Cherry diseases and pests: preventive measures and control methods

Cherry is one of the most popular fruit trees found in many gardens. But, unfortunately, culture often suffers from diseases and pests. In order to provide cherry care with competent care and timely assistance, you need to know about the main preventive measures and methods of treating lesions.

Fungal diseases

Fungi breed in the spring and summer with fairly cool (8-14 ° C), but rainy and windy weather. These diseases are highly contagious, so take care of all the trees in your garden, otherwise the fungus may spread to other crops.

If you notice signs of a fungal disease in the trees of your neighbors, then also inform them of the need to start treatment.

Coccomycosis (russet spotting)

The first symptom of coccomycosis is the appearance on the outside of the leaves of reddish-brown spots with a diameter of up to 2 mm. Typically, this occurs between the end of May and the beginning of June. If the cherry is severely affected, then brown spots can appear on the berry stalks and young shoots. Closer to mid-July, small spots begin to merge into large ones. On the reverse side, the leaf is covered with tubercles - sporostokami light pink or light gray. In mid-late August, such leaves prematurely turn yellow and curl, and then fall off.

With coccomycosis, cherry drops leaves early, which greatly reduces the ability of the tree to prepare for winter

The crop also suffers from coccomycosis: the skin of the berries becomes covered with brown spots, and the flesh becomes watery. In addition, the disease greatly undermines the vitality of cherries, and the tree can freeze in winter. The disease is common in the middle zone of Russia and Siberia; it is quite rare in warm regions.

The most resistant varieties of cherries to coccomycosis are Shokoladnitsa, Turgenevka, Bulatnikovskaya, Robin. Also, large-frilled felt cherries (Alice, Delight, Fairy Tale) practically do not suffer from this ailment.

Prevention of coccomycosis of cherries:

  • Take care of the garden in a timely manner. Collect and burn all garbage, especially fallen leaves, in the autumn, since fungal spores winter in it. You need to trim, feed and whiten not only cherries, but also other trees.
  • In the early spring or mid-October, dig over the ground in the garden, including tree-trunk circles of cherries and other trees.
  • Whitewash the trunk and skeletal branches regularly. The most suitable time is the period from mid to late September (at a temperature of 4–5 ° C). The foliage should completely fall. Whitewashing is necessary on a dry day. A few days before, clear the trunk of the old bark. Composition of the mixture: 2 kg of slaked lime + 300 g of copper sulfate + 10 l of water. The thickness of the applied layer is 2-3 mm.

    Repeated whitewashing should be carried out in the spring before budding. Usually this is the period from late March to early April, the temperature should not be lower than 5 ° C.

  • If it is not possible to whiten a tree in the fall, then in the early to mid-October wash the trunk and skeletal branches of a cherry with a solution of urea (30-50 g of granules per 10 l of water). If you have already whitened a tree, then spill the soil of the tree trunk with this solution to disinfect it.

Treatment:

  1. In the spring, during the period of kidney swelling (early to mid-May), process cherries and soil in the near-stem circle with Bordeaux fluid. Preparation: dilute copper sulfate (300 g) in 1 liter of boiling water. In a separate bowl, dilute quicklime (400 g) in 1 liter of boiling water. Dilute both mixtures with 4 l of warm water, then strain the lime solution and mix it with saline.

    Instead of such a solution, you can use copper oxychloride (the most popular drug is Hom). Dilute 40 g of powder in 10 l of warm water. If necessary, repeat the treatment 2-3 more times with an interval of 10 days.

    Bordeaux liquid can be prepared independently or buy a ready-made mixture

  2. When the buds appear, spray the cherries with a solution of Chorus (2-3 g per 10 liters of water).
  3. After 2-3 weeks after flowering, spray the cherry with a solution of Skor (1 ampoule per 10 liters of water), having previously completely cut out the most affected branches.
  4. Treat cherries with Bordeaux liquid in late August. Preparation: dilute copper sulfate (100 g) in 1 liter of boiling water. In a separate bowl, dilute quicklime (150 g) in 1 liter of boiling water. Dilute both mixtures with 4 l of warm water, then strain the lime solution and mix it with saline.
  5. Whiten the trunk and skeletal branches or treat the tree and the trunk circle with a urea solution.

