Cherry plum Kuban comet - how to plant and grow
The Kuban comet and its popular species are some of the best representatives of this culture. The lush flowering of luxurious, lush trees creates a spring mood. Juicy berries are tasty and fragrant. The gardener, thinking about planting a cherry plum, should first get acquainted with these varieties.
Description of varieties and popular species
The variety was isolated at the Crimean (Krasnodar Territory) experimental station and transferred to state variety testing in 1977. It was included in the state registry in 1987. Zoned in the Northwest, Central Black Earth, North Caucasus and Lower Volga regions.
A tree of small stature, the crown is flat-round, of moderate density. The bark is gray, smooth, overgrown shoots are short. Each flower bud forms two flowers. Winter hardiness, according to the State Register, is above average, according to the All-Russian Research Institute of Cultural Vocational Medicine (All-Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding) - high. Flower buds can tolerate freezing frost. The variety has medium resistance to drought and relative immunity to major diseases.
Each flowering bud of the Kuban comet forms two flowers
The productivity of the Kuban comet is very high, annual. From one tree, 10 to 50 kg are collected (depending on the age of the tree and the quality of care). Ripening period is early. Depending on the region, berries are harvested from the second decade of July to the first decade of August. Partial autonomy, preferably the presence of pollinators, which can be other varieties of cherry plum or plums, for example, Mara, Traveler, Red Ball. It is important that pollinators have the same flowering time. The Kuban comet blooms in late April.
Harvest from one tree of the Kuban comet reaches 50 kg
The berries are usually large, egg-shaped. The average weight is 30 grams. With large yields, the berries grow smaller. The skin is thin and dense, covered with a slight waxy coating, the color is burgundy (according to VNIISPK - red). The pulp is dense, fibrous, juicy. It has a yellow color and a characteristic aroma. The bone is small; it separates poorly. The taste of the berry is good, sour-sweet. Tasting score - 4.6 points. Short, firmly attached, the stalk does not allow even an overripe berry to fall. Fruits do not crack, tolerate transportation well. Especially well-stored and transported slightly unripe berries, which subsequently ripen well and take the usual color. The purpose is universal.
Video: cherry plum Kuban comet
He also came from Krymsk, in the State Register since 2006. Unlike the Kuban comet, it is zoned only in the North Caucasus region.
The tree is medium-sized, with an oval, raised crown of medium density. It tolerates winters with frost down to -30 ° C, so that seedlings of this variety (despite its tolerance region) can be found on sale even in the suburbs. It has an average immunity to diseases, high early maturity.
Conflicting data on self-fertility. In the State Register, the variety is self-sterilizing, but VNIISPK has a directly opposite point of view and reports on the self-fertility of the late Comet. Gardeners in reviews on forums are more prone to the first version. In any case, the presence of pollinators will be a positive factor.
Brings high yields that ripen in the second half of July. The purpose of the fruit is universal, from fresh consumption to the preparation of juices, compotes, jams and preserves.
The berry is quite large, with an average weight of 32 grams, has a dark red or burgundy color. The form is oval, the surface is covered with a wax coating. The dense, gristly flesh of the red color has a very good sweet and sour taste and a characteristic aroma. The size of the bone is medium, it does not separate very well.
The late comet's berry is quite large, with an average weight of 32 grams, has a dark red or burgundy color
She’s the June Rose, she’s an early Comet. Under the first name she was entered in the State Register in 1999 in the North Caucasus region. Homeland - Krasnodar Territory.
The tree is medium-sized, with a gray, even, medium thickness, stem and a flat-round, moderately thickened crown. It has high winter hardiness, medium drought tolerance and good early maturity. In the third year, it begins bearing fruit, and by eight years, the yield reaches 10 kg per tree. Flowering early - in early April. Self-infertile variety, although VNIISPK reports partial self-fertility. Good immunity to claustosporiosis and other diseases. High adaptability to growing conditions.
