Cherish Chermashnaya - a very early yellow fruit variety
Cherry has long been considered a southern fruit, but in recent decades many varieties have been bred for cultivation in regions with a relatively cold climate. The assortment is rich: there are varieties with fruits of different colors and different ripening periods. Before most others, the fruits of the yellow cherry Chermashnaya ripen.
Chermashnaya sweet cherry is well known to gardeners: not so few years have passed since its appearance.
Origin of the variety
Chermashnaya cherry was obtained at the beginning of the current millennium at the Institute of Horticulture and Nursery (VSTISP) based on the Leningradskaya yellow variety. The authors pollinated seedlings of this cherry with a pollen mixture of varieties. As a result of the research, sweet cherries appeared with fruits similar to the parental ones, but bearing fruit much earlier.
The fruits of sweet cherry Leningrad yellow look very similar to the fruits of its descendant - Chermashnoy
Chermashnaya sweet cherry was registered in the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2004 and recommended for the Central region. The properties of the variety allow it to be grown in warmer regions, but it was in such areas as Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Vladimir and others that a zoned sweet cherry variety was needed, the fruits of which would ripen in a very early period.
Many varieties of cherries grow in the form of very tall trees, inconvenient for harvesting. Chermashnaya also can’t be called a dwarf, but her tree is of medium height, reaches a height of four, a maximum of five meters. The tree grows quickly, forms direct shoots of red-brown color, without pubescence. Crohn is characterized by medium density, in shape - round-oval. Leaves are green, medium in size, with shine.
The variety is highly resistant to bone diseases (in particular, moniliosis and coccomycosis) and pests, only slightly damaged by leaf-eating in hot seasons. It tolerates the winters characteristic of Central Russia: both frosts and possible periodic thaws. However, when the temperature drops below -20 ° C, weakened trees may partially freeze flower buds. It tolerates drought easily.
Flowering and fruiting
Fruiting begins three years after planting a two-year-old, and by the sixth year, yields reach peak values. Cherry blossoms early, before the vegetative buds open. The flowers are white, have the shape of an umbrella. Fruits ripen in the second half of June, but not all at once: extended fruiting allows you to extend the harvest for 2-3 weeks.
The first leaves unfold when the cherry already begins to fade
From an adult tree, you can collect up to 30 kg of fruit, per hectare, with industrial cultivation, up to 90 centners (the average yield is 85.2 c / ha). Basically, the fruits are on bunch branches, partly on the ends of shortened young shoots. However, normal productivity is possible only with pollinators - trees of other varieties.
The main types of pollinators
Chermashnaya is self-infertile: on a lonely standing tree only single fruits can be tied. Almost any variety blooming simultaneously with Chermashna is suitable as pollinators. The best are Fatezh, Bryansk pink, Leningrad black or Iput.
In the absence of other cherry trees, the Shokoladnitsa cherry copes well with the pollinator, other varieties of cherries can also pollinate the cherry to some extent.
The method of grafting a graft of another variety into the crown of a tree is known, which saves a place in the garden. They are especially eager to use low-land summer residents.
Chermashnoy’s fruits are of medium size: they are roundish, slightly elongated to the crown, mostly weighing 4.0–4.5 g. The color is yellow, a slight blush is possible, the flesh is the same color, sweet and sour, the juice content is high. The separation of the smooth bone from the fetus is free, the skin is thin. Tasters rate the taste of fresh fruits at 4.4 points, considering it a dessert.
Depending on the degree of maturity, the fruits have different shades of yellow
The fruits are stored for a very short time, are also not subject to transportation. Therefore, the excess crop, not consumed fresh, has to be processed. Easy separation of the stone allows you to make all kinds of cherries for the winter, but still jam from it is rarely boiled, usually processed into stewed fruit or prepared sweet cherry preserved in its own juice.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Chermashnaya cherry is appreciated for its early maturity and early ripening, dessert taste of fruits, high productivity and unpretentiousness to growing conditions. It is hardy enough and almost not affected by diseases and pests. Self-fertility (a property inherent in most varieties of cherries) and too short shelf life are noted as disadvantages: even in the refrigerator, the fruits remain usable for only a few days.
Planting Chermashnaya cherries
Cherry of this variety is mainly grown in the middle lane, characterized by a temperate continental climate with fairly cold winters and quite warm and humid summers. This, as well as the properties of the tree to withstand not too severe frosts, leaves an imprint on the features of planting cherries and caring for it.
