Bryansk pink: late ripe sweet cherry for the middle lane
Sweet cherries are always good: despite the fact that it is considered one of the early fruits, its taste is never boring, and therefore late varieties are in demand. One of them, created specifically for the middle band, is Bryanskaya pink. This variety due to its unpretentiousness has gained great popularity among amateur gardeners.
Description of sweet cherry Bryansk pink
Gone are the days when sweet cherry in the middle lane of our country was considered an exotic fruit. For several decades, both very early and, conversely, late varieties of this favorite treat have been grown here.
Origin, growing region
When you hear that cherries have been bred at the Lupine Institute, you are a little surprised at first. But it was there, in the All-Russian Research Institute of Lupine, which is located in the city of Bryansk, that not only several wonderful varieties of this fruit were born, but also new cherries, currants ... In the fruit growing department, selection work has long been conducted in the field of fruit trees and berry bushes.
Sweet cherry Bryanskaya pink was bred on the basis of the Muscat black variety by the staff of the institute M.V. Kanshina and A.I. Astakhov about 30 years ago. The variety was sent to state tests in 1987, and since 1993 it received an official place in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation. Recommended for the Central region and, in particular, the Bryansk region.
The climate of the Bryansk region is relatively mild, similar to that in the south of the Moscow Region, in other areas of the south of Central Russia. Approximately the same weather in the north of Ukraine and the south of Belarus. In all these areas, Bryanskaya pink feels great and is popular with gardeners.
Bryanskaya pink cherry tree of medium height (no more than 3 meters), has a broad-pyramidal crown, medium thickening. Shoots are smooth, almost without bends, brown. Branches of the 1st order are directed upward at small angles. The leaves are large, with a usual green color. Cold resistance is very high. This applies to both the tree itself, which hardly freezes during severe frosts, and flowering buds that can withstand small frosts, often during the flowering period.
Bryansk pink grows with a sparsely populated tree, which helps to air the crown and reduces the risk of fungal diseases
The variety normally tolerates prolonged drought, which, fortunately, is not very often observed in Central Russia. It is characterized by increased resistance to most fungal diseases and fruit rot, but requires protection from a complex of pests: cherry flies, aphids and leafworms . It forms fruits both on bouquet branches and on young shoots.
The timing of flowering and fruiting
Sweet cherry Bryansk pink is considered a variety of very late ripening. It blooms, starting in mid-May, for the first time - in the fifth year after planting a seedling. In the inflorescence usually 3 rather small pure white saucer-shaped flowers. The variety is self-fertile: without the presence of pollinators planted nearby, only single fruits are formed on the tree.
The optimal distance to the neighboring cherry trees is about 4 meters, it can be almost any varieties bred in the Bryansk region, for example, Tyutchevka, Ovstuzhenka, Iput.
The fruits ripen not earlier than the last days of July; mass harvesting takes place in August. Average productivity: about 20 kg of fruits are harvested from an adult tree, the registered maximum is 30 kg . To increase the shelf life of the fruits, they are removed with the stalks, which are of medium length, detached from the twigs and pulp easily, without loss of juice. If the cherry is not overripe, it can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 10-15 days.
The sweet cherry fruits of this variety are rounded, with a diameter of about 2 cm, weighing about 5 g. The skin is dense, has a pink color in various shades, specks are present. The pulp is juicy, light yellow in color. The juice is practically not colored. The bone is small, it is not quite easy to separate from the pulp. The taste is sweet, it is considered good, tasters give fresh fruits a rating of 4.1 points.
The color of the fruit, of course, is “for everybody, ” but they look quite original
Fruits on branches in normal weather do not crack, have good transportability. The purpose of the fruits is universal: they are good both in fresh form and for various processing options: for jam, compotes, juice preparation. They tolerate freezing well.
Advantages and disadvantages
For almost three decades of its existence, the variety managed to clearly show its positive and negative sides; in general, it is characterized very highly. Among the main advantages, experts and amateurs call:
- compact tree;
- resistance to adverse conditions, ease of care;
- lack of cracking of fruits and their good transportability;
- high pain tolerance;
- good taste of the fruit.
As disadvantages are most often noted:
- the need for planting pollinators;
- not large enough fruits;
- presence, in certain seasons, in a bitterish taste.
Planting sweet cherry varieties Bryanskaya pink
When planting cherries of the Bryanskaya pink variety, its varietal features, in particular, late fruiting, should be taken into account. Therefore, it is necessary to choose such areas where in the second half of summer the illumination will not decrease due to the presence of any plants shading the cherry. Otherwise, the planting of this cherry has no significant differences from other varieties.
As you know, stone fruits are generally not advised to be planted in autumn, at least this applies to the middle lane. True, lately seedlings are often sold in containers (with a closed root system); it is believed that they can be planted at almost any time. Nevertheless, in the case of cherries, it is better not to risk such seedlings: the tree should meet the onset of winter, having already fully mastered in a new place.
