Cherry Tyutchevka: cold-resistant variety with delicious fruits
Cherry Tyutchevka - a representative of varieties developed specifically for the middle band. She easily tolerates frosts and practically does not get sick. But at the same time, the variety is characterized by abundant yields of delicious berries, almost as good as their southern counterparts.
Description of cherries Tyutchevka
Tyutchevka was obtained by crossing sweet cherry varieties 3–36 and Red Dense at the All-Russian Research Institute of Lupine (Bryansk). At this institute there is a fruit growing department dealing with selection of berry bushes and fruit trees. There at the end of the last century a new variety of cherries appeared as a result of the work of the breeder M.V. Kanshina. In 2001, Tyutchevka was registered in the State Register of the Russian Federation and recommended for cultivation in the Central region.
Cherries of the Tyutchevka variety grow in the form of a medium-tall tree with a rare round-shaped crown. The shoots are thick, durable, brownish in color. The leaves on them are oval, large, without pubescence, located on short petioles. The first fruits appear on the 5th year after planting a tree, full-fledged crops are observed at the age of ten and later. The main fruiting is on bouquet branches. Inflorescences consist of four flowers with long stamens and pistils. This cherry blooms no earlier than mid-May, and the fruits ripen late: at the very end of July or in August.
The variety is almost self-fertile: without pollinators, the crop is negligible. Pollinators can be any cherry trees blooming at the same time. The best varieties in this regard are Ovstuzhenka, Raditsa, Iput, Bryanskaya pink. In industrial cultivation, the average yield is about 100 kg / ha, the maximum recorded is 275 kg / ha. In private households, about 2 buckets are collected from a tree, the maximum described is 40 kg.
Normal fruiting, according to gardeners, should last about 20 years, which, for obvious reasons, has not yet been confirmed.
The variety is winter-hardy, easily tolerates frosts up to -25 ° C, in the most severe winters in the middle zone (at -35 ° C) up to 20% of the buds freeze out. Return frosts during flowering with a decrease in temperature to -5 ° C kill about 70% of the flowers. Pain tolerance is assessed as high, but to diseases such as coccomycosis and kleasterosporiosis - only average.
Cherries Tyutchevka is distinguished by beautiful fruits of higher than average size (about 23 mm in diameter, weight 5–7 g), broadly rounded in shape, their color is dark red with dots. The pulp is dense, fleshy, red, cherry juice is painted in a light red color. The fruits are on medium-sized stalks. The bone is medium-sized, oval, does not separate very well from the pulp of the fetus. Fruits from the peduncle come off easily, without loss of juice.
The fruits of Tyutchevka are large, beautiful, ripening quite amicably
The fruits are sweet (sugar content about 11%, acidity 0.4%), aromatic, tasting score 4.9 out of 5. Easily transported over long distances, which is appreciated by farmers who grow cherries for sale. For good transportability, the fruits should be removed with the stalks. In especially rainy seasons, they are prone to cracking.
The purpose of the crop is universal. The fruits are used fresh, the excess is frozen, allowed for processing: jam, compotes and others are harvested.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Tyutchevka is a relatively young variety, although, of course, for 17 years it has already managed to show all its positive qualities and discover some shortcomings. As the main advantages of the variety, gardeners note:
- high stable yield;
- spectacular presentation and excellent taste of fruits;
- good crop mobility;
- unpretentiousness to growing conditions;
- high frost resistance and disease resistance.
Among the relative disadvantages are cracking of fruits in high humidity and the need for pollinators.
Planting cherries varieties Tyutchevka
The agricultural technology of cherries of the Tyutchevka variety is practically no different from that of other varieties intended for cultivation in a relatively cold climate of the middle strip. This applies to both planting a tree and caring for it.
Tyutchevka variety is intended for the Central region, where they try to plant any stone fruit in the spring: autumn planting is fraught with possible freezing out of seedlings that have not fully taken root. However, seedlings with a closed root system can be planted in the fall, but late spring or even the beginning of summer is much more preferable for them.
The spring planting of Tyutchevka in the case of seedlings with bare roots can be carried out in a very limited time. The soil by this time should already completely thaw, and the buds on the seedling should not bloom, they can only swell. The threat of severe frost by the time of landing should pass. Typically, this situation in the middle lane develops in early or mid-April.
Although the Tyutchevka variety is frost-resistant, in the summer, to obtain full-fledged yields of sweet berries, the tree should be well-lit by sunlight and protected from piercing winds, especially from the north. Well, if there is a gentle southern slope. As a protection against winds, high fences, walls of houses and even other fruit trees “work” well.
Cherries in the middle lane are preferred to be planted close to fences, protecting them from the winds.
