Cherry plum - both tasty and beautiful
Cherry plum is a fruit tree familiar to everyone. Its amber-yellow fruits are inferior in taste to home plums. But plum is an ancestor, the original form for larger and sweeter varieties of plums. By autumn, a beautifully flowering tree is hung with round fruits translucent in the sun. Golden berries have long been used in folk medicine, because cherry plum is rich in B vitamins, as well as C and PP. And in cooking, this berry is used for stewed fruit, syrups, marmalade, jelly, jam, jam, marshmallows.
Getting to know the plant
Cherry plum comes from Near and Central Asia. In addition to the usual, there are Iranian, Caspian, Ferghana and Syrian varieties of plants. Cherry plum is a multi-stemmed tree or shrub, the height of which ranges from 3 to 10 meters. The life span of a tree is up to 50 years. The habitat of wild cherry plum is very wide. It is found in the Tien Shan and the Balkans, in the Caucasus and Ukraine, in Moldova and the North Caucasus. Cultivated cherry plum is also widespread; it is cultivated in many regions of Russia, in Western Europe, Ukraine and Asia.
Mountain cherry plum Tien Shan
Advantages and disadvantages
Cherry plum is not only useful. It is distinguished by high productivity, disease resistance. In addition, she is simply beautiful. It blooms in early May. Spring tree, strewn with white or pink flowers, as if floating in the blue sky. Gentle-smelling flowers attract a lot of insects, and during the flowering period the tree “buzzes” like a beehive. Thanks to the decorative qualities, cherry plum is used in landscape design.
No less beautiful is the tree during fruiting. Abundantly strewn with fruit, the branches lean down. Ripe cherry plum can have a variety of colors: yellow, green, pink, purple, red, yellow with red barrels, even almost black berries. Depending on the variety, ripening occurs between June and September.
Cherry plum is not as sweet as plum. Compared to plums, it contains more calcium and less sugar. She is unpretentious, but is afraid of severe frosts. However, frost-resistant varieties developed by breeders make it possible to grow crops in areas with a rather harsh climate.
Cherry plum is widespread due to a number of attractive qualities:
- the tree gives the first berries already a year after planting, after 2 to 3 years the crop can be up to 15 kg from the tree, later the plant can produce up to 40 kg of berries
- the crop is undemanding to the composition of the soil;
- easily tolerates heat and drought;
- resistant to both diseases and pests.
However, it has a plum and a number of disadvantages. The main ones are:
- self-fertility of most varieties;
- short period of winter dormancy;
- early flowering.
Due to these features, to obtain good yields, several varieties must be planted nearby for cross-pollination. A short dormant period and early flowering are fraught with damage to the tree by spring frosts. And in frosty winters in regions where the temperature drops to -300 ° C and below, the plant must be covered.
Cherry plum landing
In order for the plant to take root and give abundant harvests, it is necessary to take into account all its preferences when planting. Planting, especially in the middle lane, is better in spring. It is very important to land before the first leaves appear. This will shorten the time and facilitate the adaptation period for the plant. At the same time, it is recommended to purchase seedlings in the fall. For the winter period they are dug up in an inclined position and covered. Seedlings with a closed root system can be planted in the summer.
Site Preparation and Landing
The first step is to choose a suitable place. Cherry plum loves sunny, sheltered from the wind places. If planted correctly, the crop will appear earlier and will be larger than that of plants placed in less favorable conditions. Cherry plum loves neutral soils, so it is advisable to treat acidic soil with dolomite flour, and alkaline soil with gypsum.
The root system of cherry plum is very developed, but it is not deep. This allows you to "settle" it where groundwater is high. It is better to prepare the pit for landing in advance. Its dimensions should be 60x60x60cm. It is necessary to prepare the pit in the autumn, fill it with good soil and humus, add ash. Potash and phosphoric fertilizers are also brought in there, abundant watering is carried out.
In the spring before planting, the bulk of the earth is taken out, a mound is made in the center, along which the roots of the seedling should be further distributed. If some of the roots are sick or dead, they must be removed using a clean, sanitized tool. The dried roots can first be soaked for several hours in water.