    Cherry whitening is one of the measures for the prevention and treatment of coccomycosis

Video: cherry coccomycosis

Moniliosis (monilial burn)

With moniliosis, flowers and leaves suddenly begin to dry in cherries, acquiring a brownish-brown color. This is especially noticeable on young annual shoots. If the development of the disease began during the ripening period, then they become covered with dark spots and dry out. The disease is often found in the European part of Russia and in Western Siberia.

The most resistant to moniliosis are the varieties Anadolskaya, Tamaris, Turgenevka, Molodezhnaya, Bystrinka. The least resistant varieties are Lyubskaya and Vladimirskaya, as well as felt cherries.

With moniliosis, cherry branches look burnt

If you doubt that your cherry is sick with moniliosis, then cut the affected branch and look at the slice. The presence of black rings is a sign of this disease.

Prevention:

  • When planting, try to place seedlings at a distance of at least 2 m from each other, since monolioz often affects crowded growing cherries.
  • Do not choose a place for the cherry orchard in the lowlands and on excessively moist soils.
  • Take care of the trees in a timely manner (correctly form a crown, carry out sanitary trimming, apply fertilizers in a timely manner, remove and burn all garbage in the fall).
  • Dig and disinfect the barrel circle regularly. For these purposes, a solution of urea or 1% Bordeaux fluid is suitable. Digging is possible after leaf fall or immediately after the snow melts.
  • In spring and autumn, whitewash the trunk and skeletal branches.

Moniliosis treatment:

  1. While the buds are blooming, treat the cherries with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid.

    Instead of Bordeaux liquid, at the same time, you can use special preparations (Horus, Kuproskat, Topsin-M), having prepared them according to the instructions. As a rule, 2-3 sprayings with an interval of 10 days are required.

  2. After flowering, use the preparations Fitosporin-M and Fitolavin, having prepared the solutions according to the instructions.
  3. Remove infected branches in a timely manner. Remember that pruning should be carried out, capturing 10-15 cm of healthy wood. If you need to remove a branch larger than 1 cm in diameter, be sure to cover the cut with garden var. Burn all cut shoots immediately.
  4. After leaf fall, but no later than the end of September, whitewash the cherries and treat the trunk circle. If it is not possible, then in early October, flush the trunk and skeletal branches with a solution of urea or 1% Bordeaux fluid and water the trunk circle.

Video: a remedy for bone moniliosis

Bacterial cancer

If you notice any signs of bacterial cancer, then start treatment immediately, as cherries, especially young ones, can die in 1–2 seasons.

How plant parts change due to cancer:

  • the flowers become brown;
  • yellowing watery spots appear on the leaves, which then turn brown. Dead tissue falls out, so holes form;
  • a thick orange liquid is released on the shoots;
  • the bark is covered with cracks, growths and blisters, then exfoliates;
  • the fruits are covered with dark spots and rot.

The disease is most often found in areas with warm climates.

There is another type of cancer - black, but it appears mainly on pome crops (pear, apple), and cherries are not affected by them.

If the cherry is affected by bacterial cancer, numerous cracks form on the cortex.

Prevention:

  • Do not forget about standard care measures:
    • forming a crown of a seedling,
    • regular sanitary pruning,
    • harvesting and burning fallen leaves.
  • Care for the near-stem circle: dig in spring and autumn and disinfect with 1% Bordeaux fluid or urea solution.
  • Do not forget to whiten the cherry.
  • When processing cherries (pruning, grafting), use only clean tools.

