Blackberry Karaka Black - Champion in Large Fertility
Blackberry Karak black is called the royal berry. The variety with large sweet fruits fell to the taste of farmers in many European countries and is widely used in industrial production. A large-fruited hybrid has also taken root in our gardens and small farms. Berries of Karak black reach up to 5 cm in length and have a rich rich taste.
Blackberry belongs to the genus Rubus, numbering about 200 species. America is considered her homeland. It was there that in the XIX century for the first time engaged in the cultivation of this berry shrub. Garden blackberry confidently conquered the countries of Europe and Asia. At the end of the XIX century, the first varieties of culture appeared in Russia.
Now the largest producers of black berries are the USA, Brazil, China. Australia is engaged in its cultivation and processing. And in New Zealand they created a new interesting area of production - winemaking based on blackberries.
In 1982, New Zealand breeders under the leadership of Harvey Hall crossed 2 varieties - Aurora and Comanche. As a result of further selection of raspberry-blackberry hybrids and blackberry varieties, a sample with very large berries and a long harvesting season was obtained. The new hybrid was given the name Karak black.
Blackberry varieties Karaka black bred in New Zealand
Karaka black - mildew, creeping variety of blackberry. Thanks to horizontally directed lashes, the bush is easy to shelter for the winter. Variety of early ripening with extended fruiting. The first berries can be picked at the end of June. The rest ripen within 6–8 weeks.
At the end of summer, when the main crop at the tops of the shoots has already been harvested, flowers and green single berries often appear on the lower fruit branches.
Blackberry Karaka black - the largest fruit variety
The main advantage of the variety is large fruits, in appearance resembling mulberries. In length, they grow up to 5 cm, average weight - 10 g, individual berries can have a mass of 17 g.
It forms a compact bush with lashes longer than 3 m and powerful leaf blades . Long shoots are not shortened in order to increase the number of flower buds. At Karak, the black internodes are very short; many fruit branches grow on each shoot. At the time of fruiting, the whole bush is decorated with clusters of oblong massive berries: black ripened and unripe red.
A year after planting, the first few berries are formed on the bush, full fruiting occurs in the 3-4th year of life. The average yield is 12-15 kg per plant.
In England, the maximum yield of Karak black was collected - 35 kg from a 5-year-old bush.
Karaka black is fructified with large berries during fruiting.
Large brilliant fruits of an elongated cylindrical-conical shape are painted black, sometimes with a purple tint. When fully ripened, they become dull and can easily be removed from the branch without deformation. The berries are dense, well tolerate transportation. Chilled can be stored for more than a week. The taste is dessert, sweet, with a slightly noticeable acidity. In an unripe state, the fruits acidify. Overripe berries that fall to the ground become tasteless.
The large fruits of the blackberry Karak black in shape resemble mulberry
The disadvantages include the presence of thorns on the shoots (but they are not as hard as those of a forest blackberry), the average resistance to anthracnose and gray rot, therefore, when growing a crop, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment.
Video: blackberry variety Karaka black
Longevity and productivity of berry shrubs depend not only on the variety, but also on the place of growth, quality of planting material.
When to plant a blackberry
Container plants can be planted all season - when transshipment from packaging together with a lump of earth into a prepared pit, they take root perfectly.
Container seedlings can be planted all season, handling them into a pit along with a lump of land
In temperate regions, the best time to plant seedlings with open roots is early spring, before buds open. The root system for the season will get stronger, mature and prepare for wintering. During autumn planting, plants may not have time to take root before the onset of cold weather and die.
In the south, where it is sunny and warm until the end of November, it is better to plant a blackberry in the fall, but not to delay until the frost. The later the landing will be carried out, the less chance of survival.
Choosing a place for a bramble
The blackberry should receive the maximum amount of light, the quantity and taste of the fruit depend on this. Growing is also allowed with slight shading, however, with a lack of light, Karak black berries become more acidic, the number of fruit buds is reduced.
Blackberry is a photophilous crop that requires a lot of sun
The highest productivity can be achieved by growing blackberries on loamy soil with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction. The fact that the soil is acidic is indicated by the presence of horsetail, sorrel. By adding lime (500 g / m2), the acidity of the soil can be reduced. In sandy areas, blackberries can grow, but require more organic fertilizers and moisture. The soil must be water and breathable. To make the soil more loose in clay areas, you can add sand (1 bucket / m2).