A peg at least 1 m high is driven in next to the seedling. The roots of the plant are covered with earth, leaving a recess for irrigation along the edges of the pit. In plants with a closed root system, the roots, together with a lump, are placed in a pit and covered with excavated soil mixed with humus and fertilizers. A knoll is not required. Before planting a tree with a closed root system, the earth surrounding the roots should be moistened so that it does not crumble during planting. In those cases when the lump with roots is in the grid, it is not deleted. The grid will rot over time and will not interfere with the development of the root system. However, before being placed in the ground, it is better to open the net. With any method of planting, the root neck should remain on the surface. If the seedling is grafted, then the place of grafting should also be above the soil level.
Planting cherry plum seedling
The seedling is tied to a peg for fixation. The soil around the tree is crushed, watering is carried out at the rate of 15 liters of water per plant. After planting, the tree should be cut to 20 - 30 cm. When several seedlings are planted simultaneously, the distance between them should be 2.5 - 3 m. Tall varieties are placed at a distance of 6 m from one tree from another. Trunks of young plants should be closed in winter with a net to protect them from rodents. After planting, it is recommended to mulch the circle near the trunk with straw or sawdust to a depth of 5 cm.
If over time it turns out that the tree was still out of place, it can be transplanted. This must be done in early spring. The basic principle is that the root system must be protected by a large lump of earth. They dig a tree across the width of the crown, then surround it with a ditch in two bayonets of a shovel deep and carefully dig it from below. It is better to move the lump on a sheet of iron or linoleum. A large tree will have to be moved with the help of additional devices, for example, winches. After transplanting in the first year, it is desirable to limit fruiting by removing part of the fruit.
Selection of neighbors
Since the bulk of the varieties of cherry plum is self-fertile, it is necessary to plant pollinating varieties next to it. These include the cherry plum traveler, plum red ball, Skoroplodnaya. You can choose other varieties of plums, blooming simultaneously with the planted variety of cherry plum. For medium-late varieties suitable varieties of cherry plum Asaloda, Vitba, Mara. Some varieties are well pollinated with Chinese plum.
Cherry plum Red ball - a good pollinator
In addition to many self-fertile, self-fertile varieties are also found. These include the Kuban comet, Cleopatra - partially self-pollinated. Although these varieties are capable of producing berries without additional pollinators, planting a number of other cherry plum varieties alongside other varieties will significantly increase yields.
Partially self-fertile grade Kuban comet
In the gardens, fruit and ornamental plants grow in close proximity. But not all plants combine well with each other. A negative reaction occurs when the root systems are at the same level and compete in the struggle for nutrients, as well as when one of the plants releases substances harmful to the other. Near a cherry plum tree it is not necessary to plant a pear, a nut, a cherry, a cherry and an apple-tree. However, some experts say that next to the old cherry plum apple tree it feels good.
Cleopatra can also bear fruit without neighbors
Do not combine the plant with some decorative neighbors. For example, a birch in a garden should be located at a considerable distance from fruit trees, as its powerful root system depresses neighbors.
Alycha Vitba is a good neighbor for other varieties
Purchase of seedlings and methods of propagation
In order to grow a healthy, viable plant, it is important to have good planting material. It can be purchased, it is also easy to get seedlings on their own by the method of cuttings or from seed.
When choosing a tree with a closed root system, you need to be careful about the size of the coma. The larger the plant, the more roots it has, and the larger the lump should be. The earth should not be overdried and loose, otherwise it may crumble during transportation and planting. The roots should stick out from the bottom of the container. This is a guarantee that the plant was not placed in it before the sale. You should also carefully examine the bark. It should not have cracks and scratches, it should not be wrinkled.
In seedlings with open roots, make sure that the roots are alive. The tree should have at least 4 - 5 main roots. To ensure that they are not dry, you should ask the seller to cut. The pulp of the tip on the cut should not be brown, but white. On the roots there should be no swelling that occurs with cancer. A two-year-old seedling has 2 to 3 branches.
Propagation by cuttings
Propagation by green cuttings is suitable for all varieties of cherry plum. They take root well and are developing rapidly. Many varieties can also be propagated by lignified cuttings, but this method is not suitable for everyone.
