Blackcurrant Selechenskaya - large-fruited variety with excellent taste
Black currants are planted everywhere. It is used not only as a garden plant, but also as a hedge. Among the many varieties Selechenskaya stands out. It has many advantages, among which - high frost resistance, which allows you to grow a plant in regions with cold winters. The taste of currants is also pleasing, the berries are sweet and fragrant. To get stably high yields every year, you need to follow the simple rules of care.
History and description of the variety
Among the breeders of the world working with blackcurrant, perhaps the most famous was our scientist A.I. Astakhov. His achievements in creating new varieties of culture remain unsurpassed. The authorship of this breeder belongs to the famous variety of black currant Selechenskaya.
Black currant Selechenskaya - famous A.I. Astakhova
When creating the Selechenskaya variety, the Seedling Golubki and line 32–77 of the famous Scandinavian variety Bredthorpe were taken as a basis. Having successfully passed the variety tests, Selechenskaya has been included in the State Register since 1993.
Selechenskaya black currant is grown not only in the favorable climate of the Central, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga regions of Russia. More severe areas - West Siberian and East Siberian regions - are also suitable for successful cultivation of varieties.
Currently, gardeners have received another wonderful gift from breeders - an improved analogue of Selechenskaya. The novelty is called Selechenskaya-2 and is one of the promising early ripe varieties in which the best qualities of the predecessor are preserved and improved.
Selechenskaya is a medium-sized bush, the height of which does not exceed 1.5 m. The plant is slightly spreading, shoots mainly grow straight, garter does not require. Young green twigs have a glossy and undescended surface. Adult shoots lignify, thicken and slightly bend. The bark changes color to beige gray and becomes dull. Large buds grow, deviating from the shoot.
Blackcurrant bushes Selechenskaya medium-sized and upright, therefore, do not need a garter
The leaf is five-lobed, medium in size, the plate is leathery, convex, wrinkled, with a matte surface, the edges are covered with notches, the tips of the blades are blunt. The leaf mass is very thick. Berry brush of medium length and density, has from 8 to 12 fruits. The axis of the brush may be slightly curved, but more often it is straight.
Selechenskaya berries are large - 1.7–3.3 g. Rounded fruits are covered with medium-thick shiny black skin. The taste is excellent, refreshing, with a predominance of sweets. Assessment of tasters - 4.7 points out of 5.
Currant Selechenskaya pleases with large berries
Black currant Selechenskaya blooms in mid-May. A feature of the variety is its resistance to late spring frosts. Harvest ripens by the end of the first decade of July. Berries are poured together. But the fruits of the Selechenskaya are not prone to shedding, so you can harvest several times, especially since the taste of the berries does not deteriorate. The separation from the stalk is dry, due to which the juice does not flow from the fruits, the form remains the same.
The variety is famous for its productivity. From one hectare of industrial plantings, 99 centners of the crop are removed. If you translate into modest hundreds of personal plots, then this is about 3 kg from one bush.
From one bush of black currant Selechenskaya you can collect 3 kg of berries
Advantages and disadvantages
One of the advantages of Selechenskaya black currant is its ability to endure the vagaries of climate. The variety is not afraid of frosts, return frosts, it can withstand elevated temperatures and short periods of drought. Immunity is good. It resists powdery mildew.
Table: merits and demerits of a grade
|High winter hardiness (up to -320С).||In the wet period, it can be affected by anthracnosis.|
|The ability to withstand high temperatures.||If the care methods are not followed, the berry may fade.|
|Good powdery mildew resistance.|
|Stably high yields.||Medium resistance to anthracnose and kidney mites.|
|Large berries with excellent taste.|
|Berries do not crumble.|
|The fruits are outwardly attractive and have high commercial qualities.|
When planting black currant Selechenskaya, you need to follow the same rules as when planting other varieties. In order for the seedling to take root and develop into a healthy bush, it is important to do all the stages of work in a timely manner.
Black currants are usually recommended to be planted in spring or autumn. But for Selechenskaya, an autumn landing is still preferable, which must be carried out in late September or early October.
Against the spring planting, the fact that the black currant buds quickly wake up speaks, and it is not always possible to plant a young plant in time to plant.