Bacterial Cancer Treatment:

  1. Remove all affected branches immediately. Cut the diseased area to a healthy tissue, capturing it 4–5 cm. Rinse the sections with 1% Bordeaux fluid or 5% carbolic acid solution and coat.

    As a putty, garden var, oil paint or a mixture of clay and fresh mullein, taken in equal proportions, are suitable. As a result of mixing, a thick mixture, reminiscent of the consistency of butter, should be obtained. If necessary, it can be slightly diluted with warm water so that it sticks well. An oiled wound can be tied with burlap.

  2. After trimming, feed the cherry. To do this, add a solution of superphosphate (350 g), potassium nitrate (250 g) and chicken droppings (300-400 g) into the outer furrow of the near-trunk circle. To prepare the solution, soak the litter for 6 days in 10 l of water, mineral fertilizers - in 10 l of water for 2 days. Mix both solutions before use. For 1 cherry, 20-25 liters are consumed.
  3. In the spring (before the buds begin to open) and in the fall (during and after the leaf fall), treat the cherries with 1% Bordeaux liquid or Hom (80 g per 10 l).
  4. 3-5 days after spraying, whitewash the tree, process the trunk circle.

If the tree does not respond to treatment, then it is necessary to uproot it, and shed the place on which it grew abundantly with a potassium permanganate solution (50 g per 10 l of water). If possible, try not to plant any plants there for 3-4 years.

Scab

A symptom of scab is the appearance of brown spots on the leaves. As the disease progresses, the leaf plates dry out, curl up and crumble. Unripe fruits stop growing and dry up, ripe ones become covered with cracks and lose their taste. According to gardeners, scab does not pose a strong danger to the life of a tree, but can significantly reduce its yield. The disease is often found in the southern and central regions of Russia.

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When the scab is damaged, the edges of the leaves turn brown first and then curl.

Prevention measures:

  • Compliance with standard care measures (timely shaping and sanitary pruning, cleaning and burning of fallen leaves).
  • Care for the near-stem circle (spring and autumn digging, autumn irrigation with a solution of urea or 1% Bordeaux fluid).
  • Whitewashing Cherries.

Ways to deal with scab:

  • Remove affected shoots immediately and pick dried fruit. Do not forget to burn them immediately.
  • Spend the cherry three times with 1% Bordeaux liquid:
    • the first time - during swelling of the kidneys;
    • the second time - 20 days after flowering;
    • the third time - after the harvest.
  • If the scab showed up on ripe berries, then treat the tree with a strong solution of sodium chloride (1 kg of salt per 10 liters of water).
  • Whiten the tree and treat the near-stem circle with urea solution or 1% Bordeaux fluid.

Non-fungal cherry damage

Non-fungal damage does not pose a serious threat to the health of cherries, but can weaken the tree and contribute to its further infection with various diseases.

Gommosis (gum detection)

The main symptom of gummosis is the allocation of a dense yellow-brown mass from wounds and cracks in the cortex. As a rule, the release of gum is continuous and significantly weakens the plant. If gum appears on any branch, then this is a symptom of its soon death. With gummosis, cherries are often susceptible to infection with fungal diseases.

With gummosis, a large amount of gum is released

Causes of gummosis:

  • mechanical damage to the trunk or branches;
  • excessive productivity;
  • frost and sharp temperature fluctuations in the spring-autumn period;
  • untimely or excessive pruning.

Gumming can also be a symptom of a fungal disease (most often bacterial cancer).

Preventive measures:

  • Avoiding mechanical damage to the cortex (for example, when trimming or cleaning).
  • Protecting the trunk and skeletal branches with whitewash.
  • Timely pruning.
  • Processing the trunk with a 1% solution of copper sulfate in the spring before budding and in the fall after leaf fall.

Treatment is usually carried out from mid-April to early May, but after the end of sap flow. It includes cleaning the wounds with a sharp knife to a healthy tissue (it is desirable to capture an additional 4-5 mm) and their subsequent washing with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and putty with garden var.