Green cuttings are cut in 2 - 3 decades of June. For their harvest, shoots of the current year are used. Green cuttings must be planted in a greenhouse, which will have to be prepared in advance. Instead of a greenhouse, it is quite possible to use a film greenhouse with prepared soil for plant propagation. The bed is dug to a depth of about 40 cm, a layer of drainage of crushed stone or pebbles 15 cm thick is laid down. From above, the drainage is covered with fertile soil 15 cm and covered with a 10-centimeter layer of a mixture of peat and sand. The whole “cake” is covered with 3 cm of pure sand. The bed must be compacted so that in the future it is easier to evenly moisten it.
Cuttings are cut when the bases of young twigs turn red and harden. For reproduction, shoots 25-30 cm long are selected. Cut shoots in the evening or in the absence of the sun to reduce moisture loss. The prepared material is immediately placed in water.
It’s best to plant green cuttings in a greenhouse
Then, with a clean tool, cuttings are formed having 2 to 3 sheets and a lower part of 3 cm. For the cuttings, the middle of the shoot is taken. The top is cut above the bud at a distance of 0.5 cm perpendicular to the shoot, the bottom is under the bud, the cut angle is 450. Ready cuttings are immersed with the bases in the rooting solution for 18 to 20 hours.
After that, the treated cuttings are placed in a well-moistened bed at a distance of 5 cm from each other and to a depth of 2.5 - 3 cm. You can arrange them in rows, the distance between which should also be 5 cm. Humidify the planting 2 to 3 times a day at using a manual sprayer or watering can.
Rooting occurs at a temperature of 25 - 300C. The yield is 50-60%, while root formation takes from 2 weeks to a month and a half, depending on the species.
To form lignified cuttings, ripened strong annual branches are used. They can be harvested from autumn after leaf fall, and until early spring, until the buds begin to swell. The root shoot, which still has to be removed, is best suited for such cuttings. Cuttings are formed from the middle and lower parts of the shoots so that their thickness is in the range from 7 to 12 mm, and the length is 20-30 cm. If you plan to plant them in a greenhouse, you can take workpieces 4-10 cm long.
Harvesting lignified cuttings
Well rooted cuttings planted in open beds immediately after flying around the leaves. In such cuttings, the upper cut should be oblique so that moisture does not linger on it. The cuttings are treated with a rooting agent, and then placed on a bed in grooves with a depth of 15 to 20 cm. The cuttings are immersed in a groove of 2/3. Before planting, a mixture of sand and peat is poured into the groove. The handle should rest against the bottom with the tip. Top up the soil with layers, carefully compacting. When its level becomes level with the ground, a groove for irrigation is formed around the handle. After watering, add earth to the formed recess. After winter frosts, the soil around the cuttings must be carefully compacted again. One year after planting, rooted cuttings can be transferred to a permanent place.
Growing cherry plum from a bone is a slow, but uncomplicated process, accessible to everyone. First you need to prepare the garden. For this, the earth is dug up to the depth of a shovel bayonet, humus should be added to the dug up soil at the rate of 3-4 kg per square meter and a glass of wood ash. To use mineral fertilizers and manure to improve soil quality is not recommended.
For future planting, ripe berries are selected, the bones are removed from the pulp and washed thoroughly. The bones are dried on a towel or soft paper, they dry out within a few hours.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Prepared bones are placed on the bed with an interval of 70 cm in each direction, closing them to a depth of 5 cm. The bed is compacted.
In the year of planting, seedlings do not appear. The following year, in early spring, small seedlings appear in the garden. Each has 2 leaflets directed in opposite directions. Below the root neck is visible below them, it is lighter than the main stem. Further growth occurs between the leaves, an upward-running shoot is formed on which new buds are formed.
In sunny places, shoots develop rapidly, but at the beginning of summer their growth stops. At the ends of the shoots, buds are formed, from which new shoots will appear next year. Crohn begins to take shape in the second year. Two-year-old seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place.
A sign of good future crops is growth. Those trees with large growth will bear fruit well. The first berries appear 3 years after transplanting. This method of reproduction allows you to get plants not afraid of frost.
Care for young trees includes:
- timely watering;
- crown pruning;
- top dressing;
- fight against insects and diseases.
Pruning should be done in early spring. The first pruning is carried out when landing. Subsequently, in an adult plant, branches are pruned if growth does not appear. The upper branches and trunk are also shortened if they become too high. In this case, pruning by more than 1 m is not allowed. Otherwise, vertical shoots of large height will appear on the site of the cut shoot.
