Cherry Morozovka - winter-hardy and tasty resident of the gardens

Cherry is one of the most famous and widespread garden crops. It has been grown in Russia since the 12th century. Breeders do not sit around and develop new varieties, trying to get cherries that combine only positive qualities - tasty, well-growing in an unfavorable climate, which is immune to stone diseases. Variety Morozovka has almost all of the listed characteristics.

Description varieties of cherries Morozovka

Morozovka cherries were bred at the I.V. All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture Michurin in 1997. The author of the variety is Tamara Morozova, in whose honor the cherry got its name. The “parents” of Morozovka are the Lyubskaya and Vladimirskaya cherries, which were selected for the quality of the high yield of the first and frost resistance of the second.

The berries of Morozovka ripen on long stalks, which makes it easy to pick them

The height of the Morozovka tree reaches 2–2.5 m. The crown is spherical, of medium density, raised. The bark is light brown, shoots are gray-green, large in size. The leaves are oval, smooth, with notches at the edges, painted in light green, reddish glands are small at the base. The egg-shaped kidneys deviate slightly from the shoots.

The height of the cherry tree Morozovka - about 2 m

Blooming Morozovka begins in April: on bouquet branches, 5-7 fairly large pink and white flowers with round petals bloom. Fruiting occurs in the second half of July. The first crop (up to 200 g) from a tree can be obtained 3-4 years after planting.

Yield indicators for adult cherries vary. Depending on the growing conditions, it is able to bring from 10 to 30 kg of berries. Frosty fruits on long stalks, large (4–5 g each), rounded, with a recess at the base. Their skin and flesh are almost the same color as dark red or burgundy. The bone is not very large, from the juicy, but dense pulp is easily separated. The berries are very sweet, there is a mild pleasant sourness. Fruits can be consumed both fresh and processed (jams, jams, juices, fruit drinks, liquors, pastries, etc.) without losing their taste. The resulting crop is well transported.

Frosty berries - sweet, juicy, with dense pulp

The tree is resistant to dry weather, many fungal diseases, including coccomycosis (in the State Register the average resistance is indicated), it tolerates low winter temperatures well. But this advantage has a flip side: if a plant is planted in regions with very severe winters, then flower buds, as well as flowers during return frosts, can suffer. Like many varieties of breeding cherries, Morozovka is self-infertile.

Planting cherries

The soil for planting Morozovka should be nutritious and have neutral acidity, good drainage so that excessive moisture does not accumulate in it. Loamy, sandy, sandy soils are well suited. The optimal area for the growth and development of cherries is a well-lit, sunny area, without through winds or covered from them.

If the groundwater level is less than 1.5 m, then it is necessary to make an artificial elevation.

They plant Morozovka in March; it is also possible to do this in September. For planting, a 2-year-old grafted seedling with a formed crown is selected, but you can also use a year-old cherry. For spring planting, seedlings should be selected in the fall, since at this time their choice is quite high.

The main criteria for choosing planting material:

  • tree height - not less than 1 m;
  • barrel diameter - from 10 mm;
  • root length - not less than 20 cm;
  • the bark on the trunk is evenly colored, smooth, and there are no cracks or peeling at the site of inoculation.

So that the roots of the seedling do not dry out while you take the young tree to your site, you should wrap them with a damp cloth (for example, burlap) and place them in cellophane. Until spring, seedlings must not be left out of the ground. Therefore, for wintering, they dig a hole, the depth of which should be 30–35 cm, and place the trees there at an angle of 45 ° (after having released it from the fabric and bag used during transportation). Then the root system and part of the trunk (about 25 cm) are covered with earth and left in this form until the moment of planting.

Stages and landing technique

Step-by-step landing instructions include several steps.

Pit preparation

A plot of at least 2.5x2.5 m in size is allocated under one tree. A pit for planting is prepared in advance (in about a month) so that the earth can settle in it. The sizes vary depending on the composition of the soil: on fertile ones, height, width and depth - 40 cm each, on poorer ones (in the middle lane) - 60 cm each. The dug layer of the earth is mixed with fertilizers. Humus or compost in equal proportions is suitable, 1 kg of ash, 30–40 g of superphosphate, 20–25 g of potassium chloride are also added. The resulting composition is poured back into the hole.

If the soil is heavy, clay, then sand (1-2 buckets) is added to the mixture.

The planting hole should be spacious for better development of the seedling root system

Planting a seedling

A small mound about 15 cm high is formed in the center of the prepared hole, on which the root system of the seedling is located. This must be done very carefully to avoid damage to the roots. In this case, the root neck should rise 5 cm above the ground. In the hole next to the sapling, a stake 1.3 m high is established. A young cherry needs support until the root system is well developed. Then the pit is filled with earth to the edge and carefully tamped, and the seedling is tied to the peg with a loop-eight.