They try to plant cherries, like other stone fruits, in spring, although autumn planting of cold-resistant varieties is possible. Autumn planting is simpler in technique, but riskier in terms of the possible freezing of seedlings that have not fully taken root. In autumn, you need to finish planting around mid-October, and for the winter, although the Chermashnaya variety is cold-resistant, you need to properly warm the seedling. However, it is still better to plant a tree in the spring.
In the spring, their difficulties: a very short time is set aside for landing. The soil should thaw and warm up slightly after winter, and sap flow in the trees should not begin. It is still possible to plant cherries with slightly swollen buds, but with blossoming buds it is dangerous. Therefore, there is only a week and a half for landing, depending on the region and current weather, in the second half of April or the first days of May. If everything is done correctly, over the summer the sapling will develop roots, increase the aerial part and will tolerate the first winter well.
Site selection and preparation
Any kind of sweet cherry fruit best in sunny areas not covered by tall trees or walls of houses. However, they also don’t like cold winds, especially northerly, so small buildings or low fences nearby will be a plus. It is optimal to plant cherries on the gentle southern slopes, but not in the lowlands where water stagnation is possible: it is harmful to the roots of cherries. If, nevertheless, the groundwater is closer than one and a half meters from the surface, you can pour a small artificial mound.
In industrial gardening, cherry orchards are broken open
The best soil is neutral loam or sandy loam, well fertilized and loose. Sand, peat bogs and clay are not suitable, acidic soils are also unsuitable (with a pH below 6.5). Clay soils can be preliminarily corrected by adding sand and humus, and, on the contrary, some clay is added to sandy soils when digging. Acidic soils long before planting lime.
The Chermashny tree, although of medium size, is still rather big, so the distance to neighboring trees or buildings should be at least 3 meters. At least one of the neighboring trees should be a pollinator for cherries: at the same time a flowering cherry tree of another variety or, in extreme cases, cherries.
They do not really like the cherry and apple tree neighborhood with each other, away you need to plant it from walnut and apricot.
In any case, uncultivated soils before preparing the planting pit must be dug deep, removing stones, rhizomes of weeds and other garbage. When digging, it is worth making a bucket of humus per square meter, but if there is time, it is better to plant green manure in advance. Such herbs as lupine, vetch, oats, peas, and some others, improve the soil and enrich it, you just need to mow them and bury them before flowering.
It is almost impossible to dig a hole in the spring, so for spring planting it is prepared in the fall. For Chermashnaya cherries, it is recommended to dig a large hole: with a diameter of 0.9–1.0 m, a depth of at least 70 cm. As always, the lower, useless layer is thrown away, and the upper one is put in a separate pile, and then, after thorough mixing with fertilizers, they are returned back. But if the soil is heavy, a drainage layer should be put at the bottom of the pit - at least 10-12 cm of gravel or gravel.
They dig a rather large hole for Chermashnaya; drainage is laid at the bottom
The main fertilizers for the planting pit are 2-3 buckets of humus and 2 liters of wood ash. But on poor soils, 100–150 g of superphosphate is also added, although mineral fertilizers for cherries are usually added in top dressing. You can immediately drive a strong landing stake in the center of the pit. It should protrude 80–90 cm above the ground. If the soil is dry, a couple of buckets of water are poured into the pit and left until spring.
It is best to plant a two-year-old. One-year-olds take root no worse, but the harvest will have to wait a year longer. Three-year-olds are already too big, with them there are more problems landing. On the roots there should be no swelling and significant damage (slightly broken off or dried tips should be cut to a healthy place). The length of the roots is optimally about 30 cm, in the three main areas there should be many small, absorbent ones.
The straighter the stem, the better, there should be no damage to the cortex. If a two-year-old is bought, it should have 3-4 lateral branches: well-developed, not shorter than 30 cm. “Experienced” is advised to buy seedlings in the fall, and drop them in the garden for the winter. This, of course, is unnecessary trouble, so if there is a reliable nursery that you can trust, it is better to make a purchase in the spring, right before planting.
Planting Chermashnaya cherries is performed in the traditional way, like most fruit trees.
- Having brought a sapling to the site, put it in the water for several hours, and before planting, dip the roots into an earthenware mash.
