Black negus - king among gooseberries
Gooseberries have been loved ever since monks began to breed in the monastery gardens. For decades, breeders have developed more and more advanced varieties. But there are those who are not dominated by time, and knowledgeable gardeners give preference to them now. Gooseberry Black negus is one of them.
The history of the gooseberry variety Black Negus
In the 20s of the last century I.V. Michurin became concerned about the problem of developing a gooseberry variety that is resistant to one of the most harmful fungal diseases - the spherical library, or powdery mildew.
Sferoteka (Sphaerotheca) is a dangerous parasite from the genus of fungi that affects gooseberries, currants and many other plants. On the leaves, shoots and berries, a white coating appears, which subsequently darkens to brown. This is the mycelium of the sphere library. The affected leaves twist and dry, the shoots are bent, the berries rot and fall off.
The sphere library was brought into our country from America along with new gooseberry varieties. In his work, Michurin applied the interspecific hybridization method, that is, he crossed two distant species - the European large-fruited variety Anibut and the wild North American gooseberry Krasilny. The result was a variety with large berries of a saturated black color. Michurin gave him the name Black Negus. The scientist planned to use the new hybrid as a breeding material to create new varieties that are not susceptible to the disease by the spherical library. But the original Black Negus unexpectedly gained great popularity, gardeners still grow it in their personal plots.
Black negus took all the best from the parent pair of varieties
Black negus bushes are voluminous, sprawling. Shoots are strong, arcuate, grow 1.5-1.8 m long, sometimes up to two. The leaves are also large, bright green with pubescence.
A feature of the variety is its increased spike inherited from the wild progenitor. The thorns are very sharp, long, they can be single, double, triple, bent down. This only drawback of this species makes harvesting difficult. But Black Negus can be used in hedges, which makes it similar to blackberries. The berries are not very large, 2-2.5 cm, weighing about 1.5 g, pear-shaped, blue-black with a thick waxy coating, grow one by one or in pairs. The peduncle is elongated. The peel of the berries is thin, without pubescence, the juice and flesh are saturated red, and the bones are almost invisible.
Gooseberry fruits Black negus are small
Black negus refers to varieties of medium maturity. He keeps up to the end of July - the beginning of August. Winter-hardy, not afraid of late spring frosts. Berries keep well on a bush, do not crack from rains and do not crumble. From one adult bush you can collect up to 7 kg of fruit.
Sweet and sour berries with a characteristic aroma. Gooseberries are often called "northern grapes." The black negus matches this name as well as possible. Its taste is surprisingly reminiscent of Isabella grapes.
Gooseberries are a very healthy plant. It contains a lot of vitamins and minerals. Moreover, the darker the color of the fruit, the greater the health benefits in it. Juice, wine and jam from Black Negus are obtained of excellent grape taste and rich ruby color.
Black negus jam turns into a beautiful ruby color
The black negus shrub is certainly a long-liver compared to any other berry crop, since no other plant will grow in the same place for about twenty years. This fact is due to the peculiarities of care and cultivation.
Black negus can be planted both in spring and in autumn. But autumn planting is preferable, in September - October, 1.5 months before the onset of cold weather, so that the root system has time to strengthen.
One or two year old seedlings are considered optimal for planting
Gooseberries are sun-loving, therefore, a sunny or partial shade is chosen for planting, in no case in a lowland, but on a flat area, preferably on a hillock. This is due to the fact that the roots of this plant from excessive moisture can get root rot.
Gooseberries are undemanding to soil; they grow and bear fruit almost everywhere, but they feel better on loamy, sandy, sandy, neutral or slightly acidic (pH about 6) soils. How to plant gooseberries:
- Carefully dig out the weeks for two sites for planting, removing all weed roots.
- When digging, add humus or compost, as well as 50 grams of superphosphate and any potash fertilizer.
- Make a hole 0.5 meters deep, the same width and length.
- If you plant several bushes, then maintain a distance between them of 1.5 meters.
- If the soil is clay, pour a bucket of river sand into the pit to provide root breath.
- Soak the roots of the seedling before planting for a day in a solution of organic fertilizers. For example, you can take 3-4 tablespoons of sodium humate in 5 liters of water or 0.25 ml of Zircon per liter of water.
- Place the seedling directly or under a slight slope, making sure that all the roots are pointing down.
- Deepen the root neck by 5-6 cm.
- Cover the soil with small parts, pressing it tightly and watering each layer.
- Pour the planted bush and mulch with a mixture of peat, humus, sand, so that moisture evaporates more slowly, and a crust does not form on the surface of the soil.