Therefore, regarding the timing of planting, one can say for sure: Bryansk pink should be planted only in the spring. The exact time depends on the weather: the soil on the site should thaw completely, serious frosts should be avoided, but the buds on the seedling should be at rest or, at most, only swell. Most often in the Central region this situation develops in the first half of April. But, of course, all the preparatory work should be carried out in the fall. If you had to buy a seedling in the fall, it should be properly buried in the garden until spring.
When choosing a place for planting cherries, it should be borne in mind that the fruits can fully reveal their bouquet only in full sunlight. Therefore, tall trees or a huge house should not grow nearby. But small fences or small buildings are good, since the second requirement for location is protection from the winds, especially from the north.
The best option for a landing site is a gentle southern slope, in no case a lowland or a marshland. If there is no way out, and the groundwater passes close, you can build an artificial hill - a hill up to 50–70 cm high. The optimal soil for sweet cherry is neutral sandy loam or loam with good breathability and high nutrient content. They leave about 3 meters to the neighboring trees, with mass planting between the rows make wide aisles - up to 5 meters.
So that the trees are well lit by the sun, they try to plant them freely and in the open
Since the pit must be prepared in advance (so that biological equilibrium can be established in it), and it is impossible to work with the earth in early spring, it is dug in the autumn. Even earlier, if necessary, they dig the entire site: this is done if it is overgrown with weeds, overgrowth of trees and shrubs, etc. All rhizomes must be carefully removed, and the infertile soil is simultaneously fertilized: when digging, a humus bucket of 1 m2.
The depth of the pit for sweet cherry Bryanskaya pink is 50–60 cm, length and width are 70–80 cm. The lower layer (20–25 cm) is discarded, and the upper, fertile, mix well with fertilizers and return back. As fertilizers, they take up to 2 buckets of humus, a couple of liters of wood ash, and about 100 g of superphosphate on poor soils. In the case of clay soil, it is ennobled if possible: add a little sand, peat, and dig a hole deeper and arrange a drainage layer at the bottom (10-15 cm of crushed stone or broken brick).
Typically, clay is in the lower tiers, so it is immediately piled in a separate pile, so that later it can be removed from the site
You can drive a landing stake up to one meter high above the ground, or you can wait until spring. Watering the contents of the pit for the winter is not necessary, but if the autumn is very dry, you can pour a couple of buckets of water so that the nutrients more likely pass into the soil, and microorganisms, without delay, set to work.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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When buying a seedling, it is better to choose a two-year-old and carefully look at the condition of the roots so that they are developed and not overdried. Arriving with him in the spring on the site, proceed as follows.
- If there is damage to the roots, they are cut to a healthy place, after which the seedling is put in water for several hours. If there is no large capacity, it is necessary to soak at least the roots, and before planting, they are dipped in clay mash.
Clay talker - a wonderful invention that allows seedlings to take root more quickly
- Having taken out a part of the soil from the pit, put a seedling in it so that the roots fit freely and without stress. Distribute them evenly on the surface, previously, if not done earlier, driving a stake for the garter. Raise or lower the seedling so that the root neck protrudes to the surface by several centimeters.
When planting, it is important to monitor the root neck so that at the end of the procedure it does not turn out to be covered with soil
- Gradually soil is poured into a hole in the pit so that it is evenly distributed between the roots, without forming voids. Periodically, the soil is compacted with the hand, and at the end of the procedure - with the foot. Loosely but firmly tie the barrel to the stake with a soft rope.
When tying, it’s best to use the “eight” technique
- 2–3 buckets of water are poured under the seedling, after which they restore the surface by adding soil and form a roller along the edges of the planting pit.
If water is absorbed quickly, its quantity must be increased.
- The trunk circle is mulched with peat, humus or dry earth with a layer of 4-5 cm.
When mulching the trunk circle, you need to step back a little from the stem
- If the seedling is large, carry out the first pruning: with a total height of up to 1 meter, the side branches should not be longer than 50 cm.
Even one year olds are recommended to be slightly shortened during planting, and over the next few years pruning is important
After the seedling has taken root, caring for it is practically no different from caring for trees of cherries of other varieties: it is even, perhaps, simpler than in most cases. So, any sweet cherry requires systematic watering, but Bryansk pink has increased drought tolerance, so temporary drying of the soil in the near-stem circle is not very scary for it. In general, moderate watering is required for trees constantly, especially in the first half of summer.
Usually, in normal weather, a monthly watering of 6–7 buckets of water per tree is sufficient, but in a drought, watering may also be required weekly, especially during fruit loading. Watering is reduced 2-3 weeks before harvesting, rarely watered in the fall, when excessive humidity can prevent the tree from preparing for winter. But a generous wintering winter watering is necessary.