The fruits ripen first among the remaining varieties of cherry plum. At the end of June, the first ripened berries are removed, but they ripen unevenly. The fruits are ovoid in shape and dark red in color with a pinkish tinge. The average weight of the berries is 29 grams. The pulp is dense, fibrous, yellow, slightly succulent. It gets dark slowly in the air. The taste is sweet and sour, pleasant. The aroma is weak. The purpose of the fruit is universal.
The fruits of the early comet are ovoid and dark red with a pinkish tinge
Video: short review of cherry plum berry Comet early
Cherry plum landing
Planting cherry plum is not more difficult than any other fruit tree. As usual, start by choosing a place. Cherry plum, although a winter-hardy plant, does not like the cold northerly winds. And also it does not tolerate wetlands and close occurrence of groundwater. He loves the sun, warmth, airing, but not drafts. So, summarizing, we can formulate a characteristic of a place that is successful for planting and growing cherry plum. On a small southern or southeastern slope, with a deep occurrence of groundwater, protected from the north or northeast by natural barriers - tall trees, the wall of the house, a fence. And also with loose, well-drained soil with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. If there is such a place, you can think about landing.
The best time to plant cherry plum is early spring, before the sap flow begins. At this time, the seedlings should be in a dormant state, but already ready for awakening. If seedlings with a closed root system are purchased, the planting time is uncritical. They can be planted in the ground from April to October.
Step-by-step instructions for landing cherry plum
Following simple recommendations, even an aspiring gardener can plant cherry plum.
- The first thing to do is to purchase a seedling. So that the gardener does not suffer disappointment, it is better to do this in specialized nurseries. It is better to purchase in advance, in the fall. It was at this time that a massive digging of seedlings for sale took place. Choose one or two-year-old plant - these take root better than overgrown. Of course, they pay attention to the state of the root system - it must be well developed, have fibrous roots. And also the bark of the tree should be smooth, without cracks and other damage. Seedlings should be sold in a sleeping state, if there is foliage left on them, it should be cut off.
Pay attention to the state of the root system of the seedling - it must be well developed, have fibrous roots
- When the seedling is acquired, it is necessary to save it until spring. To do this, you need to dig it in the garden, after dipping the roots in a mash of clay and mullein. They put the tree in a pre-dug hole of a suitable size, the roots are covered with sand and watered. After this, the pit is completely covered with earth, it is possible with a small mound, leaving only the top of the tree on the surface. You can store the seedling in the basement, if the air temperature in it is maintained in the range from 0 to +5 ° C.
For winter, the seedling should be dug.
- Proceed to the preparation of the landing pit. Do this in the following order:
- At the chosen place, you need to dig a hole about 80 centimeters in diameter and the same depth. If the topsoil is fertile and rich in humus - lay it aside for future use.
- At the bottom of the pit, a ten-centimeter layer of drainage is covered, for example, gravel, gravel, expanded clay, broken brick, etc.
A ten-centimeter layer of drainage is covered at the bottom of the pit, for example, gravel, gravel, expanded clay, broken brick, etc.
- Fall asleep a nutrient mixture. It can be prepared directly in the pit. The composition of the mixture:
- chernozem (you can use the soil deposited at the beginning);
- well rotted humus or compost;
- grass peat;
- sand - these components are taken in approximately equal amounts;
- wood ash - 2-3 liters;
- superphosphate - 300-400 grams.
The nutrient mixture can be prepared directly in the pit
- The mixture is well mixed with a shovel or pitchfork and covered with something waterproof until spring - roofing material, film, etc.
- In the spring, as soon as the favorable time arrives, they proceed directly to the planting of the plant.
- They take out a seedling from the storage place, examine it. If there are dried or damaged roots - cut out with secateurs.
- Soak the seedling in a bucket of water for 2-3 hours. You can add growth stimulants and root formation to water, for example, Kornevin, Epin, etc.
- A small mound is prepared in the pit and a stake is driven in at a distance of 10-15 cm from the center. Its height should be at least 80 centimeters above the soil.