Clay and mullein chatter facilitates the planting of seedlings
- They take out part of the soil from the pit and plant a seedling so that its roots are placed without tension, and the root neck is located 7–8 cm above ground level.
If a seedling is planted with a closed root system, then after carefully removing it from the container, it is planted to the same depth as before: the root neck is not buried
- Gradually fill the roots with the excavated soil, evenly distributing it between the roots without air pockets and slightly compacting. Tie the trunk to the landing stake.
The seedlings are tied with the “eight” at such a height so as not to injure the skeletal branches
- Water the seedling, spending 2-3 buckets of water, and form sides around the pit for subsequent watering.
Water may be needed even more: watered while it is quickly absorbed
- Mulch the soil around the seedling with a layer of 3-4 cm, using humus, sawdust or peat.
When mulching, do not fall asleep
After all operations, the root neck will lower slightly, but it should barely be visible from under the ground; over time, everything will return to normal.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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At first, the seedling is often watered, not allowing the soil to dry out. But after it takes root well and resumes growth, care for Chermashnaya cherries will practically not differ from care for cherries of other varieties of similar zoning.
Cherry is watered quite often, but the variety in question is quite drought-resistant, so if you tighten it a little with watering, nothing bad will happen. On average, cherries are watered, depending on the weather, once or twice a month, this is especially important in the first half of the growing season. If in normal times 7–8 buckets of water are spent on an adult tree, then during the period of fruit loading, in the absence of rain, the norm can double even. It is important to wet the soil at least half a meter.
Typically, cherry trees are kept under black steam, and Chermashnaya is no exception. So, some time after watering or heavy rain, the soil in the near-stem circle is slightly loosened, while destroying weeds. Watering is stopped 2-3 weeks before the fruit ripens, less watering is done in the fall, when the tree should prepare for winter. But just before the onset of frost, if the autumn is dry, be sure to conduct winter watering.
For the first 2-3 years, the seedling will have enough of the fertilizers that were introduced into the planting pit. Then Chermashnoy is fed. Cherry in top dressing give mainly mineral fertilizers; humus is enough to bring in as mulch or to cover the roots for the winter. Young trees need enhanced growth, so in the spring they add 20 g / m2 of urea: in dry form for digging or dissolving in water and pouring the solution under the tree after watering.
Urea is the first organic substance artificially obtained from inorganic matter: it is completely safe for plants even with a slight excess
When cherries enter fruiting, spring doses of urea are reduced 1.5–2 times, but other nutrients are added. After harvesting, under an adult tree, 200–300 g of superphosphate and 80–100 g of potassium sulfate are buried (by continuous digging or in 6–8 shallow pits). In the late autumn, a liter can of wood ash is introduced. For winter, 3-4 buckets of humus are scattered in the near-stem circle, which they close up in the soil already during spring cultivation.
Once in several years, the acidity of the soil is adjusted, but caution is needed in this matter. The optimum hydrogen index for the Chermashnaya variety is from 6.7 to 7.2. Anything below 6.5 and above 7.5 is bad. If the pH rises strongly (this is rare), make peat. More often, the soil, on the contrary, slightly acidifies over time due to the fertilizers applied, so you have to add hydrated lime or chalk up to 500 g per tree.
Like all stone fruit, Chermashnaya cherries gratefully accepts qualified pruning, but can be severely damaged by improper pruning. In any case, pruning should be done in early spring, and wounds must be covered with garden varieties. During the growing season, you can remove only a few damaged branches. The first few years, pruning is aimed at creating a convenient crown, and then becomes sanitary: Chermashnaya is not prone to excessive thickening and does not require significant thinning.
Chermashnaya grows quickly from the first year after planting, so you can’t skip pruning even once. Perform the following procedures.
- Immediately after the spring planting of a two-year-old seedling, a stem is formed. Everything that has grown below 50-60 cm is removed. Choose 3-4 best lateral branches, well located, and shorten them by half. The conductor is shortened so that it is 15–20 cm higher than the upper branches. The remaining branches are removed.
- After a year, 2-3 are selected from the newly grown lateral shoots located half a meter higher than last year, they are slightly cut, the rest are removed. If necessary, the conductor is again shortened similarly to the first pruning.
