Cherry Vladimirskaya: description, nuances of planting and care, reviews
Cherries Vladimirskaya has been popular for many centuries, and not only among amateur gardeners. It is grown on an industrial scale. The variety belongs to the old Russians, which makes its presence in the garden not only useful, but also pleasant: how not to boast of a retro legend to your neighbors!
The name of the Vladimirskaya cherry is associated with the name of the city of Vladimir. It is believed that the first specimens appeared there from the 7th to the 12th century thanks to the monks who brought seedlings from Greece. According to another version, Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky brought the tree from Kiev, laying the Patriarchal Garden. In the 19th century, the city of Vladimir was famous throughout Russia for its cherry orchards, the number of which reached 400.
In the Patriarchal Garden, 5 varieties of Vladimir cherry were grown: Roditeleva, Sayka, Levinka, Bel and the famous Vasilyevsky cherry, as well as pears, apple trees and other fruit and berry crops.
Today Vladimir Cherry is one of the symbols of the city. At the entrance to the famous Patriarchal Garden there is a monument to the berry in the form of granite fruits with sprigs of bronze.
At the entrance to the Patriarchal Garden in Vladimir erected a monument to Vladimir Cherry
The variety was zoned in 1947 and has since been popular among gardeners.
The garden was based on cherry trees, mainly Vladimir cherry
The bushy tree reaches up to 5 m in height. Own cherry forms a bush. The crown is spherical in shape, weakly leafy, its skeletal branches drooping, raised at an angle of 60 °. The leaves in the shape of an ellipse have a pointed apex, the edge of them is bicapillary (like a serrate, but with additional smaller denticles). Leaf length - 8 cm, width - 3 cm, color - dark green.
Adult Vladimirskaya Cherry reaches 5 m in height
Flowering begins in May. Before the ripening of the berries takes about 2 months (60 days). Medium-sized buds are collected in inflorescences of 5-7 pieces.
Own cherry Vladimirskaya refers to bush varieties
The berries have a black and red hue, the seeds are small. The size of the fruit is average and depends on the conditions (they can be small). The taste of berries is sweet and sour, harmonious. The variety is gastronomically valuable, dessert, one of the most delicious: good and fresh, and for all types of processing .
Berries cherries varieties Vladimir average in size
The variety is medium early. Ripening occurs in mid-late July. Unequal ripening is considered a feature, because of which the berries can fall. The fruits are well transported. Productivity is average, depending on the wintering and region (under favorable conditions, it can reach 20 kg from one tree). The grafted plants begin to bear fruit quickly - on the 2nd – 3rd year.
Cherries of the Vladimir Vladimir variety are self-fertile, which means that planting only these trees will not bring a crop, a pollinator variety is needed nearby.
Types of cherries varieties Vladimirskaya
Since cherries have a long history, and many amateur gardeners were engaged in its selection, it is not a genetically uniform variety. In fact, this is a mixture of closely related cherries, which are very similar to each other. You can find such names:
Table: Vladimirskaya cherry pollinators
|Cherries||The most important characteristics of the bush||Fruit Characteristics||Productivity|
|Lyubskaya||Small trees, up to 2.5 m||Medium and large, sweet and sour taste, purpose - universal, suitable for industrial cultivation||Up to 25 kg, early fruiting, for 2-3 years, self-fertile|
|Amorel pink||Medium-sized trees, up to 3 m||Pink flesh, sweet-sour taste, suitable only for fresh consumption||Up to 18 kg, bears fruit in the 4th – 5th year|
|Fertile Michurina||Trees are low - up to 2.5 m, the crown is very wide, spreading||Good transportability, the variety is zoned in some areas of central Russia||Up to 30–45 kg, self-fertile, bears fruit in the 2nd – 3rd year, goes well with Lyubskaya|
Also good pollinators are:
- Griot of Moscow;
- The bottle is pink;
- The fur coat is pink;
- Consumer goods are black.
Vladimirskaya itself is also a good pollinator; it is considered one of the best for Turgenevka, the Chocolate Girl.
The winter hardiness of the variety is high, but it is not suitable for cultivation in the northern regions of the Russian Federation: low temperatures damage generative buds. This does not lead to the death of the plant, but affects its productivity. In the conditions of the North (Siberia, the Urals), no more than 5–6 kg can be obtained from one tree. However, in the northern regions the variety can act as a stock (that is, other plants are grafted to it), and is also the ancestor of some frost-resistant varieties, for example, Krasa Severa cherries.
Selection of planting material
You can buy seedlings in almost any nursery, but among gardeners, material from the city of Vladimir is appreciated.
How to choose a seedling:
- It is better to take a grafted annual . It will take root faster than a two- or three-year-old tree, will begin to bear fruit earlier.
- It is worth choosing a well-developed and healthy root system, without traces of insect activity. The best option is a few twigs on the tree itself and powerful roots.
