Cherry Zhukovskaya: the main subtleties of planting and care
The Zhukovskaya cherry variety has been known since the late 40s of the last century thanks to the work of employees of the Institute of Genetics and Breeding named after Michurina. When breeding Zhukovskaya used varietal seeds from free pollination. Judging by research, descriptions and reviews, cherries have surpassed the “parents” in yield and taste. Today, new improved varieties have been created on the basis of Zhukovskaya, but until now this cherry is popular and is respected by gardeners.
Description of cherries Zhukovskaya
Cherry trees are medium-sized plants. Zhukovskaya cherries are also no exception: the height of the tree reaches 2.5–3 m. The sprawling crown of medium density has a rounded shape. Dark green leaves with small denticles along the edges are located on long purple-red petioles. The shape of the leaves is oblong, resembling a concave boat.
The trunk and branches are reddish brown. The buds are medium-sized, oblong, do not fit tightly on the shoots. White flowers reach 3 cm, located 5 pieces in inflorescence. On bouquet branches, large heart-shaped fruits are tied up, weighing from 4 to 7 g. The berry has a juicy tender flesh with a taste slightly reminiscent of cherries.
The tree begins fruiting in the 4th year. Cherry gives the greatest yields at the age of 15 - then you can collect up to 30 kg of berries. The average yield is 10-12 kg.
The fruits of the cherry have a large bone, well detachable from the pulp
Zhukovskaya cherries are varieties of medium winter hardiness; it is not intended for cultivation in areas of cold and harsh climate. Flower buds can die at temperatures below 0 ° C. With prolonged frosts, even wood freezes.
If you live in an area with cold winters, it makes sense to plant cherry trees with increased winter hardiness, such as Amorel early or Fertile Michurina.
Pollinating trees and pollination methods
Zhukovskaya needs a pollinating neighbor. This is a necessary condition for successful fruiting. Without it, the tree will delight the eye only with snow-white flowers, and not juicy berries. In self-infertile Zhukovsky, flowers are unable to pollinate their own pollen, therefore they need the help of relatives of flowers. In this case, pollination is carried out using wind and insects. Suitable pollinators for cherries of this variety are Vladimirskaya, Lyubskaya, Apukhtinskaya, Molodezhnaya. They do not need to be planted in their own area - it is enough that they grow and bear fruit in the neighbors of the country.
If there are no necessary pollinators nearby, and the area of the garden does not allow you to buy and plant another tree, you can plant the necessary branch in the crown of the tree. In extreme cases, tie a cropped plastic bottle to the tree trunk, pour water and put in it a bouquet of flowering branches of the desired variety.
It is better to buy cherry seedlings in the fall - at this time of the year there is more market choice of fruit trees. However, planting in the ground is more favorable in the spring, since there is a possibility that from the fall the thermophilic plant will not have time to take root before stable cold weather sets in. A seedling purchased in the fall is placed at a 45 ° angle in a shallow pit, the roots are covered with cardboard, a layer of paper or a rag, dug up with soil and stored in this form until spring planting.
You can leave the seedlings even in a cold cellar until they land in the ground, but it is still advisable to protect the roots from mechanical damage and drying out.
Saplings bought in the fall, you need to dig
The most suitable month for planting a seedling Zhukovskaya is April. The place is chosen with good access to sunlight, freely ventilated. Groundwater depth - at least 2 m. For the proper planting of cherry seedlings you need:
- Choose the right seedlings that are suitable for your region. It is better to purchase them at breeding stations or in nurseries. Overgrown cherries in the neighboring plot will not yield a good harvest. In extreme cases, choose material that has grown farther from the trunk - its root system is much stronger and more durable. Do not use shoots from a grafted tree - all efforts will be in vain, get only wild game.
Choose seedlings suitable for your area
- Dig a hole up to 0.5 m deep, 80 cm in diameter. The size depends on the actual volume of the root system of the plant. If the soil is acidic, add dolomite flour or wood ash there. If you plan to plant Zhukovskaya on clay or loamy soils, add half a bucket of sand.
Digging a hole, focus on the size of the root system of the seedling
- Place the roots of the seedling in the pit so that the root neck is not higher than ground level. Gently spread the roots, avoiding excesses and creases.
- Cover the roots with a topsoil mixed with superphosphate and organic fertilizers. Tamp the ground lightly and take care of the trunk hole. Pour seedlings with settled water: 15–20 l will be enough. After watering, mulch the area around the trunk with sawdust.