- Trim the shoots, leaving 10 centimeters with 5-6 buds.
Video: how to plant gooseberries in the fall
Gooseberries do not like both overdrying the soil, and its overmoistening. Therefore, it is necessary to water in a hot, dry summer, 3-5 times a season. Especially provide watering during flowering and fruiting. Best ways to water:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Watering with rain, especially cold water, is strongly discouraged. Mulch the soil after watering with compost or humus layer of 6-8 cm. This helps to retain moisture, prevents the appearance of weeds, earthworms begin to "work" in the soil, improving air exchange. And in winter, a pillow made of mulch prevents freezing of the roots.
Mulching is a special technology for protecting the soil from drying out and overgrowing with weeds, which consists in filling the soil under the plants with mulch. As mulch can be used: compost, peat, humus, sawdust, needles, hay, straw, as well as a mixture of all these ingredients. There is also a method of mulching with a special permeable film or textile.
If mineral and organic fertilizers were introduced during planting, then in the first three years it is not necessary to feed gooseberries. Later in spring and autumn, humus, compost, nitrogen and potassium fertilizers, superphosphate should be added to the soil around the bush. It is good to use a mullein infusion in a 1: 5 dilution or a bird droppings infusion in a 1:12 dilution.
To improve the nutrition of gooseberries, it is good to use the drug Baikal-EM-1. This is a concentrate of beneficial bacteria (lactic acid, photosynthetic, yeast, fermenting, etc.), selected in symbiosis. Bacteria introduced into the soil actively consume organic matter and produce trace elements. The soil becomes nutritious for any plant, including gooseberries. With a solution of Baikal-EM-1 at a dilution of 1: 1000 or 1: 500, you can water the soil under the plant, previously moistened, with mandatory subsequent mulching. Especially effective is the introduction of bacteria after rain. If you do this every two weeks, the result will immediately affect the crop.
Gooseberry The black negus is prone to thickening, so pruning is an obligatory annual event. Otherwise, the yield will decrease, and collecting it will be problematic. Pruning is best done in the fall, because the gooseberry sap flow begins in early spring, and pruning can harm the plant's health. It is necessary to remove weak (up to 20 cm), dry, broken, diseased shoots. Leave the strong - 50 cm long. Shoots growing horizontally also need to be cut, if you do not plan to leave them for layering.
For sprawling bushes you can build wooden supports
By the age of 4-6 years, the bush should have no more than 30 strong shoots with lateral branches. Further, the bush enters the aging phase, and from that moment on, it will be necessary to remove the old, 6-8-year-old branches. Young shoots will grow to replace them from the root neck.
In the third and fourth year, extra root shoots should be removed, leaving only a few strong shoots
Gooseberry pruning tool - secateurs with long handles or a hacksaw. They must be sharp so that the cut on the shoot remains smooth, without a “fringe”. All sections must be treated with garden var. Then the plant will not lose juice and will not become infected with the disease.
Video: pruning gooseberries in the fall
Gooseberries can be propagated by layering. It is very easy to do:
- In the spring, select a strong escape and bend it to the ground.
- Make a depression of 6-8 cm and trick the shoot.
- Secure it in any way.
- Shorten the top of the shoot by 1/4.
- Regularly water the layering during the season.
- As soon as the shoots appear, feed.
- By fall, you will receive a new seedling. Feel free to disconnect it from the mother plant and transplant to a new place.
Video: gooseberry propagation by layering
In early spring, before the buds awaken, you need to arrange a hot shower in the bushes. Pour boiling water into the watering can, add 1/3 teaspoon of boric acid, a few grains of potassium permanganate and scald the plants. Enough will be 8 liters per bush. If the larvae of any parasites lurk on the branches, they will die from such treatment. During the growing season, you can protect gooseberries from aphids by spraying with infusions of onion husks, orange peels or Baikal-EM-1 at a dilution of 1: 100.
I am not a gooseberry lover, but I like the berries of the Black Negus, especially “from the bush”. They are small in size, completely black, smooth, sweet, fragrant, experts compare its taste with Isabella grapes. The berries have a beautiful dark maroon pulp and small seeds. We only eat it fresh, and my neighbor makes him delicious compotes. I advise you to pay attention.Svetlana Yurievna
There is nothing better than the Black Negus, in my opinion, of course! Bush meter 3 in girth, handsome! I freeze it for the winter, then, along with other berries, cook compote.Sunrise
Gooseberry variety Black negus is worthy of taking its place in the areas of amateur gardeners. If you follow very simple rules for caring for it, you can please yourself with berries with a wonderful, original taste.