Cherries Zhivitsa - a new promising variety
Cherries of the Zhivitsa variety belong to the group of dykes. Duke is a hybrid of cherries and cherries, but is considered an independent variety of cherries. Zhivitsa can be called a western variety, since its parents are old European varieties: German yellow cherry Denisen and early ripe Spanish cherry Griot Ostheim. The variety was created in Belarus relatively recently. Recommended for use at the place of creation in 2002. Then it began to spread in Ukraine and in Russia. And in 2005 it was included in the Russian State Register of Breeding Achievements as recommended for use in the Central region.
Description of variety Zhivitsa
From the parents, the variety got the following good properties.
- early ripening
- large berry size
- sweet taste
- frost resistance
- stable fruiting every year.
Fruits in the conditions of the Central region of Russia ripen in late June - early July. This is a rare variety that can give the first small crop as early as the year of planting. Fruiting in full force begins already at 3-4 years, when many other varieties are just beginning to produce a small crop. There is no data on the full life and fruiting of this variety, perhaps because on average it is 15–25 years for cherries, and the Zhivitsa variety is still young and has not passed such a trial period.
Zhivitsa berries are round, outside a dark red cherry color. The taste is pleasant, with a slight acidity. However, the sugar content is not a record, about 8 - 9%. In some varieties, this indicator is 12–13%. But the acid content of Zhivitsa berries is also relatively small, 1-1.5%, so the berries do not seem too sour to taste. The average weight of berries is 3-4 g, which is far from a record for dykes (up to 7 g). The pulp is dark red, juicy, in fully ripe berries, the bone is easily separated.
There is data on the yield of the variety when grown on industrial plantations. With a planting pattern of 5 m between rows and 3 between trunks, 100 to 140 centners per hectare are harvested, or, more clearly for small gardening, in terms of 100–140 kg per 100 square meters (hundred square meters).
This is not a record in comparison with the old tall varieties.
The tree is medium-sized, up to 3 meters high. It forms a rounded crown, with branches growing up and sagging with thin tips down. Crohn grows slowly, the location of the branches is not too frequent. The variety is not prone to thickening and requires almost no pruning.
Harvest is available for collection from portable stands or stepladders
When testing the variety in conditions of the Belarusian climate, similar in winter conditions to many regions of the European part of Russia, there have never been any cases of freezing.
The variety is self-infertile. That is, on one tree all the flowers are only male or female. and if nearby or at a distance of 20-30 m, no further, there are no more blooming cherries, then the tree will bloom. and the ovary will not be prctatic. Which, however, is characteristic of many varieties of cherries. Therefore, it is recommended to plant in groups, preferably with other varieties - pollinators, cherries or cherries. You can use any variety, but the recommended Belarusian Vyanok, Seedling or Novodvorskaya.
Without pollinators, ovaries form on only 20% of the flowers.
Planting a cherry tree
The variety Zhivitsa almost does not give root shoots. This can be considered a plus when leaving, but this means that the variety cannot be widely propagated by root shoots. Seedlings will have to buy in the nursery.
Zhivitsa well takes root both in autumn and in spring planting during the dormant period. However, spring planting is recommended for northern areas. Then the seedling manages to take root, gain strength and enter the winter strong enough for wintering. But in the southern regions it is impossible to pull with an autumn landing. In order for the seedling to settle down before winter, it is necessary to plant it immediately with the onset of the dormant period, that is, after the leaves have fallen.
Choosing a good place
The place for planting cherries is chosen well-lit, without strong drafts, not swampy. The depth of the groundwater should be at least 1.5 m, otherwise the water will reach the roots and the tree will die in a few years.
Cherry loves loose, friable, but rather moisture-intensive fertile soil. Sands are not suitable because they do not hold moisture and are infertile. Sure. chernozem and loam and sandy loam similar in composition and structure are ideal. But the soil can be improved if the soil selected from the planting pit is moved with high-quality humus in proportion to 3 parts of soil 1 part of humus. It is advisable to add wood ash in an amount of 0.5 l per 10 l of soil.
Zhivitsa needs a slightly alkaline or neutral soil with an acidity of about pH7.
If organic matter is added under a deep dig around the future near-stem circle, Zhivitsa will be able to use it over time. It forms the root system about 2 times larger than the crown. The roots go deep, but most of them will lie at a depth of 20–40 cm — this is almost the depth of digging to the full bayonet of a shovel.
The introduction of fresh manure, mineral fertilizers into the planting pit, as well as immersion of the roots before planting in solutions, can burn the root system. Of course, such digging under an adult tree is unacceptable, only before planting. A landing pit is prepared according to the size of the roots, preferably with a margin of width and depth, but not less than 50 cm in diameter and the same in depth.