Autumn is more suitable for planting the Selechen currant
When choosing planting material, first of all pay attention to the root system. Only well-developed and healthy roots, consisting of 3-5 basic, covered with a thin mesh of auxiliary, will give a strong bush in the future.
The age of the seedling also matters. Young plants of 1-2 years show the best survival rate. Their aerial part can consist of 1 or 2 shoots with a height of at least 30 cm. The bark and roots must be elastic, without damage.
A healthy and developed root system of a seedling is the key to a strong bush
Currant Selechenskaya extremely selective for soil. She loves fertile, well-aerated lands that do not impede the flow of moisture to the roots. Loam and sandstone have such qualities.
Of no small importance is the acidity of the soil - it must be neutral or slightly acidic. To deoxidize the soil, you need to make 400-500 g of dolomite flour for digging for every 1 m2.
Waterlogged lowland areas with saline or acidic soil are absolutely unsuitable for planting the Selechenskaya. Currants growing under such conditions will hurt, produce small yields and age quickly. On sandy soils without the introduction of large doses of nutrients, Selechenskaya will also grow poorly.
To currant pleased with large and sweet berries, you need to choose a sunny place for planting, but preferably with a slight shadow in the afternoon. It is not worthwhile to plant a bush in a thick shadow - it will stretch, weaken, the quality of the fruit will decrease. The platform for planting black currants should be flat, without cavities and elevations. It will be useful to protect against the north wind in the form of a fence, a building or a decorative hedge.
Groundwater should pass at a distance of 1–1.5 m from the soil surface.
For planting black currants, even areas protected from the north wind are suitable
Site preparation and landing pit
Since the plant lives in one place for a long life and requires a high content of nutrients in the soil, you need to prepare the site in advance. A good option would be row crops or perennial grasses that saturate the soil with nutrients.
It will be nice to hold the area under the black steam, digging the soil to the depth of the shovel - this will allow the earth to rest.
They dig a landing pit for spring planting in the fall, and for the fall one month before the intended date, so that the land can settle.
- The site is leveled and cleaned of plant debris.
- They outline the dimensions of the future pit and dig a recess 40 cm deep and 40-50 cm wide.
- The upper fertile soil layer, deposited during digging, is mixed with 4–5 kg of rotted manure or humus, 150 g of superphosphate, 200 g of wood ash and 30 g of potassium sulfate. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and laid in a pit. To nutrients evenly dissolve in the soil - pour up to 3 buckets of water from above.
- Given the not too large growth and spreading of the bushes of the Selechenskaya currant, the distance between plants should be up to 1 m. The aisles are made slightly wider - 1.5 m.
To plant black currant, the Selechenskaya pit needs to be dug up and fertilized in advance
Step-by-step landing process
- Remove some soil from the prepared pit. Collect the rest with a slide at the bottom.
- Lower the seedling into the recess, spread the roots along the sides of the embankment.
- Unlike other plants, the black currant root neck needs to be deepened by 10 cm, and the seedling itself should be placed under a slight slope. Such planting will help blackcurrant to quickly form a lush bush.
To form a lush bush, Selechenskaya is planted at an angle, having deepened the root neck by 10 cm
- Having fallen asleep the roots of the seedling with the remaining soil mixture and having slightly tamped it, pour 3-4 bushes of water into the bush.
- After absorbing moisture, the soil around the bush must be covered with dried grass or simply sprinkled with dry earth to prevent the formation of crust and rapid loss of moisture.
The variety is demanding on the implementation of agricultural practices. In order for the black currant Selechenskaya to bring annual harvests, you need to apply standard care rules, the same as for other varieties, except for some nuances.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Like most blackcurrant varieties, Selechenskaya loves moderately moist soil. This condition can only be achieved by timely plentiful irrigation. But at the same time, it should be remembered that waterlogging will not turn out anything good.
When planning a watering schedule, be sure to consider precipitation.
Mandatory irrigation is carried out in the following periods:
- shoot growth and ovary formation;
- during the period of filling berries;
- after harvesting;
- winter, if autumn is stingy with rainfall.