Blackberries are not suitable for lowlands, where moisture accumulates after rain and snow melt, places with a close occurrence of groundwater. Overmoistening often leads to the emergence of fungal diseases; the resistance of plants to adverse environmental conditions decreases. For blackberry bushes, an ideal place would be places near a fence or buildings where heat is retained, and snow does not blow off in winter.
The most comfortable place for the blackberry Karaka black is the south side of the plot, closed from the north wind
Future crops depend on the quality of planting material. Therefore, seedlings should be selected in proven nurseries. There you can buy 1-2-year-old plants in pots, which are characterized by better survival. Before buying, they should be removed from the packaging and carefully considered. The earthen lump should be whole and entwined with roots, the bark on the branches should be smooth, the flesh beneath it should be green. The brown color of the pulp indicates that the plant has dried up and should not be taken. Saplings acquired in late autumn are dug up until spring.
The best survival rate is 1 year old seedlings in containers
How to plant correctly
If you plan to plant a blackberry in the spring, preparatory work begins in the fall, with an autumn planting - in 2 weeks. They dig a plot, select weeds, dig holes 45x45 cm, if they form a bramble from separate bushes. The variety is characterized by moderate shoot formation, so it is sufficient to make an interval of 1–1.5 m between bushes. For industrial cultivation, planting in trenches of 45x50 cm is used, leaving 1.5 m between plants and 2.5–3 m between rows. In fertile a layer of earth is added 2 kg of humus, 100 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium salt (or 100 g of ash). Seedlings are dipped for several hours in a solution of Kornevin or Heteroauxin (2 g / 10 L) - drugs that improve rooting.
- At the bottom of the pit, a part of fertile land is poured with a knoll.
- Spreading the roots, the plant is set in a pit.
A blackberry seedling is lowered into a landing pit along with an earthen lump
- Fall asleep seedling, deepening the growth bud 2 cm below ground level.
- Compact the soil around the bush.
- Water the plant with 4 liters of water.
- Lay a layer of mulch from hay, straw.
- If the planting is carried out in the spring, the plant is shortened by 20 cm to stimulate branching.
At first, young planting is better to shade from the bright rays of the spring sun with agrofibre.
Video: how to plant a blackberry
The culture is unpretentious, if you follow the simple rules of agricultural technology, you can enjoy a delicious berry every year.
Watering and loosening
A powerful root system provides the blackberry with moisture. Farmers note the drought tolerance and heat resistance of the Karaka black variety, recorded during the abnormally hot summer period. However, the soil must not be allowed to dry out; for good growth and high productivity, the crop must receive the necessary amount of moisture. With a lack of water in early spring, young shoots will have a slight increase.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Drought during the formation of fruits is the cause of shedding of ovaries, and insufficient accumulation of water at the end of the season significantly reduces frost resistance of the bush.
In spring and summer, in the absence of rain, the bramble is watered weekly with a calculation of 6 liters per bush. Watering methods:
- Through the watering grooves. In the grooves with a depth of 15 cm, made at a distance of 40 cm from the bush, water is introduced using a bucket or hose. After absorbing moisture, the watering grooves are closed.
- Sprinkling. In extreme heat it is better to use sprinkling irrigating a blackberry from a spray hose. Water in the form of small drops is sprayed over the bush, moistening foliage, shoots and soil. Sprinkling is carried out early in the morning or after sunset to reduce evaporation of moisture. However, this method can not be used during flowering, so as not to wash off the pollen.
- Drip irrigation. Farmers usually use drip irrigation plantations. On the site along the rows of plants stack pipes or tapes with droppers into which water is automatically supplied. Through dispensers, it evenly flows directly to the roots of plants. This is a very convenient irrigation system that facilitates the work of gardeners and saves water consumption.
In late autumn, before the onset of frost, water-loading irrigation is carried out (8 l / plant).
In large areas, drip irrigation is usually used, laying pipes with dispensers along the rows of blackberries
After moistening during irrigation or rain, the soil is loosened, weeds are removed. Loosening is carried out carefully to a depth of 8 cm due to the surface location of the suction roots. In row-spacings, the soil is loosened to a depth of 12 cm. One more feature of Karak blackberry blackberry must be taken into account - it does not give root shoots, but damage to the roots during deep loosening causes the growth of numerous root offspring that must be removed. Be sure to lay a layer of mulch from hay, straw, humus - an organic material that improves the composition of the soil and prevents the evaporation of moisture.