- Buy material should be in the fall.
Care should be taken when choosing a place, as the tree will be there for the next 15–20 years. The crown of an adult plant is spreading, round, its approximate diameter is 2-3 m.
An important point is that stone fruits are planted as close to each other as possible. Although this is a controversial issue (some believe that the farther the better), it does not make sense to place Vladimirskaya cherries at a distance of more than 3 m from each other, and for a good cross-pollination it is better that the distance is minimal.
In the process of choosing a place, evaluate:
- the presence of fences and buildings nearby;
- soil properties and groundwater behavior;
- the presence of other landings.
Well cultivated, fertile soils with suitable mineral composition are preferred. Type - sandy loam with a neutral reaction. The place should be bright, preferably southern. Fences, fences, buildings taking into account the growth of the crown are desirable. Fencing will make it easier to organize snow retention in winter, and soft wintering is very important for Vladimir Cherry .
Before planting, the site is dug up, manure is added (up to 15 kg per 1 m2), superphosphate or phosphoric flour, potash fertilizers of 100 g each.
Cherry is sensitive to excess moisture. The proximity of groundwater will inhibit the growth of the tree, affect crop yields. Check the occurrence of water - they should not be closer than 1.5–2 m from the soil surface.
Before planting, the top of the tree should be trimmed to 60–80 cm. In the southern regions, the plant is planted in a permanent place in the fall, in the cold - in the spring. If the seedling was bought in the fall, for safety, they add it (Fig. 1 and 2) into the furrows 35 cm deep, lay it at an angle of 40 °, place the crown to the south, fill up the roots, compact the soil, and water it. The ground part of the tree is covered with spruce branches - this will protect the branches from freezing and rodents.
For winter, cherry seedlings must be dug to protect
In cold regions (Siberia, Ural) Vladimirskaya is planted only in the spring.
Landing: step by step instructions
Spring planting time varies by region. In the suburbs, it is carried out in the spring, as soon as the snow has melted. To do this, choose a dry, calm and warm day. Wells are prepared in advance - a month before planting, dig holes of 60 cm3 in size at a distance of 3 m from each other. An interval of 3.5 m is maintained between the rows. A peg is driven into the center of each recess - it will support a young plant. Planting pits fertilize if this was not done during digging. To do this, make:
- ash - 0.5 kg;
- phosphorus fertilizer - 300 g;
- potassium fertilizer - 80 g;
- manure - 15 kg.
Prepared seedlings (inspected and selected) are planted:
- Near the peg, the earth is poured, forming a hill of 50 cm.
- The roots of the seedling are spread over the entire surface, sprinkled with earth on top, carefully, but strongly compacting it.
- Form a small hole near the tree.
- Water well (for one seedling - 3 buckets of water, which should have room temperature).
- The watered soil is lightly sprinkled with earth, the tree is tied to a support.
After planting, the cherry must be tied to a peg installed in the landing pit
Video: how to plant a cherry
The nuances of care
During active growth, such measures will be required:
- Watering - 3-4 buckets per adult plant. If the summer is rainy, you only need additional fertilizing.
- The introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers calculated for fruit crops.
- In the fall - water-loading irrigation.
- Deoxidation of the soil. It is an important point in tree care. Even on slightly acidic soils, cherries will grow poorly, and yields can not be expected at all. Before planting in acidic soil, lime must be added. In time add substances that normalize acidity: potassium and calcium.
The variety is characterized by medium winter hardiness, so shelter for the winter will not be superfluous. The trunk circle is covered with peat, sawdust, rotted (but not fresh) foliage.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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To protect against rodents, the lower part of the trunk and branches are wrapped in burlap or any thick paper (you can use newspapers, but preferably wrapping or wrapping paper). From above put on fabric covers. This is not a very reliable protection against rodents, so you can consider materials such as: plastic bottles, birch bark, ruberoid, iron mesh, nylon tights, spruce fir.
Plant pruning and shaping
- Pruning cherries is a moot point. If there is no confidence in your skills, it is better not to carry it out at all.
- In spring, the procedure is not carried out after swelling of the kidneys, since the risk of infection with fungi increases.
- Be sure to remove the branches growing inside the crown, dry, damaged by diseases.
- Pruning is done in spring and autumn. In the spring - for the purpose of formation, in the fall - as a disease prevention. Summer pruning is carried out only on well-developed trees. In winter, the procedure is unacceptable.
Video: Cherry Pruning
Fighting Major Diseases
The most common diseases of the cherry, such as moniliosis and coccomycosis. Disease control methods are similar, as they all have a bacterial and fungal nature. It is better to focus on prevention, since an already infected plant is much more difficult to treat.
Perform the following:
- When the buds begin to bloom (green cone phase), the tree is treated with Bordeaux liquid 3%.
- As soon as the flowering is completed, the plant is again sprayed with Bordeaux liquid (1%) or with the drug Skor (for 10 liters of water - 1 ampoule). Repeat this procedure after 3 weeks.