Water young saplings with settled water
- If a tree needs support, add a piece of pipe, reinforcement or peg with it and strengthen the future cherry with a soft wire or rope in two places. Alternatively, two pegs are driven in and the seedling is fixed on opposite sides. The support is dug to a half-meter depth, it should be below the tree.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Caring for cherries Zhukovskaya is not much different from caring for other fruit trees. All residents of the garden need timely watering, cultivation and top dressing.
Watering and loosening
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- the first watering is carried out simultaneously with top dressing, immediately after flowering;
- the second - during the pouring period of berries;
- winter watering is done after dropping foliage in mid-November.
The number of irrigations can vary depending on the amount of rainfall, soil condition, tree size and its age.
From spring to autumn, 2-3 shallow loosening is sufficient, and before the last watering, the necessary fertilizers are applied, and the soil around the trunk is dug to the depth of the shovel bayonet.
The first 4 years, nitrogen fertilizers are applied twice per season: immediately after the snow melts and during the period of intensive berry growth. Then they feed with urea or ammonium nitrate (50-60 g for each tree). Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied in the autumn before digging (in a ratio of 3: 1).
An excellent feeding will be the infusion of mullein with wood ash: take a capacity of 60–80 l, add a bucket of fresh cow manure, 2 kg of ash, pour 5–6 buckets of water and insist for a week. To water, dilute the fertilizer obtained with water in a ratio of 1: 5 and bring it under a tree (20-30 l) during the growing season and fruiting.
Such nutrition will be useful not only for cherries, but also for any fruit trees.
Video: simple cherry pruning rules
The main methods of combating diseases and their peddlers
Leaves, young shoots and fruits can be affected by holey spotting (kleasterosporiosis). Sick parts of the tree are covered with red-brown spots. Over time, the leaves perforate, and the berries lose their presentable appearance and fall off. For the fight using drugs containing copper. 10-14 days after flowering, the trees are treated with 3% Bordeaux fluid or 1% HOM fungicide. When processing, adhere to the proportions and recommendations specified in the instructions.
When affected by gray rot, leaves and young shoots dry out, the lesion sites resemble spots from thermal burns. Immediately, the fruits and leaves do not crumble, but spores become covered with a gray coating. The treatment is carried out using iron sulfate (150 g per 5 liters of water), HOM preparation (20 mg per 5 liters of water) or a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture. Affected branches, leaves and fruits are thoroughly cleaned and burned.
Zhukovskaya resists well fungal diseases, in particular coccomycosis, but is not protected from pests of fruit trees.
Table: Cherry Pests and Methods
|Cherry Pests||Signs of defeat||Control and Prevention Measures|
|Cherry fly||If damaged by a cherry fly, the berries lose their color, deteriorate and crumble. Larvae of flies gnaw the pulp of the fruit.|
|Californian shield||Damages all parts of the tree: trunk, leaves, branches and fruits. It feeds on plant juice. Red spots are observed on the fruits, the tree trunk is bent, leaves and branches die. It is a quarantine pest.|
|Cherry slimy sawfly||The sawfly has a bisexual shape. Two generations take place in a year. Larvae are able to gnaw the green part of the leaf, leaving one skeleton, which leads to the death of a significant part of the crown of the tree.|
Photo Gallery: Cherry Diseases and Pests
- Kleasterosporiosis is also called hole spotting.
- Gray rot makes berries inedible
- Sawfly larvae can rob a tree of a large part of the crown
- Cherry fly lays larvae that eat up the pulp of berries
Video: how to cure cherries from diseases
Reviews about the variety of cherries Zhukovskaya
Zhukovskaya - sweet, dark red, the size of a Youth. I didn’t like that the berries show off and become covered with dark spots (maybe it was she who hurt me). Knocked out.Qwert12031958
My Zhukovskaya wintered this winter (planted in the spring of 2010). Grow started only in the fall. On growths, very strong freezing of wood (cambium remained alive, the core is brown, breaks easily). Not bloomed. Now gives "seasoned" gains. Not the most winter-hardy variety, to put it mildly, like Turgenevka.Andrey Vasiliev
I have Zhukovskaya, but still young, did not even bloom even once. I bought it for reasons of goodness and color of cherries - almost black, large.Ekaterina Beltyukova
Cherry Zhukovskaya is an excellent representative of domestic selection. The tree does not ask for close attention to itself, but it is nevertheless necessary to satisfy some requirements. A minimum of labor invested, and the cherry will delight hardworking gardeners with delicious berries that will appeal to everyone.