After watering, the soil under the bushes is mulched with organic materials.
Feeding is an important part of plant care. When planting in fertilized soil, blackberries begin to be fed only the next year.
- In the spring, a solution of urea (10 g / 5 l) or saltpeter (20 g) is added under the bush.
- In the summer, top dressing is necessary during the fruiting period: the bushes are fertilized with nitrophos (70 g / 10 l). It is useful to add 200 g of ash containing a lot of potassium.
- After harvesting, the addition of superphosphate (100 g) and potassium salt (30 g / m2) will help restore the strength of the shrub.
In autumn, nitrogen fertilizers cannot be applied, as this reduces the winter hardiness of plants and sensitivity to bacterial infections and rot.
On poor soils, it is desirable to additionally carry out foliar top dressing. When a nutrient solution is applied along the leaf, the plants are more quickly saturated with the necessary trace elements. After flowering, the bushes are sprayed with Uniflora solution (1 ml / 10 l), which helps to increase the number of ovaries. The second top dressing is carried out in the fall to help plants prepare for dormancy and is easier to overwinter.
Universal microfertilizer Uniflor is used for foliar feeding blackberries
The introduction of manure humus with a frequency of once every 3 years is able to give the plants full nutrition. Chicken droppings (solution 1:20) or liquid manure (1:10) are introduced before flowering and after harvesting.
With a lack of potassium or magnesium, the berries of the Karak blackberry blackberry will have more acid.
On fertile soil, more than 15 kg of blackberry can be produced annually
Blackberry is a perennial plant, the aerial part of which has a two-year development period. In the first year, shoots and buds grow, and in the next season, fruiting and dying of branches occur. Thawed shoots in the autumn are completely removed, clean the bush from dry, broken and damaged by disease branches. Leave 8-10 strong shoots.
In early spring, overwintered branches are tied to a support. When growing on a trellis, the shrub is well lit and ventilated, it is easier to pick berries. Without a garter, substitution shoots lying on the ground dry out, yield decreases.
Amateur gardeners usually install a single-lane trellis with 2 rows of wire
In summer cottages, a single-lane trellis is usually used. They put the supports, pull the wire in 2 rows at a height of 60 cm and 1.2 m and fix the whips on them. You can form a bush in the form of a fan, securing young shoots on one side, and branches carrying the crop on the other. Or arrange vertically in the center of the overwintered shoots, and shoot new sprouts on the sides. In the fall, the central branches are cut to the root, annual shoots for the winter are tightly pressed to the ground, and in the spring they are lifted vertically.
On large blackberry plantations, farmers install a high trellis with 2 parallel wires. Growing on such a support allows you to better form a bush, which positively affects the development of the plant and increase the yield.
Two-way trellis allows you to better form a blackberry bush
The variety is not frost-resistant, at -170 ° C the shoots freeze, so the plants must be insulated before the onset of cold weather. Pruning branches are trimmed, water-charging irrigation and humus mulching are carried out. Then the young shoots are removed from the support, bent and covered with agrofibre. Branches in bushes of this variety are very flexible, they are easy to curl. Under the scourge it is necessary to put poison from rodents. After the settled cold weather, you can sketch fir branches from above.
Propagate blackberries vegetatively and seeds. However, with the seed method, the parental properties are partially lost.
- The easiest way to breed blackberries is with apical layers. In the aisles, pots with drainage holes are buried, fertile soil is poured into them, the tops of the shoots are buried in it and moistened. You can just tuck layering near the bush and pin it. After 3 weeks, the prikop 45 cm long with the formed roots is separated from the uterine bush and planted separately.
Blackberries are easily propagated by layering: a trickled shoot gives roots very quickly
- It is easy to propagate blackberries by cuttings. Lignified cuttings are harvested in autumn just before the coldest or earliest veins, cutting annual shoots into pieces of 15 cm each. Before planting, they are dipped for several hours in a 0.02% heteroauxin solution, then planted on a bed in loose soil. Humidify the earth and cover with a film. Regularly water and air the greenhouse. After rooting, the film is removed, the entire season is monitored for soil moisture, weeds are removed. Next spring, young plants can be planted in open ground.
- The best time for green cuttings is the end of June. The tops of young shoots 12 cm long are cut off. Green cuttings are planted in pots, watered and covered with a film. Within a month, moisten the soil, conduct airing. Rooted green cuttings are planted at the beginning of next season in the garden.