- A sapling is placed on the knoll with the root neck to the top. The roots neatly spread around the mound.
Roots neatly spread around the knoll
- They fill the pit with earth, ramming it in layers.
- They make sure that the root neck is not deepened. If it is located a few centimeters above the soil level, then after irrigation the earth will settle and the root neck will drop to the soil level - this is necessary.
- The sapling is tied to a peg, paying attention not to pass the trunk.
- Around the tree form a near-stem circle from the remaining soil. It is convenient to do this with a plane cutter or chopper.
- The soil is abundantly watered with water for a good fit to the roots and elimination of the air sinuses, which inevitably form when filling.
The soil is abundantly shed with water for a good fit to the roots and elimination of air sinuses
- Mulch with suitable material - hay, husks of sunflower or buckwheat, humus, etc.
- Cut the seedling to a height of 60–80 cm, if there are branches, shorten them by a third.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
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Watering and feeding
These types of care are important, but do not have any special requirements. A gardener, even a beginner, has an idea of how to conduct them. Therefore, in short:
- Cherry plum is watered during the growing season about once a month.
- Water consumption for a young tree is 40-50 liters, for an adult - more. It should be checked to what extent the earth is moistened. For normal development, 25-30 centimeters are needed.
- The day after watering, the soil is loosened and mulched.
- Cherry plum need to be fed starting from the third year after planting.
Table: what and when fertilize cherry plum
|Types of fertilizers||Dates and frequency of application||Dosage and route of administration|
|Humus, compost||Every 2-3 years, in spring or autumn||Half a bucket of 1 m2 for digging|
|Ammonium nitrate, urea or nitroammophos||Annually in spring||For digging, 20-30 g / m2|
|Liquid Organic Fertilizer||Annually, in mid-May. Then two more times with an interval of two weeks.||A concentrated infusion of two liters of mullein (can be replaced with one liter of bird droppings or five kilograms of fresh grass) in one bucket of water. Insist 7 days and watered diluting with water in a ratio of 1 to 10.|
|Potassium Monophosphate, Potassium Sulfate||Annually, at the end of May||10–20 g are consumed per 1 m2, dissolving in water when watering|
|Complex fertilizers||According to the attached instructions|
Cherry plum requires regular pruning. Forming and regulating trimmings are especially important.
Without the correct and timely formation of the crown, the gardener will lose part of the crop . Sometimes the cherry plum is given a sparse-tier form, but the formation in the form of a bowl is preferable. In this case, all the leaves and fruits are lit up as much as possible by the sun's rays, the crown is well ventilated, the berries ripen well and are poured with juice. The bowl can be simple when all branches grow from the stem at the same level and are directed in different directions. In this case, with large yields (which is not uncommon for the Kuban comet), there is a risk that the branches may break off under the weight of the fruit. The improved bowl allows you to distribute the load along the trunk due to the fact that the skeletal branches are at different heights and are located one above the other.
In winter, the skeleton of the cherry plum tree is clearly visible Kuban comet formed as a simple bowl
Important. Work on the formation of the crown is carried out only in the early spring before the swelling of the kidneys.
How to properly form the crown of cherry plum in the form of an improved bowl - step by step instructions.
- If the gardener did not forget to cut when planting, the seedling is 50-60 cm - the first step has already been taken.
- The second step can also be taken during planting - select four growth buds on the trunk with an interval between them of about 10-15 centimeters. Counting lead from the upper cut. All kidneys below are blind. If this step is taken a year after planting and young shoots have already grown, then four of them are chosen according to the same algorithm, the rest are cut “into a ring”. The central conductor (if it was not cut during landing) is cut "on the kidney."
- On each of the skeletal branches, 1-2 branches of the second order are formed and shortened by a third.
- In the following years, it is necessary to monitor the thickening of the crown, timely thinning. And also do not allow that one of the branches (usually a second-order branch) does not assume the role of the central conductor and does not grow up.