Inadequate watering will result in stunted growth of the shoots, chopping of the fruit and loss of taste. For moisture to be of high quality, water must penetrate the soil to a depth of at least 40 cm. Up to 5 buckets will have to be spent on one bush. To prevent moisture from spreading over the surface, annular grooves should be made around the bush at a distance of 30–40 cm from the end of the branches (10 cm deep).
To water the currant you need to make ring grooves
The day after watering or rain, you need to lightly loosen the soil cover. Such a simple procedure will bring many benefits. Destroying the formed crust, you help establish air-water circulation in the soil, which has a beneficial effect on the development of the plant. In addition, loosening inhibits the growth of weed grass.
Do not forget to mulch the earth under the bush. Dry grass or humus will not only serve as additional nutrition, but also help maintain moisture in the soil.
To avoid moisture loss, after watering, mulch the currant bush
After planting, subject to the introduction of the necessary substances into the planting pit, currants are not fertilized for 2 years. At this time, you can use organics as a mulch, introducing humus or manure under each bush in the spring and autumn in a bucket.
Starting from the 3rd year after planting, during the season, nutrients are applied three times. Selechenskaya responds equally well to organic and mineral fertilizers. For each type of feeding there is a period and method of application.
- In early spring, so that the plant wakes up and quickly starts to grow, under shallow digging add up to 45 g of urea under a young bush and 25-30 g - under an adult. After that, the earth is watered and mulched with organic matter.
- In the summer, it is very useful to water the soil under the bush with a solution of chicken droppings (diluted with water in a proportion of 1:10) after wetting. 10 l of the mixture is enough for one plant.
- Autumn top dressing contains potassium sulfate (15–20 g) and superphosphate (40–50 g). Instead of mineral fertilizers, you can use wood ash (200-400 g). Fertilizers are planted 10-15 cm deep into the ground, after which the soil around the bush is covered with humus or manure (6-7 kg).
The first 4 years since the planting of Selechenskaya are extremely important in terms of the formation of the bush and maintaining its productivity.
- In the spring, until the buds open, the young seedlings cut the shoots to half the length or even 2/3.
- In the 2nd year, the base of the bush is formed, that is, 4–5 strong shoots are laid. The rest are deleted. To help the seedling grow young fruit twigs and new shoots, pinching the tops of skeletal branches is carried out in the middle of summer.
- On the 3rd and 4th year, the procedure is repeated. Last year's branches are pinched on 2 buds. Of the overgrown young shoots, 3-5 of the strongest are left, the rest are cut out.
- In the 5th year, the formation of the bush is considered complete if it has at least 4 main shoots of each age.
Forming pruning of Selechenskaya is carried out in the first 4 years after planting
All branches older than 6 years old are cut near the ground. This is necessary to rejuvenate the bush. In the future, you need to thin out the plant, removing weak, crooked shoots, in which there are practically no fruiting buds.
When thinning pruning, leave no more than 4 strong shoots of zero age. The distance between them should be at least 10-15 cm.
Shelter for the winter
Black currant Selechenskaya is a frost-resistant culture. Strong and healthy plants withstand frosts below -300С, therefore they do not need additional shelters. But some measures need to be taken.
- Be sure to carry out a series of preparatory measures before the start of winter: they remove the foliage, apply fertilizers, dig the soil, water it (if the autumn is dry).
- The branches of the bushes are tied together so that they are not broken by strong gusts of wind.
- The root area is covered with a layer of mulch (manure, humus, peat, sawdust).
- After snowfall, a snowdrift is poured into the basal area. This natural protection perfectly protects currants from frost.
Young seedlings or weakened plants need additional protection. Before the onset of frost, the bushes are wrapped with breathable non-woven material.
For seedlings Selechenskaya need to make a shelter before the onset of frost
Video: blackcurrant care
Diseases and Pests
The immunity of black currant Selechenskaya with improper care can fail. Weakened plants are exposed to disease and pest attacks. To minimize damage, it is important to carry out preventive measures in time.
