Belarusian late pear: all about a beautiful woman with French roots
Homer called the fruits of the pear the gift of the gods. Nowadays, there are more than three thousand varieties of this popular fruit. The choice is huge, but middle-gardeners are especially interested in pears of the Belarusian selection, which are resistant to diseases and winter cold. One of these varieties is Belorussian late.
Details about the Belarusian late pear
Late Belarusian was brought out by N. Mikhnevich, G. Kovalenko and M. Myalik - employees of the Belarusian Research Institute for Fruit Growing. It was grown from the seeds of free pollination of the French pear Good Louise. The variety is included in the State Registers of Belarus (1989) and Russia (2002).
Late Belarusian was created by employees of the Belarusian Research Institute of Fruit Growing
The late Belorussian tree is not high, the crown is spherical, the branches with ends pointing upwards. The main ones depart from the trunk at an almost right angle.
Light green leaves are small, elliptical, with wavy serrated edges. Large white flowers appear on the glove. They are considered self-pollinating, but the yield will be greater if pears near Bere Loshitskaya or Oily Loshitskaya grow - the best pollinators for Late Belorussian.
Not far from the pear Belorusskaya Late is to plant other varieties - Bere Loshitskaya or Oily Loshitskaya
The tree begins to bear fruit early, already in the 4th year of growth. The harvest is plentiful - a young pear can produce up to 100 kg of fruit, and an adult one - up to 180 kg. The fruits of the late Belorusskaya variety are of medium size (110–120 g), have a regular broad pear-shaped shape and almost the same size. They are covered with a thick rough skin with light brown dots. During removal from the tree, pears are painted green with a brownish-red integument. Fruits usually ripen by the end of September, and they can be stored until February of next year and longer. When the fruits reach consumer maturity, the color changes to rich yellow, close to orange, and the integument becomes blurry raspberry.
Late Belarusian pear fruit of regular shape and almost the same size
Pears have straight short stalks, inclined, and a shallow narrow funnel. The hearts of the fruits are small, slightly elongated. Seeds are brown, small. White pulp of medium density, juicy, tender. A pleasant sweet taste with a slight acidity was rated by tasters at 4.2–4.4 points out of 5.
Belorussian late is universal for its intended purpose, it can be used fresh, for the preparation of desserts and dried fruits, for preservation.
Positive and negative sides of the variety
The indisputable advantages of the late Belarusian pear are:
- winter hardiness;
- early maturity;
- the possibility of long-term storage of fruits.
The disadvantages of the variety include:
- the need to thin out the thickened crown;
- fruiting frequency;
- reduction in fruit size with a large number of them;
- the likelihood of pear disease or damage to the tree and fruit by insects.
It is better to plant a late Belorussian pear in the early spring 5-14 days after the complete disappearance of the snow cover. Autumn tree planting is also possible in the time interval between leaf fall and the first frosts.
Before buying a late Belarusian pear seedling, evaluate whether you have conditions favorable for its good growth and development. The process will go very slowly if at the place where the tree is supposed to be planted:
- water stagnates constantly;
- heavy clay or poor sandy soil;
- little sunlight.
A pear loves good lighting and warmth, fertile soil into which air and moisture easily penetrate. In addition, the tree should be allocated at least 16 m2 (area 4x4 m).
When buying a seedling, carefully inspect the tree and its roots. The branches should be elastic, the crown is dense, the bark is smooth and without thorns, the leaves are healthy, the roots are sufficiently moist.
Preparing for landing:
- For a seedling, dig a landing pit about 1 m in diameter and a depth of 0.8 m.
The roots of the tree should fit freely into the pear planting hole
- The soil selected from the recess is mixed with 2 buckets of sand, the same amount of mullein, 30 g of potash fertilizers and 20 g of phosphate.
- The prepared soil is returned to the pit, watered so that the soil is donkey.
- The seedling is kept in clean water for at least 3 hours before planting.
To saturate the roots with moisture, the seedling is kept in water before planting
- The seedling is placed in a pit and spread the roots so that they are located freely, without bending and not overlapping each other.