You can also find such a recipe for putty: mix 7 parts of nigrol with 3 parts of ash.

Mosses and Lichens

Mosses and lichens on trees are found everywhere, but this is more typical of old neglected gardens or trees growing in conditions of constant humidity. The mossiness of the cherry can weaken it, cause the death of branches and a decrease in productivity, but, contrary to popular belief, it is not a symptom of any disease.

Moss and lichen on trees create a favorable environment for the life of insect pests

The cleaning procedure is carried out twice a year: in the spring before the swelling of the kidneys or in the late autumn after leaf fall. The temperature should not be lower than 2 ° C. Before processing, remove fallen leaves, and also cover all the wounds on the trunk with garden varieties. In case of strong overgrowing of cherries, use a 5% solution of copper sulphate (dilute 50 g of powder in 1 liter of hot water, and then bring up to 10 l with warm water), also dig a near-stem circle and pour it with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. After 5-7 days, growths should fall. If individual flakes remain on the barrel, then scrape them off with a brush.

Such a mixture will help to cope with small growths: salt (1 kg) + ash (2 kg) + laundry soap (finely grated 2 pieces) + 10 l of hot water. Boil, cool and lubricate the affected areas.

Prevention measures come down to:

  • timely pruning with the removal of branches thickening the crown,
  • spraying the tree in spring and autumn with 1% solution of copper sulfate,
  • whitewashing of the trunk and skeletal branches.

Cherry Pests: Prevention and Control

Like many other crops, cherries are often affected by various pests that can be found in any area.

Aphid

Aphids are one of the most common garden insects. She eats plant sap, which is easy to obtain from leaves and young shoots, resulting in a curl of leaves in a dense ball. The affected parts of the plant lose their viability and die.

Aphid infestation can greatly weaken the plant and reduce its viability

Preventive measures are standard:

  • correct crown formation in young seedlings and regular sanitary pruning,
  • whitewash
  • timely cleaning and burning of fallen leaves,
  • care for the near-stem circle (regular loosening and weeding).

To scare away aphids from cherries, you can sow dill, thyme, fennel, marigolds or undersized nasturtium in the trunk circle.

If the cherry is affected by aphids, then you can use the following methods of treatment, after removing the most affected shoots:

  • Spraying the crown with the spark. Processing should be done before the ovary appears, on a dry cloudy day, having prepared the drug according to the instructions.
  • Spraying the crown with Fitoverm. It is possible to process cherries with this tool immediately after flowering, having prepared it according to the instructions. For processing, you also need to choose a dry cloudy day.
  • Treatment with a solution of tar soap. To prepare it, you need to dilute in 10 l of warm water 100 g of finely grated soap. It is applied at any time.
  • Spraying with herbal infusions. They are used during the formation of buds, immediately after flowering and 10 days before harvest:
    • Infusion of dandelion. Fill foliage (400 g) and roots (200 g) with 3 liters of hot water and leave for 3 hours. Then add water to a volume of 10 liters. Processing should be carried out in the morning no later than 10–00 or in the evening after 18–00 in dry weather.
    • Infusion of tops of tomatoes. 5 kg of green leaves (you can also use chopped stepsons) pour 10 liters of water and boil for 30 minutes over low heat. Cool and add 30 g of grated laundry soap. Before use, dilute the resulting broth with warm water in a 1: 3 ratio. It is advisable to use the infusion until 10–00 and not earlier than 18–00 in dry weather.
    • Infusion of potato tops. 1 kg of fresh or 600 g of dry tops (use only healthy greens) pour 10 liters of boiling water and let it brew for 3 hours. It is advisable to use the infusion until 10–00 and not earlier than 18–00 in dry weather.
  • Ash treatment. You can apply at any time. You can prepare it in several ways:
    • Sifted and crushed ash (500 g), pour 1.5 liters of boiling water and insist under the lid for 3 days. Then bring the solution to a volume of 10 l with warm water. Processing should be carried out in the morning no later than 10–00 or in the evening after 18–00 in dry weather.
    • Sifted and crushed ash (300 g), pour 2 liters of boiling water and boil over medium heat for 20-30 minutes. Strain, bring to a volume of 10 l and add 50 g of laundry soap grated on a fine grater. Processing should be carried out in the morning no later than 10–00 or in the evening after 18–00 in dry weather.