By a clear diagram, you can easily understand the intricacies of landing

Young cherry care

After planting, the seedlings are watered with 2-3 buckets of settled warm water and a boundary embankment is constructed from the ground to create a watering hole. It should be located at a distance of 25-30 cm from the trunk of a cherry. The trunk circle is mulched with a layer (3-5 cm) of sawdust, compost, peat, shavings, humus or ordinary fresh soil.

Pollination of Cherry

To ensure that the crop is plentiful and better, it is recommended to provide cherries with several varietal pollinators. Fit:

  • Griot of Michurinsky,
  • Zhukovskaya
  • Turgenevka,
  • Lebedyanskaya
  • Vladimirskaya.

Features of cultivation and subtleties of care

The cherry care complex includes watering, loosening the soil, top dressing, pruning, protection during wintering, as well as against possible pests, prevention and treatment of diseases.

Watering Morozovka and soil care

An adult tree should be watered once a week in the morning and in the evening, using 1–1.5 buckets of water. It is important that moisture does not stagnate on the surface, but penetrates to the roots. To do this, about 10-15 cm of soil layer can be removed around the trunk, which in diameter coincides with the crown projection. After watering, weeds must be removed so that they do not take nutrients from the ground, as well as loosen the soil.

No matter how well Morozovka does not tolerate drought, watering it is necessary for high-quality ripening of berries

Fertilizer application

Freezing is provided with nutrients 2 times a year - in spring and autumn. This is done regularly during the first 7 years of cherry life. After that, the frequency of top dressing is reduced by introducing mineral fertilizers every 2 years, and organic matter once every 4 years. Also, if during planting the soil was fertilized, then you can start the following fertilizing after 2 years using the scheme:

  1. On the 3rd year in the spring, 30 g of ammonium nitrate is dissolved in 10 l of water and introduced into the ring hole using 5 l of solution per tree.
  2. In the 4th year, 140 g of urea is introduced under spring digging, and in the fall, also during digging, 15 kg of compost are added.
  3. At the 5–6th year, the ammophosque dissolved in water (30 g per bucket of water) is taken and poured into the hole.
  4. In the spring of the 7th year, 250 g of urea can be used.

In the fall, you can make complex fertilizers.

Pruning crown

Pruning Morozovka should be a regular event, since its branches tend to rapidly grow and thicken the crown. This leads to the fact that the main force of the tree is directed to the growth and development of the green part, and the fruits become small. Pruning is carried out in early spring, when there is still a lot of time left before sap flow and swelling of the kidneys.

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Until the cherry bears fruit, its skeleton is developing. During this period, all branches located at a distance of 30 cm from the ground are removed from the trunk. After 2-3 years, from 10 to 15 branches remain at the base of the skeleton, which form a uniform crown frame. Branches should not cross and be very close to each other. The shoots that will appear on these branches are not deleted. The only exceptions are those whose growth is directed to the inside of the crown. In subsequent years, sanitary pruning is carried out - in the spring and in the autumn, sick, dried, old, unproductive branches are removed, their height is adjusted to ensure convenience in picking berries. At the same time, the shoots are shortened so that the length is 50-60 cm.

Freezing is prone to thickening the crown, so pruning is a necessary tree care measure

Tools used for trimming (saw, pruner, knife) should be sharp and disinfected. For processing places of cuts use a garden var.

Video: Cherry Pruning

Shelter for wintering and freezing

Morozovka cherries were bred as a variety resistant to winter frosts and tolerates them well. But providing additional shelter will not be superfluous in ordinary winter, and even more so if the cold season is severe.

In autumn, it is necessary to collect all the fallen leaves around the cherries, as well as to clean the tree from the dead bark and lichens. Before the dormant period, the tree must have a moisture reserve during the autumn watering process, which is preserved by mulching. To protect the trunk and large branches from sunburn, they are whitened. So that the trunk does not suffer from mice, rabbits or other rodents, it is worth wrapping it with dense material (roofing material, burlap, burlap or net).

When mulching, you can use the remains of the crop collected in the garden or mowed grass on the site.

Video: preparing the garden for winter

So that the fragile buds and inflorescences of Morozovka do not suffer from late frosts, you can wrap the tree with spanbond at night. However, this method will not be effective if the tree is already large. Another method of protection is the smoke method, when bonfires are made in the garden and the smoke screen created provides the necessary heat. The fire should smolder and give smoke, and not just burn out. Therefore, its basis may be straw, old foliage, dry branches, manure. But they must either be burned raw, or covered with a thick layer of moist material - peat or moss.

Another method of saving cherries in such a situation is sprinkling, when water is circulated around the trees through a sprayer, which will settle on the branches. Freezing, water will generate heat.