Sapling roots should not bend or overlap each other
- The hole is covered with soil, leaving the root neck at a height of 5-7 cm above the ground.
- The soil around the seedling is tamped.
- The plant is watered with 3 buckets of water, waiting for it to be completely absorbed.
Each seedling is watered with a volume of at least 3 buckets
- After this, the young seedling is carefully tied to a peg.
- The trunk circle may be left open. Then he must constantly weed. To enrich the soil, you can sow bluegrass, red fescue, clover here. It is better to mulch the ground near the seedling with wood shavings or crushed bark.
Mulch under a sapling will not allow weeds to grow and retain moisture
Later, the trunk circle can be mulched with mowed grass. This not only protects the soil from drying out and compaction during irrigation and precipitation, and the roots from overheating, but also gives the tree additional nutrients.
Mowed grass as a mulch will protect the earth from drying out and will serve as fertilizer
Late Belarusian pear care
Late Belarusian pear is unpretentious in its requirements for caring for it. The main thing is to feed the tree in a timely manner, trim the crown and treat it with pests and diseases. In drought, the tree is watered twice a week, using up to 70 liters of water.
It is important to trim the young pear correctly so that a beautiful crown and strong skeletal branches form. When planting, the seedling is cut for the first time, shortening the main central shoot by a quarter of its length. They tend to form a few skeletal branches on the tree, so only 3-4 of the strongest leaves from the side shoots are shortened by five buds.
Video: pruning a young pear
Subsequently, pear pruning is carried out in spring and autumn, since the variety is prone to thickening the crown. Cut weak shoots, frozen and damaged, diseased branches, as well as those that touch each other or obscure others.
The first 2–3 years of Belarusian late feeding does not require a tree enough nutrients that were introduced during planting. In the future, root dressing is regularly carried out:
- In spring, during the active flowering of a tree, the trunk circle is watered with a solution of nitrate 1:50 (for every 1 m2 of soil 30 g) and a solution of urea (90–110 g per 5 l of water).
- When flowering is over, 3 buckets of nitroammophoska solution are poured under a pear at a concentration of 1: 200.
- In autumn, at the end of September, 1 tbsp. l potassium chloride and 2 tbsp. l superphosphate. 120-160 g of wood ash are embedded in the soil per 1 m2 to a depth of 0.1 m.
- If necessary, summer foliar top dressing is carried out in the second half of June. The tree is treated with a solution of potassium and phosphorus salts. It can be ammophos or nitroammophos, 2% magnesium sulfate. Preparations are prepared according to the instructions on the packaging.
Although Belorussian late tolerates winter frosts well, it is still necessary to prepare it for the cold season.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Late Belarusian easily survives frosts, but young seedlings need to be insulated
To protect the tree trunk, it should be wrapped with paper and secured with a strapping. A special tape can perfectly protect the boom from temperature extremes.
A special tape will protect the tree in the summer - from burns, in the winter - from the cold
A layer of wood shavings can serve as a good protection of the upper roots from the winter cold.
Enemies and diseases of the Belarussian late
One of the most significant drawbacks of the late Belorusskaya variety is its average resistance to scab infection. With this ailment, brown spots appear on the leaves of the tree and fruits. To help the tree resist the disease, the pear is treated three times during the growing season with Bordeaux liquid:
- before budding, 3% solution;
- on buds and after flowering - 1% solution.
You can use various fungicides in accordance with the instructions.
With scab, brown spots appear on the leaves of the tree and fruits
Such prevention not only protects the tree from scab, but also prevents another disease - moniliosis, or fruit rot.
Moniliosis Makes Pear Inedible
A dangerous pear disease is a bacterial burn. Infection goes through flowers and spreads very quickly. In just a few days, the leaves and ovaries become twisted and darkened, as if scorched by fire. Having discovered the disease, first of all, all the affected branches are carefully cut off and burned so that the infection does not spread through the garden. The tree is treated with an antibiotic (Streptomycin has the best effect), and then, every 10 days, the pear is treated with a solution of a mixture of drugs that strengthens its immunity: 4 drops of Citovit and Zircon are dissolved in 1 liter of water, two grains of the Healthy Garden are added.