Crop by year
The aim of trimming is also thinning. This removes the weaker of the intersecting branches, curved branches that interfere with others. This is done to improve lighting. All diseased branches and those that are directed inside the crown are also removed.
In the first year, the seedling does not require fertilizing, since when planting a sufficient amount of nutrients is introduced into the pit. Subsequently, every 3 years, organic fertilizers are applied at a rate of 10 kg per 1 sq. Km into the groove near the near-trunk circle. m crowns.
Unlike organic, mineral fertilizers must be applied every year. Before flowering, the plant is fed with ammonium nitrate at the rate of 60 g per 1 sq. m. In June, fertilizers containing potassium and superphosphate should be added to the soil at the rate of 50 g and 120 g per 1 sq. km. m. Most of all, cherry plum require nitrogen and potassium, it needs phosphorus fertilizers much less. Therefore, the first fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers can be carried out at the very beginning of the season, in early spring.
Cherry plum disease
Cherry plum, along with other stone fruits, is susceptible to various diseases. The table below shows the symptoms of diseases and methods for their treatment.
Table: cherry plum disease and their treatment
|Disease and pathogen||Signs||Control measures|
|Brown spotting. Called by mushrooms||Spots form on the leaves, the color of which depends on the pathogen (brown, yellow or ocher). Later black dots are discovered - spores. The middle of the leaves crumbles, the leaves fall off||Sick leaves must be destroyed. Trees are treated with 1% Bordeaux mixture 3 times: during budding, immediately after flowering and 2 weeks after the 2nd treatment. In case of severe damage, plants should be sprayed again 3 weeks before harvesting|
|Coccomycosis. The causative agent is a fungus||Violet - red or brown spots form on the top of the leaves. The underside of the leaves is covered with whitish tubercles, pads with spores. Not only the leaves suffer, but also the fruits. They change shape, you can’t eat them||Infected leaves and fruits are harvested and burned. In spring, after flowering ceases and in autumn, at the end of berry picking, trees are sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture|
|Moniliosis, moniliosis burn. Fungal disease caused by Ascomycete Monilia||Branches acquire a brown color, wither, the fruits rot. Gray growths form on the berries||Affected parts of plants are cut and burned. The treatment is carried out in 3 stages: when the leaves bloom - 3% Bordeaux mixture, before blooming and after flowering - 1% Bordeaux mixture|
|"Pockets." Fungal disease||The fruits that are set are pulled out, becoming the shape of a sac. Bones are not formed. Berries do not ripen, turn brown and dry, then fall||Sick parts of plants are collected and burned. Processing with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid is carried out 2 times: during budding and after flowering|
|Perforated spotting (Kleasterosporiasis). The causative agent is a fungus||Brown spots with a red border form on the leaves. The spots are crumbling. The kidneys turn black, the fruits become stained, which later swell. Fruits dry out||Sick parts of plants must be destroyed. Trees are treated with 1% Bordeaux mixture 3 times: during budding, immediately after flowering and 2 weeks after 2 treatments. In case of severe damage, plants should be sprayed again 3 weeks before harvesting|
|Brown fruit tick||Larvae appear in spring when the buds open. Larvae molt, their skins give the leaves a silver color. Leaves turn brown and crumble||Cleaning the bark of dead tissue. Treatment with insecticides (Fufanon, Karate) before swelling of the kidneys and during budding|
|Slimy sawfly||It feeds on leaf plates, leaving only veins||Autumn collection of fallen leaves and fruits. Spraying trees in July or early August by Fufanon or Novoaktion|
|Plum aphid||The insect draws juice from leaves and young twigs. Leaves change shape, turn yellow and fall||During the budding period, trees are sprayed with Karbofos or Sumition, carefully treating the lower surfaces of the leaves|
Spraying with insecticides is also effective from different types of moths, as well as yellow plum sawfly. Prevention from all types of lesions consists in cleaning fallen leaves, removing diseased parts of plants, competent feeding.
Brown spots on leaves
When growing cherry plum, other problems are possible. A well-faded tree can produce many fruits that fall to full maturity. Most often this happens when the irrigation regime is violated. Abundant fruiting requires plenty of moisture. Watering should be done regularly in the groove dug along the border of the crown.
