Cherry plum for Moscow region: a holiday of taste and color

Cherry plum in natural conditions is characteristic of the southern regions: Crimea, North Caucasus, Central Asia. This garden culture has long been known for the juicy fruits of bright color and rich taste. Thanks to the intensive work of breeders, today varieties for growing cherry plum are also bred in the conditions of the North-West and Central regions of Russia, including in the Moscow region.

The best varieties of cherry plum for the Moscow region

Cherry plum in the diet of people is very much appreciated for healthy, tasty fruits, which also have medicinal properties. And while in the south, cherry plum grows without any problems, then in the suburbs with its adverse climatic conditions, it is quite difficult to grow ordinary varieties of this crop. In spring, cherry plum flowers are poorly pollinated due to cold, rainy weather, and severe frosts in winter can damage flower buds and young shoots. In order to grow this heat-loving crop in the middle lane, it became necessary to develop zoned varieties with high winter hardiness and early ripening, as well as resistance to the main diseases of stone fruits. As a result of selection work, varieties of cherry plum were obtained for cultivation in the Central region, which includes the Moscow Region.

Video: a review of varieties of cherry plum for the middle strip

To get rid of the negative qualities of varieties and enhance their best properties, breeders use multiple crosses between different types of plums. In the early 90s of the last century, a Russian scientist, academician G.V. In the process of selection, Yeryomin bred a new variety of cherry plum, crossing a Chinese and winter-hardy Ussuri plum that is resistant to fungal diseases with hybrids of southern cherry plum. A promising new culture was called "Russian plum" or cherry plum hybrid. In the Moscow region, the varieties of this cherry plum showed quite high winter hardiness, good quality of large, very tasty fruits and higher yields than conventional plums.

Self-made varieties

In most varieties of cherry plum grown in the suburbs, self-infertile. This means that for their quality pollination and fruit setting, the presence of other varieties of cherry plum or plum is necessary. However, in some species, flowers have the ability to self-pollinate, this culture is called self-fertile. The names and characteristics of self-fertile varieties are given in the table. In addition to these varieties, local variety of folk selection Tula and and cherry plum Egg blue is distinguished by self-fertility (selection of VSTISP). It should be noted that the cherry plum Morning has a high degree of self-fertility and does not require additional pollination. The Kuban comet variety is partially autonomous and it needs pollinating trees. Vladimir comet and Blue Gift belong to self-fertile varieties, but their self-fertility is rather arbitrary. If during flowering there is warm, dry weather, cherry plum flowers can be pollinated with their own pollen. The early departure of pollinating insects: bees, bumblebees, wasps also contributes to this. But for guaranteed pollination and fertilization in any weather conditions, it is recommended to plant several varieties of cherry plum nearby (usually two or three, suitable for flowering periods).

Table: characteristics and main features of self-fertile varieties of cherry plum

Grade nameKuban cometMorningBlue giftVladimir comet
Variety bred in:Crimean experimental

breeding station

All-Russian Research Institute

plant growing them.

N.I. Vavilova

All-Russian

breeding and technological institute

gardening

and nursery

All-Russian

breeding and technological institute

gardening

and nursery

Suzdal (Vladimirsky)

State

Varietal Test

Plot

Parent coupleChinese plum

Rapid x plum Pioneer

Early red

x french grade Greengage Ullensa

Ochakovskaya black

x Timiryazev's memory

In the state registry

not registered.

Seedling of free pollination

Ussuri hybrid plum variety Red ball

Growing regionNorthwest, Central,

North Caucasian

Lower Volga

CentralCentralCentral
Fruit ripening periodEarly,

end of July -

beginning of august

Middle, the first decade of AugustMiddle second

decade of august

Early, mid - late July
Tree characteristicWeak with a rare crownMiddle with

thick crown

Middle layer, crown

medium density

Medium-sized with a rare crown
Fruit coloringIntense pink, burgundyGreenish yellow with a pink blush and

with a wax coating

Dark violet with a strong wax coatingDark pink, burgundy,

with a wax coating

Fruit mass29–35 g25–32 g14-17 g20–40 g
Single tree yieldHigh (25–40 kg), regularMedium (20–22 kg), almost regularMedium (13-14 kg), regularHigh (35–40 kg), regular
The taste of fruitThin sweet and sour, with

implicit aroma

Pleasant sweet and sourSweet and sour, ordinary,

with a medium aroma

Pleasant sweet and sour, without a pronounced aroma
Separation of bone from pulpSeparates poorlyEasy to detachIs detachedIs detached
Winter hardinessAverageAverageMedium, in flower buds - increasedVery high
Disease resistanceResistant to complex

major fungal diseases. Medium resistant to hole blotch,

fruit rot

Resistant to major

fungal diseases

and pests

Average resistance to clastosporiosis,

fruit rot

Resistant to complex

major fungal diseases

AutonomyPartially autologousHigh degree of self-fertilitySelf-fertileSelf-fertile
The best pollinating varietiesMara, the traveler,

Gift to St. Petersburg, Pchelnikovskaya

-Kuban comet,

Present

Saint Petersburg

Gift to St. Petersburg, Pchelnikovskaya,

Traveler

Shedding fruitLong does not crumble

when ripening

Does not crumbleDoes not crumbleWhen overripe, it crumbles

Hybrid cherry plum can be pollinated by all types of plums, except for domestic and thorn plums.