A bacterial burn spreads quickly in dense crowns, so timely and competent pruning of trees is very important.
Sign of a bacterial burn - twisted, dry leaves
A beautiful butterfly hawthorn can cause huge damage to a pear crop.
Butterfly hawthorn can significantly reduce pear yield
Caterpillars hatched from the eggs of the hawthorn eat buds, leaves, buds. In winter, they pupate and hang on a tree. To get rid of these pests, cocoons are collected and burned, and in early spring the tree is treated with a saturated urea solution (0.7 kg of the drug is dissolved in 10 l of water).
Hawthorn caterpillar feeds on leaves and buds
A large number of pears on a tree can be damaged by caterpillars that hatch from eggs laid by a butterfly pear moth. She leaves a clutch of eggs on the surface of the fruit, and her “children” gnaw the pear and get to the seeds that they feed on. Pupae of these caterpillars winter under a tree in the ground. To get rid of this scourge, a month after flowering, when the newly hatched butterflies it is time to lay eggs, the tree is treated with an insecticide. Fitoverm gives a good result.
Pear moth caterpillars gnaw the fruits and get to the seeds
The apple bee-eater (a tiny weevil bug) feeds on the kidneys and lays eggs in the still unopened flower embryos, and the larvae, hatching, eat them from the inside. In the fight against this pest, a hunting belt on the trunk of the pear helps. You can shake off bugs and collect by hand when they are least mobile in cool weather. The greatest effect is obtained by treating the tree with insecticides when the buds are at the green cone stage.
Larvae of Apple Blossom eat flower buds from the inside
Caterpillars of a pear sawfly can be destroyed almost completely. The female insect lays up to seven dozen eggs on the lower plane of the leaf. Hatched caterpillars weave a web and eat leaves.
Pear sawfly caterpillars eat tree leaves in large quantities
With a small number of caterpillars, their nests can be collected and burned. If there are a lot of them, the tree should be treated with an insecticide.
Green aphid colonies can be seen on the leaves and tops of young shoots. Pests feed on their juice. You can destroy aphids by spraying a tree with a mixture of Fitoverm and 1 tbsp. l liquid soap dissolved in 1 liter of water. If the tree is young and low, shoots can be dipped in this solution and rinse off the pests.
Pests eat leaf and shoot juice
- at least a month before harvesting, stop all processing of the tree with chemicals from diseases and pests;
- when working with drugs, follow all safety instructions.
Costs of fame
For many years of its existence, the late Belarusian pear has become widely known. Many gardeners grow it, a wide range of fruit consumers are aware of the excellent qualities of the variety. On the market you can now find varieties Belorusskaya early, Belorussian summer, etc. Such names are given to pears by analogy with a well-known name, but this is not justified.
Reviews of Belarusian Late Pear
Take my advice “Belarusian Late”. I have 2 trees of them, one was inherited to me along with the plot, the second I consciously bought myself. Pears are medium in size, bear fruit abundantly annually, the tree begins to bear fruit very quickly. Edible immediately at the end of September. But if they lie down a bit and since October it’s just an overeating, sweet juicy, one tail remains, lying, but in recent years we have been trying to eat them before the New Year. You will not regret it, and the tree is well formed, not tall and very beautiful.
I support all previous speakers on the topic of pears. Belarusian late - this is a "workhorse" - fruitful, unpretentious, pears are stored. And the taste is not cloying, but rather with a slight acidity, when fully ripened (when it is slightly soaked), the flesh is oily, very tasty. True, if it does, it tastes a little spoiled. And another advantage - the tree is relatively low.
On the network you can find many messages and notes describing the attractive features of the late Belarusian pear variety. But when deciding on the cultivation of this pear, one must take into account the negative aspects associated with the fruit variety itself and the problems that arise when growing this tree.