The best soil is breathable sandy loam or loam with a neutral reaction and a high content of nutrients, in no case swampy or flooded with groundwater. Sometimes for planting cherries a small mound is specially built, pouring fertile soil. If there is time, and even more so if the plot is overgrown with perennial weeds, it is pre-digged with a small amount of humus (half a bucket per 1 m2), carefully choosing the rhizomes of weeds.
Landing pit preparation
It is very difficult to dig holes in the spring, so you need to do this from the fall, at any time. The dimensions of the cherry pit are 80–90 cm in length and width, 50–60 cm in depth. Enough and 50 cm, but if the soil is heavy, dig deeper, and put on the bottom 10-12 cm of gravel or broken brick as a drainage layer. The preparation of the landing pit for Tyutchevka is not unusual: the lower layer is thrown away, and the upper layer is mixed with fertilizers and returned to the pit.
Fertilizers during planting are 2 buckets of humus and a pair of good handful of wood ash. On poor soils, you can immediately add 100 g of superphosphate, other mineral fertilizers will be needed later for fertilizing. In the case of overly acidic soils, a little chalk or slaked lime should be added: to a liter jar. When planting several trees between them leave a distance of at least 4 meters.
In large gardens, cherries are planted in rows, where 3-4 meters are left between trees
It is best to take a two-year-old tree as a seedling: three-year-olds take root somewhat worse, and from a one-year twig it will take a year longer to harvest. It is important that the bark and branches as a whole are healthy, and the roots are developed and flexible. The technique of planting cherries Tyutchevka is the same as that of most fruit trees.
- If there is damage on the roots of a seedling, they are cut to a healthy place, after which the roots in the water are soaked for at least a few hours, and preferably for a day. Immediately before lowering into the planting pit, the roots are dipped in a mash, made up of equal amounts of clay and mullein and enough water for the consistency of sour cream.
Clay coating on the roots accelerates the healing of seedlings
- Having taken out the holes and the required amount of soil, they form a mound in it, next to which a strong stake of sufficient height (at least 80 cm above the ground) is driven in.
The stake is selected so that it reaches the first lateral branch of the seedling
- Having installed a sapling on the mound, they select the height so that its root neck is several centimeters above the soil level (in the future it should barely peek out of the ground). Spreading the roots, gradually fill them with soil, periodically compacting it.
Depends on the position of the root neck, whether the tree will take root and will bear fruit normally
- Tie the seedling trunk to the stake with the “eight” using a soft rope or a strip of dense polyethylene. Gently pour 2-3 buckets of water under the seedling.
- If necessary, add soil, form rollers on the edges of the pit for subsequent irrigation, water the seedling a little more and mulch the soil with peat, humus or sawdust with a layer of 2-3 cm.
Water is often poured from a bucket, but it is better to use a watering can so that the moisture is more even
- Cut the seedling so that the aboveground part meets the ability of the roots to feed it: the height of the two-year-old after planting should not exceed 1 m, the length of the side branches is 50 cm.
In the first few weeks after planting, a sapling is systematically watered: in dry weather, and possibly every other day. The soil in the near-stem circle must be constantly moist. Good mulch can significantly reduce the frequency of watering.
When a seedling takes root, it needs less watering. The intensity of irrigation depends on the weather, but you can not dry the soil during the growth of new shoots, as well as during the loading of berries. Winter wintering is also required. Up to 10 buckets of water may be required for an adult tree, but it is also impossible to overfill, especially during the ripening of the crop. Cherry Tyutchevka suffers from excessive moisture, responding with uncontrolled cracking of the fruit, resulting in a sharp drop in yield. Therefore, if heavy rains begin 2–3 weeks before harvesting, the trunk circle should be covered with plastic wrap.
Top dressing begins in the third year after planting. Once every 2-3 years, cherries are fed with manure or chicken droppings. It is better to give litter in a diluted (1:10) form; dry rotted manure can be buried shallow along the periphery of the crown. Enough buckets of manure and, accordingly, half a bucket of litter, bring them shortly before flowering.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Every year at the very beginning of spring they give nitrogen top dressing with mineral fertilizers. Urea is best used (25-30 g per 1 m2 of the trunk circle). If urea is scattered over thawed soil, it will draw into the root zone when it melts. In case of a later application, the hoe must be closed up with a shallow fertilizer. In August, the sweet cherry is fed in the same way with potassium sulfate (in the same dose) and superphosphate (twice as much). Periodically, the near-trunk circle is sprinkled with a thin layer of wood ash. The weeds around the tree are systematically destroyed throughout its life.