For industrial plantations, an interval with wide spacing of 5 m is recommended for the passage of equipment. For small gardens, the interval is 3 by 3 m.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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There can be two types of seedlings in a nursery:
- open root system
- in containers with a closed root system.
The latter, as a rule, take root better. But before excavation, it is advisable not to water the lump of earth with roots from the tank - then the earth will dry out a bit, decrease in volume and come out easily, without damaging the roots. But for the sake of such convenience, it is important not to overdo it and not to dry the seedling.
- In the bottom of the landing pit, the support stake is hammered.
- A mound of land is poured at the bottom of the landing pit 15–25 cm high.
- On top of it put the roots of a seedling.
- The seedling should be at the same depth as in the nursery, this level is clearly visible by the color of the bark. In any case, the root neck should not be filled up.
- If necessary, the mound is sprinkled higher or leveled lower to achieve the correct landing depth.
- Roots are gently covered with loose soil, leaving no air voids.
- The soil is carefully compacted with the foot.
- The seedling is tied to the supporting stake with a soft material that cannot damage the bark - a strip of fabric, linen twine, etc.
- Watered in an amount of 10-20 liters. depending on soil moisture and weather.
- In autumn, the soil around the seedling is mulched with half-rotten sawdust, humus, peat, needles or fine hay with a layer of about 10 cm.
- In spring, the desired dark mulch is a thin layer, since the light mulch will not let the earth warm up for a long time.
The reference stake is not always needed.
Holds well without a stake that can upset the roots
Weeds under the cherry are not needed. They will oppress the young roots of the cherry.
Can be combined with organic application
It is better to get 1-2 summer seedlings, they take root better. Moreover, seedlings with a closed root system, in containers, can be planted in the fall and in more northern areas, because they are quite viable.
A 1-2-year-old seedling should be about 1 m in height, with 3-4 skeletal branches. It should be grafted, which is clearly visible by the curvature and thickening on the trunk, at a height of 8-12 cm from the root neck. Vaccination traces are a guarantee that this is not a wild bird.
Care and protection against lesions
Remarkable quality of Zhivitsa - it is little susceptible to various diseases and pest attacks. If problems do occur, Zhivitsa is treated with common products for all varieties of cherries - recommended insecticides for insects and fungicides from fungal diseases, industrial production or folk ones, strictly following factory instructions for use and the verified, proven experience of gardeners.
It is recommended to feed Zhivitsa with the beginning of full fruiting, for 3-4 years of growth. Compost or dung humus, or sapropel - silt from the bottom of standing reservoirs are brought into the root radius. They make mineral fertilizers. in the spring, at the beginning of growth - nitrogen, in the fall, to facilitate wintering - potash and phosphorus. Doses are determined according to the tables on the packages. As a rule, this is about 40 g per 1 sq.m.
They are fed not every year, but every 2-3 years.
Zhivitsa does not like drying out of the soil, therefore, if necessary, in dry weather, it requires watering. Especially during flowering and ovary formation, this determines the quantity and quality of the current year's crop. The soil during irrigation should be moistened to a depth of at least 40-50 cm.
My cherries bloomed for the first time this year (several old cherries of local unknown varieties were uprooted), it seems that there should be an ovary. Planted a variety of our local Belarusian selection - cherry - cherry Zhivitsa hybrid. Self-infertile, but winter-hardy and resistant to such ailments as coccomycosis and moniliosis. For pollination I planted nearby sweet cherry varieties Iput and the Belarusian variety Sopernitsa. I hope that now I will be with a good harvest.
Last weekend I deliberately walked around my village, all flowering cherries are sheltered from the winds and grow either behind large trees or behind structures. Possibly, choosing the right place for cherries is one of the components of success in growing cherries, besides it, of course, critical temperatures in winter, proximity of groundwater and soil acidity are still important. Cherry place can be created man-made.Fatmax
New varieties, which I hope, the first flowering. Zhivitsa (duke) and Griot Belorussky. 5 flowers - 5 ovaries. Here are self-infertile ... Zhivitsa bloomed very early. It bloomed when the cherry was already blooming .. They grow far, for about 60 meters, bloomed when the cherries only threw buds. But perhaps Zhivitsa was able to pollinate from them, or they pollinated with Griot. The top of the growth in Zhivitsa is pink, unusual for cherries.Dim
Video: practical tips for growing cherries
Cherry Zhivitsa - a new variety. The main experience of its cultivation has been accumulated in Belarus, and in Central Russia it has spread a little where and only recently, so there are still few reviews in the sources about this variety. But judging by the descriptions - unpretentiousness, endurance and resistance to frost and disease, the quick return of the first crop - he has good prospects. Therefore, the one who puts him before can win. Moreover, it is planted for normal pollination along with other varieties that have already shown themselves well.