Video: variety of cherry plum Kuban comet

The Kuban comet, unlike many plum varieties, perfectly adapts to various climatic conditions and is completely unpretentious to soils. It is also characterized by good resistance to moniliosis, kleasterosporiosis, wood bacteriosis. The stone, poorly separated from the pulp, is almost the only drawback of this variety.

Variety Vladimir comet stands out for its large fruit size and very high winter hardiness

Alychu Vladimir comet against the general background of varieties emphasize self-fertility, a very high degree of winter hardiness and resistance to major fungal infections. The disadvantage is the strong flaking of the fruit after full ripening.

Variety of cherry plum

To improve the taste indicators and the resistance of trees to fungal diseases during selection work, the most promising varieties of cherry plum and thorns, as well as plum and cherry hybrids, are selected for selection. So, as a result of the use of Gaiowata's cherry plum, a variety of hybrid cherry plum Kolonovidnaya was obtained.

The new variety was bred by the breeders of the Crimean OSS VNIIR them. N.I. Vavilova by crossing wild cherry plum and cherry plum seedling. A tree two to three meters high has the shape of a column, with a crown diameter of 1–1.2 m. Rare branches leave the trunk at an acute angle and grow along it.

An interesting feature of this variety is a huge number of flower buds (ringworms), which are laid not only on the branches, but also on the trunk - on short processes called spears.

At the same time, the trunk of the tree is loaded with fruits, due to which the role of the side branches is insignificant. The stamp has strong, hard wood and does not bend under the weight of the crop. The fruits of cherry plum are large, weighing 50–70 g, are evenly distributed over the entire height of the trunk, starting from 0.5 m from the ground. Coloring of fruits - from violet to dark burgundy, with a touch of spring (fruit wax). The taste of cherry plum is dessert, sweet, slightly sour. The variety is mid-late; the crop ripens in early August.

Video: Cherry plum

The compact size of the crown makes it possible to plant much more trees on the site, and the sparse arrangement of branches allows you to efficiently process the tree in the process of care, making fruit picking convenient.

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A variety of columnar cherry plum is the variety Kolonoobraznaya-2. These are tall (up to six meters tall) trees of late ripening, with fruits of dark red color with a whitish bloom. The fruits of this variety are smaller than those of Kolonoobraznaya, each weighing about 35 g, the taste of the fruit is ordinary - sweet and sour. Unlike Column-shaped, the bone is easily separated from the pulp of the fetus.

Both varieties of columnar cherry plum are known as excellent pollinator donors for most hybrid varieties of Chinese and Ussuri plums.

Cherry plum is characterized by Column-shaped qualities that distinguish it in comparison with other plum varieties:

  1. A high degree of winter hardiness of flower buds due to the extension of the growing season.
  2. Trees tolerate winter cold well and do not freeze at temperatures up to -28ºС. If, nevertheless, the tree is damaged by severe frost, then it is quickly restored and continues to grow and develop normally.
  3. The variety is resistant to most fungal and viral diseases of stone fruits.
  4. High palatability and good transportability of the fruits make it possible to use them in a variety of ways: fresh, in freezing and various kinds of processing.
  5. Unpretentious care and drought resistance make this variety indispensable when grown on various types of soils and in any conditions.

Columnar fruits grow directly on the trunk, have a spectacular color and a wonderful taste. A thin wax coating on the fruits allows them to be transported without loss of presentation

Both varieties of columnar cherry plum are not self-pollinating. For their pollination, the optimum varieties are late-flowering Mara, Pchelnikovskaya, Gift to St. Petersburg.

Winter-hardy and frost-resistant varieties

The winter hardiness of the variety is one of the determining factors when growing cherry plum in the Moscow region. And you should definitely pay attention to it, because late spring frosts can cause freezing of flower buds and ovaries. The best indicators of resistance to cold are varieties: Vladimirskaya Comet, Gift to St. Petersburg, Ariadna, Anastasia, Nesmeyana, Cleopatra. Winter-resistant varieties of cherry plum are obtained mainly by crossing plum hybrid with a related species - Chinese plum, whose wood can withstand temperatures up to -50 ° C.

Table: main features and characteristics of frost and winter hardy varieties of cherry plum

Name

varieties

Gift St.