- In autumn, the fallen leaves are removed, the tree and the earth around it are treated with a 7% urea solution.
- Remove unripe fruits, avoiding their falling. Infected berries are picked and destroyed.
- Conduct sanitary pruning. Visible damage, for example, from hommosis, is cut out or stripped to healthy tissues, treated with brilliant green or a solution of copper sulfate (3%). After drying the wounds, a garden var is applied.
Table: main diseases of the cherry
|Coccomycosis||First, reddish dots appear on the underside of the foliage, which then merge into spots|
|Kleasterosporiosis (perforated spotting)||Spots appear on foliage, fruits, young shoots. Over time, they turn into holes: the peel of the fruit bursts, the berries crack, the bark is damaged with the expiration of gum|
|Moniliosis (monilial burn)||Spores of the fungus during flowering through stigmas enter the wood, which causes interruptions in the nutrition of branches and foliage, the shoots dry out|
|Anthracnose||The berries are affected: first spots appear on them, then tubercles. The pulp dries up. 80% of the total crop is affected by rain|
|Gummosis||The common name for the expiration of gum for various reasons, the most common are cracks due to frost, severe damage to moniliosis, mechanical damage, which spores of fungi or bacteria|
Photo gallery: external symptoms of cherry diseases
- With coccomycosis, cherry leaves suffer
- With moniliosis, the leaves and shoots of cherries dry out
- Gommosis on cherry appears from damage
- With kleasterosporiosis holes form on the leaves and fruits of cherry
- Anthracnose affects berries of a cherry
Cherry Pest Control
Some pests have similar control measures:
- Manual collection of beetles is carried out in cool weather, when insects become numb. They are shaken off on a litter, then destroyed.
- On trunks fasten hunting belts.
- The treatment is carried out with the safest preparations for humans, such as Actara or Fitoverm. They process barely opening buds, repeat the procedure after flowering.
Table: methods for eliminating the main pests of cherries
|Type of pest||Ways to fight|
|Aphid cherry||Processing with a mixture of Fitoverm and soap (1 tbsp. L. Composition per 10 l of water, 1 time in 2 weeks)|
|Cherry Weevil||Collection of adults, preventive treatment of plants|
|Cherry sawfly||Collection of adults, preventive treatment of plants|
|Cherry shoot moth||Catching adult specimens, spring treatment by Fitoverm|
Photo Gallery: Appearance of Cherry Orchard Pests
- You can get rid of cherry aphids using a solution of Fitoverm and soap
- From a cherry sawfly, only the collection of adults helps
- When a cherry shoot moth appears, adult insects should be caught
- Cherry weevil is also harvested by hand as an adult.
Pros and cons of the variety
- Delicious berries with a good sugar content, suitable for various consumption.
- It is perfectly transported.
- Care is average in complexity.
- Beautiful, magnificent, highly decorative crown. The plant will decorate the garden.
- Productivity today is not the highest and depends on the region.
- The need for pollinating neighbors.
- Low resistance to disease.
- Low frost resistance. The variety is not suitable for cultivation in regions with unstable winters or in steadily cold territories.
... there was a little Vladimirka, but I would not say that it is sour, I liked it.
We planted Vladimirka, Shubinka, Lyubskaya. All to no avail, the color was always beaten by frosts, the berries were - once or twice and miscalculated. And, in the end, everyone froze in the cold winters. :( Cottage 60 km along the Yaroslavl highway
We have been tormented by Vladimir for about 15 years. Some trees die, others come from the root shoot - such a permanent process. But when there is a tree of sufficient age - there are berries. True, it is difficult to call them berries - a bone covered in skin. The plot in the Vladimir region, beyond the Cockerels, is located in a lowland.
I have three cherries growing in the Yaroslavl region - Zhukovskaya, Vladimirskaya and Moscow Griot. Vladimirskaya tastes so-so, Zhukovskaya is better, the berries are black, but the Moscow Griot is the best cherry I have!
As for Vladimirskaya, this is no longer a variety, but a set of clones, and very different ones. This happened due to non-systemic and mass propagation by sowing seeds. Moreover, it is non-self-fertile, non-resistant to coccomycosis, slightly winter-hardy, NOT the most delicious.
I tried all these varieties from Dessert Morozova to the American Nord Star ... if Vladimirka and Tatar Pride bend after 3 years, then this year they no longer live. And all this with a 3-fold annual processing Bordeaux mixture. I abandoned the cherry, completely.
There is an old garden of Vladimir cherries, he is over 70 years old. The cherry is beautiful, large, dark, I liked it.
Cherry Vladimirskaya still occupies a worthy place in the amateur garden. Its advantages are time-tested. At the same time, she also has disadvantages: low frost resistance, instability of the variety - instead of large berries, you can get small and not very tasty ones.