Moniliosis affects not only leaves, but also fruits
If the tree does not bear fruit, the reason most often is the lack of pollinators. Since most varieties of cherry plum are self-fertile, the presence of several identical trees will not solve the problem. To get a crop, you have to plant a tree of another variety nearby.
Особенности выращивания алычи в областях с суровым климатом
При всей неприхотливости и нетребовательности к почвам, в различных регионах лучше выращивать районированные сорта. Уроженка южных краев, благодаря усилиям селекционеров алыча покорила и суровые северные края.
Средняя полоса и Подмосковье
Чтобы противостоять переменчивому климату, возвратным заморозкам и другим прелестям зоны рискованного земледелия, стоит обратить внимание на сорта, специально выведенные для Средней полосы. Среди них выделяются Сеянец Ракеты — наиболее устойчивый к морозам и Шатер — самый крупноплодный.
Алыча Мара хороша для Подмосковья
Очень важно также время созревания ягод. В последних числах июля — самом начале августа плодоносят Ветразь, Мономах, Несмеяна. Позднее, в середине августа, поспевают Абрикосовая, Персиковая, Кубанская комета, Анастасия, Сарматка, Карминная Жукова, Чук, Комета поздняя. Хороши для Подмосковья Мара, Скороплодная и Злато скифов. Кроме Сеянца Ракеты, благополучно переживают морозы Подарок Санкт-Петербургу и Владимирская комета.
Сорт Подарок Санкт-Петербургу не боится капризов погоды
Особенно тяжёлые условия для алычи наблюдаются в Сибири. Опасны для неё оттепели, сменяющиеся суровыми морозами. Слабая морозостойкость и малый период зимнего покоя не дают южанке прижиться в этих краях. Но в Сибири успешно выращиваются гибридные сорта, выведенные специально для этих мест.
Таблица: Сорта алычи для сибирских садов
|Алая Заря||Конец июля||8 – 15||Ярко-красные, сладко-пресные, 11–15г|
|Северный десерт||1-я декада августа||4 – 6||Ярко-красные, десертные, 10 – 17 г|
|Honey||2 – 3 декада августа||3 – 8||Красные, десертные, 13 – 19 г|
|Amber||Последняя декада августа||12 – 18||Жёлтые, кисло-сладкие, 12 – 16 г|
Хорошо растут в Сибири специальные районированные сорта Радуга, Марс, Миндальная и Рубин. Все они требуют соседей — опылителей. Исключение составляет частично самоплодный Янтарь.
Сорт Медовая растет даже в Сибири
У меня растет алыча Ветразь и Найдена, косточки не отделяются, но едим с удовольствием (вторая половина июля). Этим летом все косточковые без плодов были.
Очень люблю Кубанскую комету. Всем хороша-обильный и вкусный урожай, среднерослая, не болеющая. У нас на старой даче давала урожай, который исчисляли багажниками машины. Минусы-ветки от урожая постоянно ломались. Однако, лет через 10 урожай стал год от года уменьшаться, пока не дошло до 2-х небольших ведер. Причин я не знаю, возможно, дело в том, что за деревом никто никогда не ухаживал. Дальнейшей судьбы дерева не знаю, т.к. эту дачу продали. Ягоды вкусные и для еды, и для заморозки, и для компотов-варений.
Веточку Подарка СПб необходимо оставлять для опыления других алычей на участке. Т. к. это самый (из известных) надёжный зимостойкий сорт. На Подарок хорошо прививать любые другие алычи.
… много лет рядом растут огромная алыча и целый сливовый сад (венгерка). Никогда алыча не плодоносила. Цвела буйно, но ни одного плода. Пару лет назад посадили поблизости два других разных сорта алычи и в этом году оба зацвели… и как результат (видимо) – на старой алыче плодов столько же, сколько листьев. Если не осыпятся — это будет что-то…
Алыча — неприхотливое, благодарное растение, откликающееся обильными урожаями даже на небольшую заботу. А уж если ухаживать за ней по правилам, количество плодов превзойдёт все ожидания. Эти красивые деревья и кусты радуют глаз с начала цветения и до опадения листвы. А разнообразие сортов позволит выбрать именно тот, который придётся по душе.