bred in 1986. The tree is low, winter hardiness is at an average level, little is affected by pests. It reacts very poorly to drafts, so the iceberg should be planted at a high fence. Not self-fertile, pollinators are required (Alyosha or Lel). It is considered one of the best hybrids of early ripening for the central regions of Russia. Productivity is high.
White flowers are quite large, blooming on all types of shoots. The first fruits ripen in mid-July. Their color is yellow-orange, the blush is small, the size is slightly below average. The pulp is juicy, of excellent taste, the bone is small. The skin is thin. The taste is dominated by sweet tones, used mainly for fresh food. The variety is appreciated for its unpretentiousness and ease of care.
Iceberg combines simplicity of cultivation and excellent taste
Apricot Tsarsky appeared about 30 years ago, it is recommended for the conditions of the middle lane, in the suburbs it is very popular. The tree grows slowly, shoots branch weakly. The maximum height of the apricot is 4 meters.
The fruits are small, about 20 g, oval. The main color is yellow, a slight blush of a pinkish color. The skin is dense, the bone is small. The pulp is yellow-orange, fragrant, sweet, there is a smack of peach. Productivity is average, but regular. The fruits persist for some time, well tolerate transportation over long distances.
The climate near Moscow is famous for its unpredictability. Even the Ural weather is more suitable for apricot, since everything is usually clear with it: winter is long but stable. In the Moscow region, severe and moderate frosts alternate with unexpected warmings of varying intensity and duration. And the worst thing for an apricot is the rooting of the root neck and its damage during the return frost. Therefore, it is advisable to choose precisely zoned varieties that can withstand all the oddities of the weather for cultivation.
There are currently no apricot varieties suitable for industrial cultivation in the Moscow Region, and we are talking about varieties intended for planting in personal, amateur orchards. And they are often located in poorly adapted, even lowered places, so you need to pay attention to the choice of apricot variety. Promising varieties for the Moscow Region are considered, for example, Countess, Monastyrsky and Favorit. But the triumph of the north succeeds only in the south of the Moscow region.
Video: Triumph North Apricot
Favorite apricot belongs to the late varieties, the last fruits are harvested in the second half of September. A tree of medium growth, medium branching, frost-resistant, medium to good yield. Favorite bred at the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It is considered one of the best for growing in the Central region of Russia.
Fruits are medium-sized, about 30 g, orange in color with red spots on the sunny side. The pulp is sweet and dense, crunchy, bright orange. The taste is excellent, the use of fruits is universal. The fruits of the Favorit cultivar, like many later varieties, are well stored.
Favorite - one of the best late varieties
Apricot, bred in 1988, is quite moody in the cultivation. The tree is tall (up to 6 meters), young shoots hardly branch. In rainy seasons prone to disease. Frost resistance is at a high level, but lower than other zoned varieties. Self-fertility is weak, but in the presence of a pollinator blooming simultaneously with the Countess, yields are very high.
Blooms profusely, small flowers. Ripening period - medium: end of summer. In dry and warm summers, the fruits are very elegant, of variable shape, of medium size (from 30 to 40 g). The pubescence is tender, the color is creamy with an original blush. But with high humidity, it is densely covered with black spots, spoiling the appearance. The pulp is very tasty, juicy, orange. The large bone is easily separated. Most fruits are used fresh, but are quite suitable for canning. Subject to not very long storage. The transportability of the Countess's fruits is low.
According to the characteristics of the tree, the Monastery is largely reminiscent of the Countess, and harvesting takes place at about the same time. But the number of fruits is slightly higher, and in appearance they differ significantly from the Countess.
Monastyrsky is a medium-ripening variety zoned in Non-Chernozemye
Fruits are not quite the correct shape, lemon yellow in good light orange, the blush is pronounced. Weight from 40 g. The stone is large, it does not separate perfectly. The skin is quite dense. The pulp is juicy, orange in color, tastes good. The purpose of the fruit is universal, they are not bad stored.
Video: an overview of the best varieties of apricot
I share observations on the winter hardiness of some apricot varieties that are prevalent in the Moscow region. In 2011, the Triumph North apricot seedling with a closed root system was purchased on the local market "Gardener". He was landed in the south of the Moscow region on the border of the Zaraysk and Kashira districts. The place is well suited for a garden: the upper part of a gentle hill closed by a young forest from the north, gray forest soils, deep (18 m) standing underground waters. In the winter of 2011/2012, the part that was above the snow completely froze out of the tree, the story repeated the following winter. It became clear that the winter hardiness of the variety is completely insufficient for our conditions.Gartner
Planted a few years ago a sapling of the Krasnoshcheky variety. Old grade. I cut the side branches during the formation. He blossomed in the spring and withered. I suppose it wasn’t necessary to cut it off for the first few years.Gutov Sergey
Lel is better for the Moscow Region: winter hardiness and frost resistance are good. Fruiting on all types of shoots. It bears fruiting for 3-4 years. Apricot Triumph North: hardiness of wood is high, but flowering buds - average. It bears fruiting in the 4th year of life. The son of Krasnoshchekoy is only suitable for the south of the Black Earth region, since the flower buds freeze. Aquarius is also winter hardiness and high frost resistance. Also suitable for Moscow apricot Novospassky. All apricots I have listed are self-fertile.Mara47
Apricots of the Calyx and dwarf varieties are undersized 1.2–1.5 m. We have a lot of snow in the winter, hence the interest in these varieties."Sun2"
"Alyosha." Suitable variety for the suburbs. Small-fruited. Sprinkling. Decorative and edible. As it ripens, it crumbles, which is inconvenient during harvesting. Fruiting is annual. Fertilized spurs form spikes.Igor Ivanov
Colon-shaped trees without some tricks do not justify themselves, the reason is the superficial root system, which in hot, dry climates suffers greatly from humidity drops, and this leads to damage to cells in the fruits and their spoilage.Lucky man
The number of apricot varieties grown in the Moscow region is in the tens, but the most popular are not so many. This is due to the fact that it is not easy to achieve the optimal set of qualities for cultivation in harsh conditions: the excellent taste of the fruits is not always accompanied by high winter hardiness of the tree, and the simplicity of care forces one to put up with the mediocrity of quality and quantity of the crop. Therefore, when choosing a variety, you need to weigh all the positive and negative sides well, since planted apricot will live in the country for more than one decade.