Black raspberries Cumberland: how to grow an unusual berry
Varieties of black raspberries are few. In our country, perhaps the most famous is Cumberland. But gardeners are not very interested in this raspberry. Yes, she has an unusual appearance, the berries are almost black and small. Perhaps for many they look unappetizing. But you should try this variety, because the fruits of Cumberland are not only tasty, but also healthy. And it will be useful for gardeners to find out that the plant is very unpretentious and unusually beautiful.
Cumberland Raspberry Variety History
Walking past Cumberland raspberries, you won’t even think that this is a well-known raspberry berry. More likely a blackberry. It is because of this similarity that all varieties of aronia raspberries are called blackberry-like. Raspberries with black berries came to us from North America. There she is quite a familiar plant. But in our gardens black-fruited varieties are still considered exotic.
Cumberland raspberry variety native to north america
Raspberry Cumberland is far from new. The variety has already celebrated its centenary - they brought it back in 1888. But the American guest appeared in our gardens only in the 80s. Despite the fact that enough time has passed since its appearance, gardeners are not in a hurry to grow an unusual berry. But in vain, because Cumberland, in addition to unusual appearance, has excellent characteristics.
In the market you can find raspberries with a similar name - Earley Cumberland, but this variety ripens earlier. And there was Cumberland with yellow berries.
The Cumberland bush is a true decoration of the garden. The plant is powerful, up to 2.5 m high, but not sprawling. The shoots first grow straight, and then begin to bend, forming an arch. The stems are thick (up to 3 cm in diameter), with short internodes, dotted with numerous sharp spikes. Young shoots have a green color with a waxy coating of gray or purple hue. The two-year-old stem is brown.
Video: black raspberry cumberland in my garden
Due to its good growth, Cumberland is often used as a hedge.
The leaf blade is complex. The surface is wrinkled, slightly rough, bright green in color. The underside of the leaf is grayish, with a slight pubescence. There are thorns, but they are small, and are in their infancy.
The flowers are small, white. Collected in racemose inflorescences of 10 - 15 pieces. They are located mainly on the tops of shoots or in the axils of the leaves.
The berries are round in shape and small in size — their average weight is 2 g. At the moment when the berry is only poured, its usual color is scarlet. But the ripened berry looks unusual. Her color can go from dark purple to black. The skin is dense and shiny, with a bluish coating between the drupes.
Cumberland berries are very unusual in color and look more like blackberries than raspberries.
You can distinguish Cumberland raspberries from blackberries at the time of picking. Ripe raspberry berries separate very easily from the stem. A blackberry is torn only with a ponytail.
Cumberland berries have a rather bright dessert flavor, in which sweetness prevails, sourness is slightly noticeable. Drupe of medium juiciness, with a blackberry flavor and a pleasant aroma. The only drawback is that they contain many seeds. Taste qualities are estimated from 3.8 to 5 points.
Video: Raspberry Cumberland - First Impressions
- Raspberry Cumberland is perfect for growing almost throughout Russia.
- It bears fruiting in the second year after planting. The maximum yield reaches 3 years. Cumberland is able to bear fruit for a long time - up to 14 years.
- Ripening period is average. The variety blooms in early June, so return frosts are not terrible. Flowering lasts almost a month, harvesting occurs in July.
- Cumberland is not a repair grade. Harvest for a season gives one, but the berries ripen gradually, so the collection of berries is somewhat delayed. Ripe fruits do not fall from the bush.
- Cumberland's yield is low - only 2 kg per bush, sometimes a little more. But thanks to the dense skin, the berries are stored and transported perfectly.
- The culture is unpretentious to the soil, quickly adapts to environmental conditions.
- The variety is characterized by good frost resistance - up to -30 ° C. Although some sources indicate a threshold of -35 ° C and even -40 ° C.
- Berries can be used in any form - they are good both fresh and in the blanks. In addition, Cumberland is incredibly useful, because it is known that black-fruited varieties contain more nutrients than red-fruited raspberries.
- The variety has good immunity - it is infrequently affected by diseases and pests.
- Cumberland is an excellent honey plant. Therefore, it is useful to plant a bush that attracts bees in the garden to increase pollination.
- Landings of this variety look neat. Cumberland has a rare property for raspberries - it does not give root shoots and does not spread throughout the site. Young shoots form directly from the bush, like a currant.