Table: How to Recognize and Cure Diseases
|Anthracnose||The development of fungal disease contributes to high air temperature and dampness. Small brown spots appear on the affected leaves. Gradually, they merge into one, the sheet plate dries, curling up. By mid-summer, most of the currant leaves fall. The growth of shoots stops. The plant weakens, winter hardiness decreases.|
|Septoria||This disease is also called white spotting. First, brown spots appear on the leaves, which then turn white. Around them a dark edging is formed. Affected leaves crumble ahead of time, the bush stops growing.|
|Rust||There are two varieties of the disease - stalk and goblet. The second is considered the most common. On the leaves on the back side, sometimes on the flowers and the ovary, orange-like formations appear on the pads. A massive defeat of the disease leads to the fall of leaves and fruits.||Before flowering, currants are treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper sulphate.|
Photo Gallery: Signs of Currant Disease
- Infected with anthracnose currant leaves fall ahead of time
- Leaves of a Septoria infected plant become stained
- Rust leads to falling leaves and fruits of currant
Table: how to recognize and neutralize pests
|Pests||How do they manifest||Control measures||Prevention|
|Kidney tick||Tick infection causes deformation of the kidney, an increase in its size. Shoots from such buds grow weak, not yielding crops. The leaves are small, pale in color. Infection with a kidney tick leads to a significant decrease in productivity.|
|Glassmaker||Having discovered damaged areas of the cortex, an adult lays eggs there. The grown caterpillars easily penetrate deep into the shoot, where they remain for the winter. In the first year of the defeat, no critical changes can be noticed. In the second spring, the shoots are covered with small leaves prone to wilting. The larva that has wintered inside the shoot turns its core into dust. As a result, the shoot dries and breaks easily.|
|Blooming top leaves quickly wither and dry. If the sheet is unfolded, inside it you can see the yellowish larvae of the gall midge. The ends of the shoots can die, currants weaken.||Before flowering and after, treat with Karbofos or Metaphos (according to the instructions).|
Photo gallery: pests of black currant Selechenskaya
- Kidney tick makes kidneys unnaturally inflated
- The glass larva turns the core of the shoot into dust
- Currant leaf gall midge leads to rapid wilting and drying of leaves
Selechenskaya black currant is a variety with an early ripening season, which ripens by the 10th of July. Due to the fact that the ripe berry does not crumble and does not lose taste, you can collect it gradually.
Collected in dry weather. It is best to pluck with a whole brush to prevent damage to the fruit.
Black currant jam Selechenskaya has a bright taste
In the compartment of the refrigerator, designed to store fruits and vegetables, where sufficient humidity is maintained and the temperature does not rise above 30 ° C, the crop will spend 2 weeks without damage. Freezing or drying will extend the shelf life, while the berries will not lose useful substances. Many housewives wipe fresh currants with sugar. In this form, you can enjoy the great taste of black currant almost until spring. From Selechenskaya for the winter you can cook delicious jam, make jams, compotes, jellies. Perfectly tones the body in cold weather, tea from leaves and berries.
Video: how to collect blackcurrant
Selechenskaya in the Moscow region is not impressive - it is an ordinary large-fruited currant with an average taste (and in Siberia everything is delighted with her, probably, the climate there allows her to “open up in all its glory”).Natali_R
I'm not talking about the first Selechenskaya - according to many experts from various sources, and from my own experience - one of the sweetest and largest berries! Yes, and with a thin skin. I never managed to prepare something from the berries of this variety - almost everything is eaten on the vine! Of course, any variety can have flaws, but not Selechenskaya’s acid!Tatyana
I just have Selechenskaya, she also does not get sick, there has never been anthrocnosis, and signs of powdery mildew only once in all the time in 2010, when she apparently weakened from the terrible heat and air drought. So I don’t process anything from diseases.Irina Shabalina
Judging by the description, the difference between Selechenskaya-2 and just Selechenskaya is only in absolute resistance to powdery mildew. Selechenskaya can be affected by powdery mildew, although not very much - I have only once since 93. Everything else is the same for them.slogvaln
The black currant Selechenskaya, thanks to stable crops and excellent quality of berries, has won many fans. The time spent on caring for the bush will pay off handsomely. Vitamins and minerals contained in berries will strengthen the body. And wonderful preparations of blackcurrant in the cold season will remind you of warm summer.