Urea (urea) - one of the safest mineral fertilizers
If the tree was correctly cut when planting, it would not take a long time to approach it with a pruner. Cherries growing in harsh climates generally try not to prune unnecessarily. In spring and autumn, only broken and dried branches are cut out, carefully covering the wounds with garden var. Tyutchevka is not prone to thickening, therefore, lightening pruning is rarely performed. But young growths on adult trees after harvest are slightly shortened annually.
Shelters for the winter require only young trees in the first 2-3 years. After plentiful winter watering, the trunk circle is covered with a thick layer of sawdust or peat chips, and coniferous spruce branches are laid on top. Having driven in the required number of pegs, the tree itself, together with the crown, is wrapped for the winter with non-woven material or roofing material. As snow appears, they throw it into the near-stem circle, forming a snowdrift.
Young saplings for the winter turn into a kind of cocoon, but even the breathable shelter must be removed in time after wintering
With the advent of spring, you must not be late to remove the shelter so that the tree does not cry out!
Adult Tyutchevka trees easily tolerate ordinary winters, and if the tips of the branches slightly freeze, they quickly recover. In the case of severe freezing, which is extremely rare, dead fragments in spring should be cut out.
Video: the cultivation of cherries in the middle lane
Diseases and Pests
Tyutchevka is very rarely ill, and with proper agricultural technology it doesn’t reach serious preparations. The usual preventative measures are enough: to rake and burn the leaves after leaf fall, clean the lagging bark and dig the area. Many gardeners do not neglect the preventive spraying of trees with copper-containing preparations in early spring. Most often they use 1% Bordeaux liquid.
Among the diseases of sweet cherry, which should be paid attention to, in the case of Tyutchevka only coccomycosis and kleasterosporiosis are called. Coccomycosis is a dangerous fungal disease. In late spring, brownish spots up to 2 mm in size form on the leaves of the infected tree, and after a month without treatment they merge into continuous large spots. Dirty pads - fungal colonies - appear on the underside of the leaf. Leaves fall ahead of time.
Coccomycosis can not be underestimated: spots on the leaves eventually destroy them, and the tree greatly weaken
The disease often spreads to other parts of the plant, as a result of which the tree weakens and can die. Coccomycosis is treated first (in spring) with the same Bordeaux mixture, but with a 3%, and if it doesn’t help, special drugs are subsequently used: Horus, Skor, etc. throughout the season.
Kleasterosporiosis (hole blotch) also has a fungal nature, begins similarly to coccomycosis, but subsequently holes form in place of the spots. Prevention and treatment measures are the same as for coccomycosis.
With kleasterosporiosis, the leaves become shot through, and everything ends very poorly
There are almost no pests in Tyutchevka cherries, except for the ubiquitous cherry fly. “Wormy” fruits are the result of its activity, and “worms” are the larvae of a fly. Conventional agricultural activities significantly reduce the risk of its occurrence. And they try to fight the fly without chemicals, catching it with baits: kvass or compote in hanging jars. If the fly is very prolific, you have to use insecticides: for late varieties of cherries, which include Tyutchevka, spraying is possible even immediately after flowering.
The fly is quite beautiful, but traces of its activity are completely unpleasant for the gardener
The list of active drugs is wide, but gardeners are trying to use the most modern, and many of them are dangerous to humans. Therefore, strict adherence to the instructions when working, for example, with Actellik or Confidor is mandatory.
Can visit Tyutchevka and cherry aphids. A variety of aphids are familiar to gardeners. This one is black, up to 3 mm in size, sucks juices from young shoots and leaves. Especially dangerous in the first half of summer. As with other aphids, they try to fight it with folk methods (infusions of elderberry, wormwood, garlic, etc.), but with a massive invasion they use the same insecticides as against the cherry fly.
Like any aphid, cherry lives in whole colonies
This year, Tyutchevka wintered well, and blossomed and tied. Freezing was once, but then I grabbed all the trees, sawed large branches. She recovered quickly.
Much work with cherries has been carried out in recent years by M.V. Kanshina and A.A. Astakhov, breeders of the All-Russian Research Institute of Lupine near Bryansk. Based on more than 40 of the most hardy samples selected by them, they created new varieties. The most severe “exam” for them was two harsh winters that followed one after another in 1995–1996 and 1996–1997. We stood the test Bryanskaya pink, Iput, Tyutchevka.
Chermashnaya, Tyutchevka, Iput, Revna, Lyubimitsa Astakhova ... in winter hardiness, almost all of the same level.
Cherry Tyutchevka is considered to be one of the best varieties for the middle strip. It combines excellent fruit qualities and unpretentiousness to growing conditions, versatility of use and high frost resistance. Tyutchevka is deservedly very popular among gardeners.