- The presence of thorns on the shoots greatly complicates the harvest, so the bushes need to be tied.
- Black berries do not interest birds at all, in this regard, for the integrity of the crop, you can be calm.
Raspberry Cumberland - an unpretentious plant, with an excellent characteristic
Advantages and disadvantages - table
|Fast fruiting||Low yield|
|Great taste and universal use.|
|Too big bones in the berries|
|Increased frost resistance|| Harvest inconvenience (tall and prickly|
|Very good immunity|
|Not overgrown with offspring|
|Ripe berries do not fall from the bush|
The presence of thorns on the stems often makes it difficult to pick berries, but if the plant is properly looked after, this will not interfere
Features planting aronia raspberries Cumberland
Knowing all the features of planting black raspberries is very important. Not only the survival of the seedling depends on this, but also its ability to fully demonstrate all its characteristics in the future.
Site selection and site preparation
Before you buy a seedling, it is worth finding the right place for planting. Raspberry loves the sun very much, so we choose the lightest area. We place the rows in the direction from north to south, so the plants will get more light. Soil Cumberland prefers light loamy and fertile.
Wind protection is another important condition. In winter, the prevailing air currents can severely dry out the wood. As a result, not all plants wake up in the spring.
Cumberland can be planted along fences, which in winter will provide excellent shelter from the cold wind.
Do not plant raspberries after tomatoes, potatoes and other varieties of raspberries. Neighborhood with a blackberry is considered undesirable.
After you have decided on a place, you need to prepare it. This should be done in advance, for example, if you plant raspberries in the autumn, then carefully dig the site in the spring, while cleaning it from the roots of perennial plants and introducing organic matter. Cumberland is very fond of natural fertilizers, so at least 2 to 3 buckets of manure are needed per 1 m² of soil. For spring planting, instead of manure, you can sow the site with green manure, which after autumn digging will become the basis of nutrition for seedlings.
Siderata - a great alternative to manure
Planting dates and seedling selection
The timing of your landing depends on the region in which you live. Gardeners in the southern regions prefer autumn, and in the spring, planting work begins in areas of risky farming.
Autumn planting is ideal for places with a warm climate. Raspberries planted at the end of September before the onset of cold weather will have time to acquire new roots and will safely wait for spring. Autumn is also good because the seedling does not need to be constantly watered. A sufficient amount of precipitation will do all the work for you.
In cool regions, preference is given to spring planting, which is carried out in April. It will allow you to observe how the rooting of the seedling is going and help him in case something goes wrong. But you need to have time to plant a plant before the moment when the buds begin to bloom actively.
Finding a Cumberland raspberry seedling is not easy. But if you're lucky, focus on the root system. The roots should not be overdried, broken off, have traces of disease. It is best if the root system is closed. Such a seedling can be planted even in summer.
The root system of aronia raspberries is more developed than that of aronia.
For planting, choose 2-year-old plants. Do not forget to pay attention to the color of the stem and the presence of thorns. In the seedling, the bark of the shoot must be covered with a bluish coating.
Due to the fact that Cumberland does not form root offspring, the variety is propagated by rooting, cuttings or seeds.
The root system of black raspberries Cumberland is much more powerful than that of red-fruited
Step-by-step landing process
- Given the fibrillation of the raspberry root system, the recess should be sufficient so that the roots are placed without creases. As a rule, the pit volume of 45/45 cm is enough.
- Open root system carefully inspect and cut to a healthy tissue, dry and broken areas, if any. Then dip in mullein of mullein (consistency of pancake dough).
- Be sure to add fertilizer to the recess: a bucket of overripe humus, 2 handfuls of nitrophosphate, 4 cups of wood ash. Add fertile soil and mix well.
- Set the sapling on the mound constructed from the soil mixture, spread the roots. Fill the remaining soil, ram it around the seedling.
- Carefully pour the bush 1 - 2 buckets of water. When it is absorbed, mulch the surface.
Video: Planting Raspberry Cumberland
Given the rapid growth and height of the bushes, between plants in a row you need to leave up to 70 cm. And if you grow by the two-row method, then the row-spacing should be 2 m.
Raspberry Cumberland is quite unpretentious, growing it will not be difficult. But some nuances exist. We’ll talk about them.