Petersburg

NesmeyanaAriadneCleopatra
Variety bred in:Pavlovskaya experimental

VNIIR station

them. N.I. Vavilova,

Saint Petersburg

Moscow

agricultural academy

them. K.A. Timiryazev

Moscow

agricultural academy

them. K.A. Timiryazev

Moscow

agricultural academy

them. K.A. Timiryazev

Parent coupleChinese plum

Rapid x plum Pioneer

Seedling free

pollination hybrid

cherry plum Kuban comet

Chinese plum

Rapid x plum

Traveler

Seedling free

pollination hybrid

cherry plum Kuban comet

Growing regionNorthwest, CentralCentralCentralCentral
Fruit ripening periodMid early

mid-end of August

Early,

early to mid-August

Early,

early to mid-August

Late, end of August
Tree characteristicMiddle layer

with a dense crown

Tall,

crown of medium density

Middle layer

crown of medium density

Middle layer

with a rare crown

Fruit coloringBright yellow orangeRuby red

light touch

Crimson red

with a wax coating

Dark purple

with strong

wax coating

Fruit mass12–20 g30–35 g30–32 g35–40 g
Yield with

single tree

High (27-60 kg), regularMedium (25-30 kg), regularAbove average (30–35 kg), regularMedium (25-30 kg), regular
The taste of fruitHarmonious

sweet and sour

with a delicate aroma

Pleasant sweet and sour, juicySweet and sour, harmoniousSweet and sour, dessert,

with fruit aroma

Separability

pulp bones

Separates poorlyEasy to detachSeparates poorlySeparates poorly
Winter hardinessHighHighHighHigh
Disease resistanceMedium resistant to

moniliosis,

highly resistant to

kleasterosporia leaf.

Resistant to aphids and winter moths

Medium resistant to

the main

fungal diseases

Medium resistant to

klyasterosporiozu

moniliosis,

viral diseases

Medium resistant to

the main

fungal diseases

AutonomySelf-infertileSelf-infertileSelf-infertileSelf-infertile
The best pollinating varietiesPavlovskaya Yellow, Nesmeyana,

Pchelnikovskaya

Varieties of cherry plum

and chinese plum

Varieties of cherry plum

and chinese plum

Mara, Gift

St. Petersburg, Pchelnikovskaya

SheddingWhen fully ripened, it crumblesDoes not crumbleDoes not crumbleDoes not crumble

Photo gallery: fruiting varieties of cherry plum with increased winter hardiness

In early August, the branches of Ariadne bend under the weight of saturated purple

Large fruits with a wonderful taste are most consumed fresh, but also good in the form of jam or desserts

One of the best and most demanded varieties due to its winter hardiness, high productivity and excellent quality of large, juicy fruits

Trees of this variety have a unique ability to restore the vegetative system very quickly after mechanical damage.

Early grades

As the earliest, one can characterize the varieties of cherry plum Zlato Scythians and Timiryazevskaya. These varieties, despite a number of differences, have much in common:

  • both varieties are bred at the Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazev;
  • hybrids are the result of free pollination of the seedling of the Kuban comet and are recommended for cultivation in the suburbs;
  • the height of adult trees does not exceed three meters;
  • both varieties of cherry plum belong to early ripening and have large fruits weighing from 25 to 40 g;
  • regular fruiting, average yield is 25-30 kg of fruit per tree;
  • trees are not capable of self-pollination and need pollinating donors; the best pollinators for these varieties are considered hybrids Pavlovskaya yellow, Traveler, Gift to St. Petersburg;
  • both varieties have a high degree of winter hardiness and unpretentiousness to growing conditions.

Cherry plum trees Zlato Scythians look very decorative during the ripening period

The hybrid cultivar Zlato Scythians opens the cherry plum season in the garden. In late June and early July, trees are a magnificent sight: the branches are literally covered with clusters of large juicy fruits, with a unique aroma and amazing sweet taste. Cherry plum Gold of Scythians stands out in color - amber-yellow fruits sparkle with precious coins against the background of dense greenery.

Large fruits of unusual color are the “visiting card” of the variety Timiryazevskaya

Timiryazevskaya trees attract attention due to fruits with a smooth, as if polished, burgundy surface and light pink sides. The sweet and sour, refreshing taste of this cherry plum makes it very popular in early summer, when the fruits are still tied to the bulk of the fruit trees.

The main differences between the early varieties are as follows:

  1. In Timiryazevskaya, the bone is poorly separated from the pulp, in Zlata of the Scythians it is easily separated.
  2. Timiryazevskaya has good resistance to the main fungal diseases, Gold of the Scythians - medium.

Video: a little about the useful properties of cherry plum

Reviews

Last year, Huck and the Kuban comet were planted one-year-old, this year they bloomed rapidly and started. But Huck lost all his ovaries, and the Kuban comet left two berries. Finally ripened, very tasty, sweet and juicy, most of all reminded of a ripe peach. I didn’t even think that such a tasty berry could grow in the Moscow Region.

Para11, Moscow

Three or four years ago, I bought two cherry plums in TSHA in the department of green cuttings. Two little twigs. The twigs began to grow very actively. Last summer, the first berries appeared on them. Varieties - Nesmeyana and the Kuban comet. The taste of berries is amazing! Apricot flavored plum! I am very worried about this winter.

Lydia, Moscow

According to experienced gardeners, it is possible and necessary to grow hybrid cherry plum - Russian plum in the suburbs. To plant a young sapling twig and after 2-3 years to see the fruits of their labors - lushly blooming in spring and a cherry plum tree hung with ripe fruits in summer. Just try hard!

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