A few years after planting, the tree is dispensed with fertilizers introduced into the pit, and then it needs to be fed.
Usually, organics do not give cherries, they mainly use mineral fertilizers.
So, in early spring, to stimulate the growth of young shoots in the near-stem circle, 100-120 g (for adult trees up to 200 g) of urea are scattered, shallowly planting it in the soil. After harvesting, the cherry is also fertilized with phosphorus (200-300 g of superphosphate) and potassium (50-100 g of any potash fertilizer) in the same way. After top dressing, if the weather is dry, they must be watered, and then the soil is loosened with the removal of weeds.
Cut the cherries very carefully. If in the first few years, pruning performs the functions of forming a crown, then after entering fruiting only sanitary procedures are performed (broken and dried branches are cut). Since the variety is not prone to thickening the crown, lightening pruning is usually not required, but if intersecting branches rubbing inward grow inside, this situation is corrected by cutting into a ring or shortening one of them. After trimming, even the smallest wounds are covered with garden varnish.
Since Bryanskaya pink is not afraid of ordinary frosts, preparing a tree for winter is not difficult. After leaf fall, foliage is raked (it is burned or sent to a compost pit), and the trunk circle is dug up shallowly and mulched with a thin layer of any loose material. Before the onset of frost, the cherry is well watered and the trunk and bases of the main branches are whitened, thus protecting them from sunburn in February and March. It is advisable to protect the trunk from hares by tying it with coniferous spruce branches or ruberoid (in young trees - with nylon tights). As the snow falls, it is thrown into the trunk circle.
Whitewashing of trees should be carried out just before winter: from spring whitewashing to sense - only beauty
Diseases and pests, protection against them
The Bryanskaya pink variety is characterized by high resistance to coccomycosis, the most dangerous fungal disease. Other diseases to one degree or another can threaten the plant. The most common are moniliosis and kleasterosporiosis.
With moniliosis, the shoots first darken, then wither, and grayish growths form on the fruits, spreading at high speed. Both prevention and treatment are carried out by spraying with 1% Bordeaux liquid (before flowering and after it, and if a disease is detected - immediately). Heavily affected branches are cut out and burned. With kleasterosporiosis, brownish spots first form on the leaves, and then small holes form in their place. In spring, this disease is also treated with a Bordeaux mixture (3% can be used before buds open), and in summer other drugs are used: usually Skor or Horus, according to the instructions on the package.
Moniliosis (fruit rot) - a disease in which not only the crop dies, but also the trees suffer
The most typical pests of sweet cherry Bryanskaya pink:
- leaflet (caterpillars first harm buds and buds, and then pass on to leaves and fruits);
- cherry fly (white larvae spoil the fruits that crumble and rot);
- cherry aphid (sucks juices from young leaves and shoots).
It is not difficult to fight aphids while it is not enough. She is afraid of soap solution, infusions of ash, tansy, onion scales, etc. Cherry fly can be destroyed with the help of baits (cans with kvass or compote). But with a significant number of any pests, it is difficult to do without chemical insecticides.
Cherry fly is that insect, because of the larvae of which the fruits are “wormy”
Since Bryanskaya pink ripens very late, the use of chemicals until the end of June is often justified, but we must choose the most harmless to humans. However, gardeners often use Fufanon or Actellik, which belong to the 3rd and 2nd hazard classes, respectively, even without the use of personal protective equipment. This is strictly forbidden: wear a respirator and protective clothing and observe basic safety precautions. And before buying a drug, you should study the instructions in detail, including recommendations on how many days before harvesting you can apply it.
We have ripened Bryanskaya Pink. Quite an interesting taste, the balance of sugar acid and astringency. Birds do not really touch this cherry because of the color. Winter hardiness in my conditions is absolute. Productivity is average. But unfortunately the variety is not European (in my opinion! But you need to strive for this!
With resistance to fungal diseases have to be built. This year, the only one caught moniliosis, due to overdue Horus. It is possible that this is a feature of a particular tree, and not of the variety as a whole, which, for example, was damaged due to the cold and wet season. But let my message hang like a reminder that you should look at the expiration dates of drugs even when we buy them in large chain stores. In the rest, I am satisfied with the variety, since without sores the tree was the most prolific.
The pink fruit is smaller than that of ordinary cherries. Glossy like wax smeared. The taste is not bright, and I would even say that it is barely perceptible, but I really like cherries so that I did not have time to look around when the bones were on the plate ...
Cherry Bryanskaya pink ripen very late when there are already other fruits in the garden. Nevertheless, it is often found in amateur gardens due to its unpretentiousness in growing and good taste of fruits. The variety, known for a long time, found its fans in the Central region and regions with a similar climate.