To obtain high yields, raspberries must be watered. Adult plants with a fairly powerful root system are moistened during the growing season at least 4 times with an interval of 15 to 20 days:
- before flowering;
- during the formation of a green ovary;
- during the ripening period of berries;
- in late autumn, if the weather is warm and dry.
Watering is especially necessary at the time of aronia raspberry ripening. The lack of water during this period will result in not only a decrease in the mass of the berry and insufficient juiciness, but also lead to the development of weak shoots of substitution.
Watering is especially important when Cumberland raspberries begin to pour
Frequency of irrigation should be adjusted depending on precipitation. Excessively moistened soil will not benefit, as well as overdried soil during an increase in air temperature.
Particular attention should be paid to seedlings, especially those planted in the spring. Young plants are watered almost every day until they take root. Under each bush, you need to pour up to 5 liters of water and make sure that the soil in the raspberry tree is moderately moist during the rooting of the seedlings. Then the frequency of watering is reduced, but the rate of water is increased to 1 bucket.
A good way to retain moisture in the soil is mulch. But in a period of prolonged rains, she can play against the rules, leading to stagnation of water in the roots. To prevent this from happening, remove the mulch with a rake and allow the soil to dry naturally.
Cumberland loves moderately moist soil, so the drip system is great for maintaining water balance in the soil.
The American variety loves to eat, so we feed three times a season, combining them with watering:
- before flowering;
- at the time of formation of the ovary;
- after picking the first ripe berries.
Cumberland is responsive to organics, but also needs mineral fertilizers. The alternation of these types of fertilizing will have a beneficial effect on productivity. For raspberries, you can prepare the following cocktails:
- Dilute 10 - 15 g of urea, 35 g of superphosphate and a glass of wood ash in a bucket of water. This is the rate of application under an adult plant;
- mullein solution is prepared at the rate of 1 part to 6 parts of water, chicken droppings are diluted with large amounts of water - 1 to 12.
If you want to make friends with Cumberland raspberries, treat her to an organic cocktail
In spring or autumn, you can add organics for digging - for 1 m² you need to take 6 kg of rotted manure. But in this way the soil is fertilized once every 2 years.
Raspberries are very sensitive to chlorine, so you should not add potassium chloride. Use ash instead.
For foliar top dressing, a solution of boric acid (10 g per 1 liter of water) and urea (10 - 15 g per bucket of water) is used alternately. Spray the mixture in the evening so that the leaves do not get burned. The last foliar top dressing is applied about half a month before the start of the harvest.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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In addition to root dressing, Cumberland can be fed and foliar way
For Cumberland, pruning is one of the important care steps. This is due to the rapid growth of the bush and shoots of substitution. The variety bears fruit on annual branches located on two-year-old shoots. Therefore, for blackberry-like raspberries, the following tactics are used:
- starting in mid-June, the apical part of the shoot should be trimmed at a height of at least 1.5 m. This technique will increase the yield due to the increase in lateral shoots (they may appear from 4 to 10 pieces). In addition, young shoots begin to grow actively;
- in the fall, before the onset of stable cold weather, they conduct another procedure. This time, all dried out, weak, and frustrated biennial shoots are cut. The shoots of the first year are shortened to a height of 30 - 50 cm from the surface of the earth. On one plant leave up to 7 shoots.
In those regions where frosty winter involves shelter, pruning is carried out not in the autumn, but in the spring. For the winter, old shoots (if they are not infected with anything) will serve as a support and protection from strong winds for young people.
Healthy carved shoots can be used on the site as a basis for warm beds. Contaminated material will have to be burned.
Video: Cumberland Raspberry Spring Pruning
Garter and shaping
Given the tall raspberries of Cumberland, she needs a garter. This procedure will not only facilitate harvesting, but will also help to create a unique decorative corner on the site.
There are many garter options. But the most common is trellis. Install it a year after planting.
- Along a row of raspberry bushes, strong columns are dug every 8 m.
- Between them pull the wire in 3 to 4 rows. The first at a height of 60 cm from the soil surface, the second at the same distance from the first, etc.
- Pre-shortened to 1.5 m shoots tied to the rows of wire.
If we take as a basis the natural tendency of the Cumberland raspberry shoots to bend in the upper part and fall down, then we can build a green arch that will decorate the site from spring until the leaf fall. To create such a structure in the spring, pruning is not carried out, but they allow raspberry shoots to grow to a maximum height (by the way, it can exceed 3 m).