The survival rate of blackberry cuttings is almost 100%
Video: blackberry propagation by stem cuttings
The variety is characterized by moderate disease resistance. In rainy summers or with improper care, the risk of contracting anthracnose and gray rot increases. In drought, whole aphid colonies settle on shoots. Therefore, prevention is indispensable.
Table: Blackberry Threatening Disease
|Disease||How do they manifest||Prevention||Measures|
|Anthracnose||Excess moisture often leads to the spread of spores of the fungus. Foliage and shoots are covered with gray with a purple border spots, gray sores form on the berries.||Spray with a 5% solution of copper sulfate, Fundazole (10 g / 10 l) before flowering, after bud dropping and after harvesting.|
|Purple spotting||The leaves, covered with dark spots, fall off. Kidneys and young shoots dry out. The disease leads to sparse flowering and falling of the ovaries. The spread of the fungus especially progresses with increased humidity and thickened plantings.|
|Septoria||Infection occurs in warm, humid weather. Light spots with dark bordering develop on the leaves. The foliage dries, the shoots turn brown. The bushes at the stage of fruit ripening are most affected.|
|Gray rot||Damp weather contributes to the development of the disease. Outgrowths of gray color form on the shoots, the fruits begin to rot.|
Photo Gallery: Signs of Disease
- Long rainy periods contribute to anthracnose
- Increased humidity, shading, bush thickening - favorable conditions for the development of purple spotting
- Septoria affects the ripening bushes
- Mushroom spores of gray rot spread quickly in wet weather
Table: Blackberry Pests
|Pests||Manifestations||Prevention||How to help|
|Blackberry tick||The mite hibernates in the buds of plants. With the onset of heat, settles on shoots and berries. The fruit affected by the pest partially or completely does not ripen.||Thin out the bush.||Before budding, spray with Envidor solutions (4 ml / 10 l), Bi-58 (10 ml / 10 l), repeat after 10 days.|
|Aphid||Aphid colonies, covering leaves and branches, suck out juices from them, weaken the plant.|
|Khrushchev||Larvae gnaw plant roots, the beetle eats leaves. Massive flight of khrushchev falls during the flowering period, the affected buds and ovaries fall.||Treat at the beginning of the growing season with a solution of Anti-Crush (10 ml / 5 L), Confidor Maxi (1 g / 10 L).|
Voluntary assistants of summer residents in the fight against ticks and May bugs - thrushes, tick-weavers, sparrows, starlings. If you hang houses on trees, put berries and sunflower seeds in the feeders, you can increase the number of birds. And you can attract entomophagous insects by planting yarrow, clover, mint, chamomile and marigolds on the site. Only one ladybug on a hot summer day can destroy up to 200 aphids.
Photo Gallery: Blackberry Pests
- Crop loss with the development of a blackberry tick can reach 50%
- Aphid colonies, sucking sap from foliage and shoots, greatly weaken the plant
- Khrush and its larvae cause great harm to blackberry bushes: leaves, flowers and ovaries fall, yield decreases
Karaka Black is a very early blackberry with black berry. It is ahead of maturity of almost all blackberries in this group. The Karaka Black variety gives the first berries 2 weeks earlier than such well-known varieties as Loch Tay and Natchez. The size of the berry is very large. In shape and size, the berry is very similar to Black Butte, but this variety is superior to Black Butte in yield many times.Yakimov
... I remove the prickly varieties from the site. But my neighbor left Karaku Black for the berries (unusually long form). I also did not like the small yield. And the neighbor liked the taste.GalinaNick
With precipitation, it is completely blotchy (leaves). So, treatment is needed for prevention ... I haven’t seen so many on other varieties.Elvir
Karaki Black planted about 17 bushes, two two-year-olds, the rest of last year's planting. In winter, he did not harbor, not a single bush was frozen.Dion
Well, the taste and color of no mates. I like Karaka black, tasty with a pleasant sourness, I like Natchez more (eat honey, and the aftertaste is bitterness like grapefruit). I did not see spots on Karak.Anton Izyum
The record holder for large-fruited - blackberry Karaka black is appreciated for the rich taste of fruits, productivity and the ability to easily tolerate short-term drought. Привлекает и продолжительный период плодоношения: с конца июля и до сентября можно лакомиться чёрной ягодой, варить варенье и готовить компоты на зиму. Для получения хороших урожаев следует только соблюдать правила агротехники и проводить профилактическую обработку от болезней.