When spraying, do not forget to process the back of the leaves, as the aphid hides there.

Ants

Muravyov is attracted to the sweet cherry smell, so these insects can greatly ruin the crop by eating ripe berries. In addition, ants are carriers of aphids, and cherries can be seriously affected by infection with these pests.

Ants are aphids

Fighting ants includes repelling pests from cherries and destroying the anthill:

  • Use of a hunting belt. You can buy ready-made, but you can do it yourself. To do this, take a strip of polyethylene 25 cm wide, wrap it twice around the trunk and grease with solid oil, tar or tar, making sure that the substance does not get on the bark - it can cause a burn. The dressing height is approximately 80 cm. Renew the adhesive layer as necessary.

Sticky trap effectively helps fight ants

  • Using a woolen cloth belt soaked in carbolic. Ants do not like this smell. Change the bandage every 3 days, the height of fastening is the same.

    Hanging bunches of wormwood, tansy or garlic shooters can help, but this method has a drawback: the herbs quickly lose their smell and dry out, so the ants can return. Because of this, it is more suitable as an adjuvant.

  • The creation of mechanical barriers. It can be a tire cut into two halves and filled with water, which must be put in a ditch dug around the cherry, greased with petroleum jelly and a rope wrapped around the base of the cherry stem, a “plasticine skirt” fixed with a wide end up and filled with water.
  • Whitewashing the trunk. Lime sticks to the paws, and it is more difficult for ants to move around.
  • The use of special drugs (Muravin, Muratsid). There are several drawbacks: aerosols evaporate quickly, gels can be eaten by other beneficial insects. In this case, when choosing a chemical agent, preference is given to washer traps, where a larger insect cannot fit.

To destroy the anthill located on your site, you can:

  • use special preparations (Diazinon, Absolute-gel);
  • apply folk remedies:
    • hot ash (an anthill is covered with it),
    • boiling water,
    • a mixture of laundry soap (you need to rub a piece finely), carbolic acid (10 tablespoons) and kerosene (10 tablespoons). Dilute in 10 l of hot water.

Если вы не хотите использовать химикаты, то вам придётся проводить обработку несколько раз, меняя при этом средства.

Вишнёвая муха

Этот вредитель не так опасен, как тля, но также способен нанести вред вашему урожаю и существенно снизить его качество, ведь благодаря вишнёвой мухе ягоды становятся червивыми. Муха проделывает в ягоде отверстие, откладывает туда яйца, из которых впоследствии появляются личинки.

Вишнёвая муха является причиной червивости ягод вишни

Существует несколько способов защиты от вишнёвой мухи:

  • Побелка ствола и скелетных веток. Проводить процедуру нужно рано весной, чтобы зимующие в коре или земле личинки не успели выбраться на поверхность и навредить дереву.
  • Перекопка и обработка приствольного круга, чтобы уничтожить находящихся в почве куколок.
  • Своевременный сбор урожая.
  • Уборка опавших плодов.

Если заражение ягод вишнёвой мухой всё-таки произошло, то можно предпринять следующие меры:

  • Двукратная обработка дерева специальным препаратом (как правило, применяются Молния, Актара, Искра).
    • Первое опрыскивание проводится во время массового вылета мух. Чтобы определить начало этого периода, сделайте приманки, намазав на кусок картона клей для защиты от мышей и развесив приманку (2–3 штуки) на дереве. Если за короткий промежуток времени (1–3 дня) вы обнаружите не меньше 20 прилипших мух, то можно начать обработку.