Diseases and pests, ways to combat them

Like any representative of stone fruits, Morozovka can get sick with the ailments inherent in this culture:

  • Moniliosis (monilial burn). Cherry leaves turn yellow, dry and fall. In their appearance, it seems that they are burned. Dark spots form on the fruits, the berries cease to grow and dry. The disease cannot be started, otherwise the tree cannot be saved. For treatment, treatment with a 2-3% Bordeaux liquid is used (until the leaves have blossomed). If the disease manifests itself later, but flowering has not yet begun, Bordeaux fluid or Horus or Skor preparations are used.

    Moniliosis is able to “dry” not only individual leaves, but the whole cherry tree

  • Sooty fungus. With this disease, a black coating forms on the plant, which is easily erased, but prevents sunlight and oxygen from penetrating the cherry, which leads to the death of foliage and fruits or simply spoils their appearance. Wood can be treated with solutions of copper chloroxide, Bordeaux liquid or 150 g of soap and 5 g of copper sulfate diluted in 10 l of water.

    Although the plaque of the soot fungus is easily removed, this disease requires the same thorough treatment as any other disease.

  • Kleasterosporiosis (perforated spotting). For the disease, the formation of small brown spots on the leaves is characteristic, through the openings subsequently form in the places of their appearance. In the future, the disease spreads to the fruits, they dry and fall to the ground. All affected parts are removed and burned (it is especially important to do this in the autumn before wintering the cherries), the trees are treated with 3% Bordeaux fluid.

    It is easy to identify kleasterosporiosis by the characteristic red border framing the holes on the sheet

  • Gum Detection. It can occur as a result of mechanical damage to the trunk, sunburn, severe frost, improper pruning. Wood resin (gum) appears on the trunk. It must be carefully removed and cleaned with a sharp knife with a sharp knife to capture a small part of healthy tissue, then disinfect the area with copper sulfate solution (1%), and seal the wound with garden var.

    Gumming is dangerous because it drains the tree

The risk of frost damage to Morozovka is minimal. However, caution should be exercised if this disease is found in neighboring cultures.

Preventive actions:

  • after the season ends, timely remove fallen leaves and fruits remaining on the branches from under the trees;
  • remove and process those parts of the plant that have received mechanical damage;
  • do not plant cherries and other fruit trees too close to each other and prevent thickening of the crown;
  • prevent stagnation of water during irrigation, heavy rains or melting snow;
  • provide timely nutrition so that the tree does not lose immunity.

Insect Pest Freezing Protection

Freezing can be affected by cherry aphids. To identify this pest on time, you should periodically inspect the trees. Aphids live on the inside of leaves, as well as on young shoots. Damaged parts of the plant dry out and die. The following methods are used to control insects:

  • insecticides, for example, Spark or Fitoverm (but they can not be used at the time of ripening or harvesting);
  • an adhesive belt on the trunk, the basis of which can be film, cardboard, non-woven material with adhesive applied (it should be changed 1 time per month);
  • if the fruit has already begun to blossom on the cherry, the branches can be treated with a strong stream of water that will wash off the insects;
  • One of the preventive control measures can be planting plants next to cherries that produce essential oils that repel pests - dill, marigolds, thyme, horseradish.

Another equally harmful insect is cherry moth. Different parts of the plant feed on butterfly caterpillars. In spring, they can penetrate into the kidneys, which will not bloom. In later periods, leaves and buds are damaged by cherry moth, young shoots gnaw through caterpillars. You can understand that a tree is affected by this pest by the characteristic cobweb that remains on the cherry.

Before budding and during bud formation, the trees should be treated with Spark or Karbofos. And to destroy the pupae and caterpillars in the soil, it should be dug up when the cherry blossoms.

Photo Gallery: Cherry Damaging Insects

If aphid has appeared, shepherd ants will definitely join it

Aphids feed on tree sap, weakening it

While cherry moth grows into an adult, it is able to kill up to 5 cherry flowers

Reviews about cherry Morozovka

Kharitonovskaya and Morozovka enjoy the taste, berries are larger than the old varieties. On old cherries last year there was a moniliosis of cherries; I had to cut many branches. Kharitonovskaya and Morozovka stood clean, without defeat.

Lyudmila62

Of the varieties growing in my garden, having a dry separation of fruits, having high flavoring qualities, the varieties Morozovka, Zhukovskaya, Oktava, Assol. All varieties grow in separate trees for many years. Trees Zhukovskaya and Octave 25 years, Morozovka 20 years.

Victor Bratkin

Do it yourself is a pleasure to grow a crop. In the care of cherries there are subtleties, but it is one of the not too whimsical cultures. And the Morozovka variety will be an excellent choice for both an experienced and a beginner gardener.

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