The formation of the crown of cherry plum as an improved "bowl" begins at the time of planting
The crown formed by the type of bowl usually gives a large amount of shoots and needs periodic regulatory pruning. So they are called because they consist in adjusting the filling of the crown. They are usually carried out in early spring by removing shoots growing inside the crown, as well as vertical “tops”. Slices are performed "on the ring."
Its essence is to maintain tree productivity at a high level. It is carried out by the method of shortening annual shoots by 10-12 cm, which causes their branching and additional formation of fruit buds. This method is also called coinage. Spend it in the summer during a period of rapid growth of shoots.
Required by any fruit tree. It is carried out in the late autumn and (or) in the early spring. It consists in the removal of dry, diseased and damaged branches.
How to propagate cherry plum Kuban comet
Cherry plum reproduces well in many ways. In order to choose a suitable one, you first need to determine whether the propagated tree is root-owning or grafted.
Propagation of grafted cherry plum
The grafted plum can be propagated in the following ways:
- Vaccinated. As a stock for cherry plum, only cherry plum or its hybrids with Ussuri plum or with Chinese plum can act.
- Lignified cuttings. Step-by-step instruction:
- In early summer, cuttings from annual shoots 20-30 cm long are cut, each having two or three growth buds.
In early summer, cuttings from annual shoots 20-30 cm long with two to three growth buds are cut
- On the bottom of the cuttings make incisions on the bark. Then place the lower ends in water. Root formation stimulants, for example, Cornevin or Heteroauxin, can be added.
- Withstand 12 hours.
- It is better to root cuttings in containers with a volume of 5-6 liters. Plastic bottles for water with a cut neck are well suited for these purposes.
- Prepared containers are filled with a substrate from a mixture of sand and peat in equal quantities.
- Cuttings are placed in a substrate, leaving one kidney on the surface.
- Water and cover with a film to create high humidity.
- Containers are placed in a greenhouse or under a canopy, covering from the sun. It is necessary to maintain a temperature of 25-30 ° C.
- After 2-3 weeks, roots should appear. The film can be removed.
- For the winter, it is better to place containers in the basement or to build some kind of insulated shelter. Storage temperature - 0-5 ° C.
- In the spring they are planted in a permanent place along with the substrate.
- In early summer, cuttings from annual shoots 20-30 cm long are cut, each having two or three growth buds.
- Green cuttings. Step-by-step instruction:
- In early summer, young branches with leaves are cut.
- Cuttings with three leaves are cut from these branches, the two lower ones are cut.
Cuttings with three leaves are cut from twigs, two lower ones are cut
- A layer of light nutrient mixture is poured into the box, for example, peat in half with sand, 5–7 cm thick.
- A layer of sand 2-3 cm thick is poured on top and moistened.
- The shank with the lower end is deepened in sand to a depth of 2-3 cm along with the two lower buds.
The shank with the lower end is deepened in sand to a depth of 2-3 cm together with two lower kidneys
- They cover the box with film so that it does not touch the cuttings.
- Put the box in a shaded place, maintaining the temperature in it no higher than 30 ° C.
- Roots form in 30–40 days.
- In winter, the box is stored in the basement at a temperature of 0-5 ° C.
- In the spring they plant in the ground in a permanent place.
Video: how to root green cuttings correctly
Propagation of root plum
Own cherry plum usually has a multi-stem bush formation. This allows you to get seedlings in the following ways:
- root cuttings;
- root shoots;
Diseases and Pests
Cherry plum is quite resistant to diseases and pests. If you help her with timely prevention, then you can not worry about the safety of the crop.