      Также появление вишнёвых мух совпадает с началом цветения акации.

    • Второй раз опрыскивание необходимо провести через 10 дней, но не позднее чем за 20 дней до сбора урожая. Желательно использовать другой препарат.
  • Побелка ствола и скелетных веток.
  • Перекопка приствольного круга в конце сентября — начале октября и в конце марта — начале апреля.

Прочие проблемы вишни

Помимо болезней и вредителей, существует ещё несколько причин, из-за которых вишня плохо растёт или не приносит достаточное количество урожая. Как правило, они связаны с неблагоприятными климатическими условиями или особенностями сорта.

Таблица: причины неурожайности вишни и способы решения проблем

Description of the problemCausesСпособы решения
Засыхание плодов
  • Неполное опыление плодов. В этом случае семя не развивается, и сам плод останавливается в росте.
  • Повреждение ветви. На ней могут расти листья и появляться завязи, но на формирование плодов не хватит сил. Если срезать такую ветку, то можно увидеть, что внутри она коричневая, а не белая.
  • Удалите повреждённые ветки, чтобы на следующий год вишня смогла образовать новые.
  • Если произошло неполное опыление, то постарайтесь по возможности оборвать недозрелые плоды.
Недостаточное цветение
  • Молодой возраст вишни.
  • Неприспособленность сорта к вашему региону.
  • Механизм «отдыха» (растение восстанавливает силы после обильного прошлогоднего плодоношения).
  • Повреждение дерева заморозками.
  • Неподходящая почва.
  • Нехватка питательных веществ.
  • Если ваш регион отличается весенними заморозками, то вы можете оттянуть период цветения, подбрасывая снег к стволу и мульчируя его (опилками, соломой) и давая вишне возможность зацвести позже.
  • Если вишне не хватает питательных веществ, то весной внесите в приствольный круг мочевину (для дерева моложе 4-х лет — 150 г, для дерева старше — 300 г) и перекопайте. В начале-середине сентября во внешние бороздки внесите компост или перегной из расчёта 20–40 кг на 1 дерево.
  • Как правило, вишня плохо растёт на чрезмерно закисленных почвах. Чтобы сделать грунт нейтральным, внесите в грунт доломитовую муку или известь из расчёта 400 г на м2.
Опадание завязи
  • Повышенная кислотность почвы.
  • Нехватка питательных веществ.
  • Неподходящая погода (дожди, жара, заморозки) в период цветения.
  • Самобесплодный сорт (например, сорт Владимирская).
  • Слишком большой урожай в прошлом году.
  • Для понижения кислотности почвы внесите доломитовую муку или известь (400 г/м2).
  • Для обогащения почвы питательными веществами и подкормки вишни после получения большого урожая можно внести в приствольный круг в середине сентября 300 г двойного суперфосфата и 100 г сернокислого калия, а во внешнюю борозду приствольного круга — 40 кг перегноя.
  • При покупке саженца всегда уточняйте, к какому типу опыляемости относится сорт. Если вы хотите выращивать самобесплодную вишню, то вам придётся приобрести ещё один саженец другого сорта.
Отсутствие завязи
  • Самобесплодный сорт.
  • Заморозки.
  • Нехватка питательных веществ.
  • Отсутствие насекомых-опылителей.
По первым трём пунктам рекомендации такие же. Если ваше дерево недостаточно опыляется насекомыми, то вы можете привлечь их, опрыскав цветки подслащённой водой (20 г сахара развести в 1 л воды). Также хорошо помогают препараты Завязь или Бутон.

Вишня может пострадать от разных болезней и вредителей, но грамотный уход и вовремя проведённое лечение помогут вашему дереву справиться с любым из них. Выполняйте все рекомендации, и вы сумеете сохранить здоровье и урожайность вишни.

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