- In the third year, the conductor is cut out, transferring the growth of the tree to the upper lateral branch: in this way they struggle with the excessive height of the plant.
For 3-4 years, the crown is fully formed, convenient for care
At the fruiting tree, only dried and broken branches are cut, as well as those that grow in an undesirable direction or rub against neighboring ones.
Chermashnaya cherries are stored for a very short time, so they must be collected on time. Choose the moment when the cherry is fully ripe, but the stalk is still green. Harvesting is carried out in dry weather, trying to pick the fruits along with the stalks, but without breaking the twigs. It is best to use scissors. Fruits are placed in low boxes with a capacity of not more than 5 kg, avoiding getting rotted specimens.
Video: fruiting cherry Chermashnaya
Chermashnaya is a relatively cold-resistant variety, but we must remember that this is still not an apple tree: cherries have never been a crop intended for cultivation in harsh climates. Therefore, after winter irrigation, carried out after the autumn digging of the soil, the near-stem circle must be mulched with humus or straw, and the stem and base of the skeletal branches should be whitened with a composition consisting of 2 kg of lime, 300 g of copper sulfate and a bucket of water. The trunk must be protected from rodents, tied with coniferous spruce branches or agrofibre; This is especially important for young trees. With snow falling it is thrown under the trees and slightly trampled.
Young trees for the winter, if possible, "pack" almost completely
Diseases and pests, the fight against them
Chermashnaya sweet cherry is highly resistant to moniliosis (fruit rot) and coccomycosis, one of the most dangerous fungal diseases. Other diseases she has infrequently, but are found.
Kleasterosporiasis is first manifested by brownish spots on the leaves, which subsequently turn into holes. The disease also spreads to shoots that can dry out. In the spring, before the tree wakes up, it is treated with a 3% Bordeaux mixture (if the buds began to bloom - 1%). In summer, they use the preparations Skor or Chorus according to the instructions for them.
With kleasterosporiosis leaves are spotty and full of holes
With cytosporosis, dark spots form on the cortex, turning into cracks, from which gum is released. This can be observed already during the flowering period: the leaves begin to fall off, and the branches dry out. Affected fragments should be immediately cut out and burned, treating the wounds with a 1% solution of copper sulfate. A diseased tree is sprayed in spring and autumn with a Bordeaux mixture, and in the summer with a 4% solution of copper oxychloride.
Of the pests, the leafwort, cherry fly and aphids are more common than others. Aphid harms young shoots and leaves, sucking juices out of them. The larvae of the cherry fly damage the fruit. The caterpillars of the leafworm infect the buds and buds, after which they crawl onto the leaves, capturing the fruits.
Black aphid more often than others
If you can fight aphids with folk remedies (ash-soap solution, onion husk infusion, etc.), and with a fly - using baits like cans with compote, things are more complicated with a leaflet. It is necessary to use insecticides against it, and Chermashnaya is a very early variety, and the period when the chemicals are applicable is very short: most of them have a long duration of action, and the fruit should not be consumed for 2-3 weeks after spraying.
Plot in Klushino, just between Moscow and Zelenograd. On the southern slope of 4 cherries, about 8 years old. Chermashnaya and some others, Revna, Ovstuzhenka .... They bear fruit for a long time, last year it was especially plentiful, everyone was full, too lazy to pick it off, it was about to cook jam, but the birds ate it. Chermashnaya is especially good precisely in that it is yellow, and the birds think that they are immature and do not peck. By the way, the birds love cherries very much and literally in a day they can peck everything if they don’t take measures (net, stuffed animal, pinwheel).
Today it has become completely clear that the flower buds of the cherries of the Veda and Chermash varieties could not stand the current frost in -30 s. It's good that at least in some places the growths are alive.
I have two cherries: Chermashnaya and Leningradskaya. This year was the first crop. A little, but still nice. I’m treating Chermashny for frost potholes, but for some reason the Leningradskaya’s fruit is small but tasty. They ate racing with the birds.
... Moscow Region was DELICIOUS !!! Varieties were Iput, Chermashnaya, Bryansk pink and still forgot. Harvest - branches broke off.
Chermashnaya sweet cherry is a good choice for lovers of very early fruits living in Central Russia. It bears fruit with delicious fruits, yields high yields, and ripening is stretched over time, which allows you to enjoy vitamin products for 2-3 weeks.