Table: preventive measures against diseases and pests
|Events||Dates||Scope of work|
|Collection and disposal of fallen leaves||Fall||Collected foliage and cut branches are burned, ash is used as fertilizer|
|Sanitary pruning||Fall spring|
|Whitewashing of boles and skeletal branches||Fall||Use a solution of slaked lime with the addition of 1% copper sulfate|
|Digging trunk trunks||Late fall||Digging soil in near-stem circles with turning layers|
|Processing of crown and soil with copper sulfate||Late fall, early spring||Use 3% solution of copper sulfate, can be replaced with 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid or 5% solution of iron sulfate|
|Installation of hunting belts||Early spring||Hunting belts can be made from improvised materials - roofing material, thick film, etc.|
|Treatment with potent universal drugs||Early spring||Spray the crown: |
|Systemic fungicide treatment||After flowering, then with an interval of 2-3 weeks||Use drugs with a short wait time: |
Table: main cherry plum disease and treatment
|Disease||Signs||What to do|
|Polystigmosis (red spotting)||Red spots appear on the leaves, they crumble, the fruits become tasteless||Treatment with fungicides, collection and removal of affected parts of the plant|
|Fruit rot||The berries are covered with gray coating, then wrinkled and rot.|
|Gommosis (gum detection)||It occurs with damage to the cortex. A fungus settles in the cracks and eats away the bark, then the wood.||They clean the affected areas to healthy tissues, disinfect with 1% solution of copper sulfate and cover with garden var|
|Milky shine||Dangerous disease. It usually occurs when freezing. The fungus infects the tree from the inside, spreading rapidly, clogs the vessels and causes the death of the affected branches, and then the entire plant. External manifestations - a change in the color of the leaves. They become light, silvery. The second sign is the darkening of the wood on the cut.||Early treatment - pruning infected branches to healthy wood (capturing 20-30 cm of the healthy part or cutting “into the ring”) and treatment with fungicides. If the disease has gone far, the tree cannot be helped anymore. It needs to be cut and burned.|
Photo gallery: signs of cherry plum disease
- Polystigmosis is also called red spotting.
- The first manifestation of fruit rot - gray plaque
- Hommosis occurs with damage to the cortex
- Light, silver leaves on cherry plum - a sign of a dangerous disease
Table: main plum pests
|Pests||Damage Caused||How to fight|
|Plum sawfly||Larvae emerge from pest eggs laid in buds and eat the contents||Insecticide treatment. Хорошо помогает биологический препарат Битоксибациллин. Первая обработка перед цветением, затем ещё две с интервалом в одну неделю.|
|Plum moth||Бабочка откладывает яйца в бутоны. Личинки питаются плодами.|
|Aphid||Высасывает сок из листьев. При распространении может нанести значительный ущерб, ослабляя дерево.||На ранних стадиях собирают вручную скрученные листья, затем обрабатывают инсектицидами|
|Толстоножка||Личинка проникает в косточку, выедает ядро. Ягоды осыпаются не вызревая.||Ставят ловушки с феромонами для жучков, собирают вручную, обрабатывают инсектицидами|
Фотогалерея: вредители алычи
- личинки сливового пилильщика питаются сочной массой бутонов и плодов
- Плодожорка выедает спелые ягоды алычи изнутри
- Тля высасывает сок из листьев
- Жуков-толстоножек можно собирать вручную
- Личинки толстоножки выедают ядро косточки алычи
- Самка пилильщика откладывает яйца в бутоны алычи
Выкопал на заброшенном участке две сливки-дички. Пересадил к себе и привил Кубанскую комету. Прошло 8 лет… Из года в год эти прививки неизменно радуют обильнейшим урожаем. Одно только правило. Нужно обязательно подпирать ветки, иначе обломаются. В позапрошлом году ездили на отдых и оставили алычу со свободными ветками. Как результат три ветки спасти не удалось. Обрезал лежащие на земле и удалил. Будет наука.Август, Киевская обл.