For garter raspberries Cumberland you can choose one of the suitable types of trellis
Shelter for the winter
Favorable winter conditions and high frost resistance of the plant make it possible to grow Cumberland raspberries in the south without shelter. Without shelter structures, you can do in the suburbs. But still close the root zone with a thick layer of mulch is necessary. In this case, even if shoots are affected, the root system will remain alive and raspberries will quickly reborn.
In regions with cold winters, Cumberland raspberry bushes need to be removed from the trellis, tied and gently bent to the ground, pinned to the surface with metal staples. During the procedure, it should be borne in mind that the shoots that have grown over this season bend much easier than two-year-old ones. If winters are snowy, then snowdrifts will reliably protect the bushes from frost. But if there is no snow cover, you will have to cover the plants with non-woven material or spruce branches.
In this form, raspberries are not afraid of strong winter winds
What diseases and pests can threaten Cumberland raspberries
Cumberland, despite such a venerable age, is famous for having high resistance to many diseases and pests characteristic of raspberries. Nevertheless, the signs of fungal and viral diseases will not hurt to know, as well as measures to combat them.
The causative agent is in the soil, from where it is introduced through damage into the shoots and roots of raspberries. On aronia raspberry varieties, the first signs appear a month earlier than on aronia - in June - early July. The lower leaves of diseased plants will have a duller look, then starting from the base of the shoots, the leaves turn yellow, wilt and fall prematurely. The stems are covered with rising from the bottom blue or purple stripes. Next year, the affected plant will be covered with small yellow leaves, the buds will be wrinkled. Most likely, the bush will die before the formation of the fruit. With the help of fungicides, it will not be possible to overcome the disease that has captured the bush - the plant will have to be completely removed from the soil and destroyed. The main emphasis should be on prevention. It consists of the following:
- purchase only zoned seedlings;
- plant on light neutral soils;
- observe the correct watering regime;
- clean and burn fallen leaves;
- be sure to trim, do not forget to disinfect the tools;
- Once a month it is useful to treat plantings with Bordeaux liquid, HOM, Kuprozan.
Verticillin wilt on aronia raspberry appears earlier than on aronia
Most often, symptoms appear on shoots, especially young ones. In the spring, they become covered with red-purple spots. As the disease progresses, the spots increase, a depression appears in the center. By the end of the summer, the spots turn gray, a fringe of a purple hue appears along the edges. On the affected shoots, deformed fruits are tied, dry and unfit for food. Premature leaf decay, wilting of side shoots and death of fruit-bearing plants are observed.
Control measures include the complete removal of affected stems and treatment with Bordeaux fluid. Spraying is carried out:
- in early spring, before budding;
- 10 days after the first treatment;
- after harvesting;
- in autumn, when the leaves fall.
Prevention, in addition to proper agricultural technology, includes the timely removal of affected shoots, mummified fruits and fallen leaves.
One of the signs of anthracnose is sunken spots on the shoot.
This viral disease is able to completely destroy the bush after 3 to 4 years. The affected plant will have thickened and short stems. Leaves shrink, become smaller, become brittle. A bronze tint appears on the underside of the sheet plate. The apical foliage may not fully open, yellowing ahead of time. Berries dry out, become small and sour.
The carriers of the virus are garden pests, as well as untreated pruning tools. The main measure to combat the disease is prevention. Buy only healthy seedlings; do not let wild raspberries come close to planting; if you notice signs of damage on raspberries, immediately uproot and burn the bush; fight harmful insects.
If you do not pay attention to curly hair, after 3 to 4 years the bush will die
In addition to diseases, pests can threaten Cumberland aronia. In order to save the planting from the mass population of harmful insects in time, you need not make a mistake in identification, because pest control can be carried out in different ways.
Stem gall midge
Raspberry stem gall midge is a small two-winged insect that begins flight in May - June, which coincides with the raspberry flowering period. A clutch of 8 - 15 eggs is laid by an insect on a young shoot at the very base of the kidney. Через неокрепшую кору личинки проникают внутрь стебля и начинают питаться соками растения. Признаки поражения хорошо видны на стеблях — это шарообразные вздутия, внутри которых находится рыхлая, напоминающая опилки ткань. Ослабленный побег часто подвергается грибковым заболеваниям. Заражённый куст отмирает.