Алыча Кубанская комета будет не лишней на любой даче, плодов море, плодоносит ежегодно, вкус на 4, 5 … ранняя. В Волгограде алыча Июльская роза ( Комета ранняя ) собрана мною с 01 по 10 июля, Кубанская комета с 10 по 23 июля, алыча Генерал с 18 по 25 июля, Гек ( желтая ) с 20 июля первые по 30 июля наверное, Злато скифов ( желтая ) с 25 июля … начало августа, еще один сорт желто малиновый 28 июля … начало августа.ask-34, Волгоград
Я тоже хочу спеть оду алыче Кубанская комета! Я бы сказала, что это просто маст хэв любой дачи. У вас может отдыхать что угодно: яблоня, груша, может подмерзнуть абрикос, слива, но эта рабочая лошадка пашет на износ из года в год! Без подкормок, совершенно не требовательна к почвенным условиям, наградит вас обильным или шквальным урожаем. В общем в любой год вы можете на неё рассчитывать. Деревце у меня небольшое, метра 2 в высоту, в ширину чуть больше, удобно ухаживать и собирать урожай. Плоды 35–40 грамм, очень вкусные. Закрываю на зиму компот, варю варенье, но большую часть дети съедают в свежем виде. Ещё один неоспоримый плюс- ранний срок созревания. Ветки нужно беречь- подпирать, иначе ломаются под урожаем. В 2015 году дожди поливали все, что цвело, очень плохо завязались яблони, груши, вишня и все остальное(( лишь Кубанская комета неизменно порадовала щедрым урожаем. Готова на руках носить создателей этого чуда! __________________ С уважением, Дарья.Со мной на «ты»!Strela, Волгоград
Для Ульяновска, Кубанская комета уже, можно сказать, пограничная культура, плодоносит несколько лет и всегда лишь единичные плоды, опылители имеются ( Злато скифов, Ариадна ) на них тоже лишь единичные плоды, в этом году пока минимум на участке был — 25С, может повезет, живем надеждой . PS: вообще заметил если было -30С или рядом, хотя бы кратковременно, то плодов можно не ждать или их будет от силы десяток, огромных, медовых…ДиП, Ульяновск
У меня уже 7 лет растет алыча Кубанская комета, дерево 5–6 м в диаметре и 3–4 м в высоту, не разу не обмерзало.В этом году я обнаружила, что зацветают только те ветки, что были под снегом, все остальные живые, пытаются расти листочки, но ни одной цветочной почки нет.ЕленаМ Москва
Я конечно не самый опытный сливовед, и живу в Подмосковье, а не в среднем Поволжье, но попробую быть полезной. У меня алыча пережила уже 2 зимы, сорта Лама, Абрикосовая, Кубанская комета. Ничего не подмерзало. Мне кажется начинать нужно с сорта Кубанская комета, т.к. он частично самоплодный, морозостойкий, очень урожайный и хорошо адаптируется в разных условиях и климате. Единственное, что нужно учесть при выращивании алычи — её нужно сильно обрезать, т.к. приросты она может дать метра по полтора за сезон.муза
2. Two of your varieties of Comet (I suspect that this is the Kuban comet, but check on the fruit by going to the VNIISPK website) and late comet will be pollinated by other dr. Check for flowering dates, it is desirable that they coincide (at least for half a term). Third, etc. the variety will not hurt, only improve pollination. I wrote about China. 3. The annual abundant harvest is very good. Trees build a powerful root system under it. You – care (feed, drink, watch the angles of departure, so that there are no breaks). With an oversized harvest, I recommend placing a pole with hanging ropes parallel to the trunk. Attach branches with a plentiful harvest to the center of gravity.toliam1, St. Petersburg
My friend has two Early Comet trees in the garden. Despite the fact that I have seven varieties of plums and cherry plum in my garden, last year I took cuttings from him and went on a wild cherry plum in my school to have this wonderful cherry plum in my garden. Early, tasty, trouble-free in cultivation. I like her very much. The bone is half detached, at least from that Early Comet that is in the friend’s garden.Apple, Belgorod
Comet early-Tasty, juicy. Ripened on July 4th. The bone separates. The skin is dense, very fruitful on July 6 removed
The skin is dense, very fruitful, on July 6 removedigorek75, Odessa region
The Kuban comet has indisputable advantages - productivity, excellent quality of berries, undemanding care. By choosing one of these varieties, the gardener will never regret. Growing such a tree will not be difficult. And the joy of family members after the first harvest will be a reward for work.