Прежде чем начать борьбу с галлицей, следует удалить все побеги с видимыми признаками. После этого обработайте куст 1 или 2% раствором Карбофоса. Следующей весной и осенью опрыскивайте малину 1% бордоской жидкостью.
С целью профилактики можно обработать куст раствором табака, полыни или грецкого ореха. Не переносит галлица запах чеснока и лука, поэтому между кустами малины можно высадить несколько многолетних представителей этого семейства — лук шнитт или батун. А выбирая саженец, тщательно осматривайте стебель, чтобы случайно не приобрести заражённое растение.
Вот такие наросты на стебле малины оставляет личинка галлицы
Вредитель хоть и мал, но невероятно коварен. Первое его появление можно пропустить, ведь насекомое прячется на нижней стороне листа. Опасность заключается в очень быстром распространении тли. Глазом не успеете моргнуть, как колонии мелких насекомых облепят молодые побеги, листочки и почки. Кормится тля питательными соками, которые добывает прокалывая хоботком листовую пластинку. В итоге листья скручиваются, желтеют, верхушки побегов искривляются, количество завязей сокращается. Малина перестаёт сопротивляться различным болезням.
Вступая в борьбу с тлёй, используйте следующие препараты:
- Антитлин — 450 – 500 г на 10 л воды;
- Нитрофен — 300 мл на 10 л воды;
- Килзар — 50 мл на 10 л воды.
Если угроза выявлена на ранней стадии, могут выручить народные средства:
- раствор хозяйственного мыла — 1 кусок растворить в 10 л горячей воды, остудить и обработать поражённый куст;
- табачный раствор — 400 г табака на 10 л воды, перед применением настоять несколько дней;
- отвар ромашки, тысячелистника или одуванчика также неплохое средство.
Чтобы тля не угрожала малиннику, выпалывайте сорную траву в посадках, боритесь с муравьями и привлекайте божьих коровок и богомолов.
Такое маленькое насекомое может причинить большие беды
Отзывы о малине Кумберленд
Очень любим Кумберленд. У нас её целая стенка. 6 кустов. Ягоды тьма. Вволю едим свежую и в заморозку любим. В этом году ягода должна быть крупная. Влаги хватает.
После получения первого скудного урожая(побеги вымерзли) решительно убрал с участка. 1. Вкус ягод и их товарность значительно уступают ежевике Торнфри. 2. Количество шипов и их острота фантастические! Одно неосторожное движение возле куста и болезненное ранение обеспечено! Размножается неудержимо и обильно. Уверен, что с началом сезона еще придется повоевать с уцелевшими побегами.
У меня растет на склоне на полном солнце. Когда наливается ягода, если нет дождей обязательно поливаем. Почва на этом участке у нас глинистая, когда пересыхает берется коркой, поэтому мульчируем шпалеру Кумберленда скошенной травой, соломой. Полный урожай куст начинает давать с третьего года. Приживаются лучше всего молодые саженцы осеннего укоренения. Мне кажется это самое беспроблемное растение у меня на участке, минимум ухода, а отдача большая
А я хочу заступиться за Кумберленд. Я его очень люблю.Устраивает все и вкус и урожайность, а главное неприхотливость и выносливость. А компот какой ! Моей малинке лет 25. До прошлого года по определенным обстоятельствам я не занималась дачей лет 10. Можете представить что у меня там творилось, когда я прошлым летом решила серьезно заняться землей (крапива метра под 2, сныть густым персидским ковром…). За те годы пропало почти все, что росло в огороде. Остались актинидия и кумберленд ( правда собирала его по всему участку, гулял где хотел) .Сейчас пересадила, сделала шпалеру метра 3.
I have Cumberland after this winter came out in a very sad state, almost all last year's shoots dried out one after another. Although the roots have not been affected, it is now growing again. What is the reason - I do not know, there really was no frost. The berry is an amateur, large drupes, although the yield and taste are good. The thorns of hoo, not the Black Negus of course, but of all the raspberries and blackberries I have seen - the most prickly.
Cumberland Raspberry Berries - A Versatile Food Product. Useful are not only fresh fruits, but also various preparations from them. Jams, compotes, cordials - all this will delight lovers of delicious. In addition, Cumberland perfectly tolerates a single freeze, so thawed berry can diversify the vitamin menu in the winter. If you add very simple agricultural technology, frost resistance and strong immunity to the plant, you will get a wonderful raspberry variety for our gardens.