Beauty viburnum: the best varieties, proper cultivation and care

At any time of the year, the viburnum bush is the decoration of the garden: at the time of flowering, white fragrant flowers envelop the viburnum bush with a fragrant cloud, its fruits are poured in summer, in the autumn, full-bodied clusters sparkle against the background of red-crimson foliage. Add to this poetic picture legends and legends that say that this tree is a symbol of love, happiness and beauty, and you definitely decide that viburnum must grow near your home.

History of growing viburnum

In nature, viburnum is widespread in most of the northern hemisphere, in the Andes, the Antilles and Madagascar. In the territory of the former USSR, viburnum was found almost everywhere in the European part, in Western and Central Siberia, in the eastern and northern regions of Kazakhstan.

From Latin, the name of the plant is translated as "vine", "rod." The flexibility of viburnum shoots made it possible to use it for the manufacture of various wickerwork. There are many versions regarding the origin of the Slavic name of the plant. It is associated with the color of ripened fruits (they are similar to the color of a hot metal), with the sweetness of berries after they are calcined with frost, with the shape of the leaves (they are carved, resemble a wedge, maple leaves).

Viburnum fruits ripen in late summer - early fall

From time immemorial, Kalina was planted near the courtyards. Everywhere its berries were eaten as a filling for pies-guelder-rose, ground them with honey, used for medicinal and cosmetic purposes, the timing of agricultural work was determined by its flowering.

It was believed that this tree was endowed with the ability to drive away evil spirits. That is why the branches of viburnum were used as decoration during various ceremonies and festivals. An obligatory attribute of the wedding table was a viburnum bouquet that personifies love, beauty and trust.

Types of viburnum

Viburnum is a shrub or tree with a thin and branched trunk, large leaves and white, sometimes slightly pinkish inflorescences. Viburnum blooms in late spring or early summer. Flowering lasts 1.5 months. Berries collected in clusters ripen in autumn. It is better to collect them after the first frost, as a slight frost makes them sweeter, improves beneficial properties.

To date, there are more than 150 species of this plant. They are very diverse. The most common are deciduous shrubs, but there are evergreen (laurel-leaved) and even winter-flowered varieties. They differ in a variety of parameters: height, growth rate, color and taste of fruits, weight of berries.

Photo Gallery: Variety of Viburnum Species

Evergreen viburnum withstands temperatures up to -17 degrees

Decorative viburnum does not bear fruit, but at the time of flowering strikes with its exquisite beauty

Kompaktum - a dwarf variety of viburnum ordinary, growing up to 1.5 m tall

Viburnum vulgaris in spring and early summer is covered with large inflorescences

Bright yellow viburnum fruits look impressive in the fall

The fruits of black viburnum during ripening change color from green to pale pink, and closer to autumn - from red to blue-black

The best varieties of viburnum

If you decide to plant viburnum on your plot in order to collect a rich harvest of berries or as an ornamental plant, then it is better to purchase a varietal. Fruit viburnum, bred by selection, high-yielding, frost-resistant, bears fruit annually. Varietal decorative is unusual and unique during the flowering period.

Table: varieties of viburnum

Grade nameBush characteristicRipening timeThe shape, color and weight of berriesTaste qualitiesProductivityVarietal Features
ZholobovskayaCompact, medium-sized (up to 2.5 m)Mid septemberSpherical, bright red, 0.57 gThe taste is slightly bitter, almost sweet with high juiciness25 c / haDemanding for soil moisture
Red bunchMedium, medium spreadMediumRounded, dark red, 0.74 gSweet-sour, low bitterness2.5-4 kg per bush-
RoseumLarge, wide, vertically growing, up to 3 m high Does not bear fruitDurability - up to 80 years
MariaTall, medium spreadEarlyRounded, light red, 0.6 gSweet acidic with a slight astringency, there is a slight water content12.5 kg / haResistance to low temperatures, slightly affected by pests
UlgenCompact but tall (up to 4 m)Mid septemberSpherical-elliptical, intense red, 0.68 gSlightly bitter, juicy pulp5-10 kg per bushDemanding for soil moisture
ShukshinskayaVigorous, up to 3 m high with thick shootsMediumSpherical, crimson red, 0.53 gSlightly bitter35 c / haExcellent winter hardiness
CountryErect, up to 3 m highMid earlyRounded, bright red, 0.9 gSweet and sourn / aFruits do not fall off, high winter hardiness
PopsicleSemi-evergreen bush, branches raised up, spherical crown, plant height up to 1.5 m Does not bear fruitDecorative grade
Red coralMedium, compactMediumBright red, rounded, 0.9 gSweet and sour with a small bitterness and a pronounced aromaup to 10 kg per bushHigh transportability, long shelf life
Leningrad selectMedium-growth, medium-spreading, up to 2.5 m highMediumLarge, ruby ​​redPronounced sweetnessn / aHigh winter hardiness, exactingness to soil moisture

Photo gallery: varieties of viburnum

Kalina varieties Zholobovskaya are distinguished by high winter hardiness and productivity

Eskimo - a decorative grade of viburnum

The variety of viburnum Ulgen gives large yields, is not afraid of cold weather, has resistance to pests and diseases

The fruits of viburnum of the Dachnaya variety can be used both fresh and for the preparation of jelly, jam, jelly, jelly, marmalade

Juicy, slightly bitter pulp of Viburnum variety Red bunch contains a large amount of vitamins C and P

Viburnum cultivar Maria enters fruiting 3-4 years after planting

Viburnum cultivar Roseum - one of the most common ornamental plants in summer and garden plots

Guelder-rose of the variety Shukshinskaya is not a self-bearing plant, other varieties are needed for its pollination

Reviews gardeners about varieties of viburnum

Kalina rarely reaches a height of three meters, the bush begins to fall apart and bend to the ground ... In addition to the varieties, pay attention to varieties Ulgen, Souzga, Taiga rubies.

AndreyV

For anyone interested, I recommend the variety Maria. I read that it was obtained by selection from the wild. But it differs in the absence of bitterness and is larger (1.5 times), productive.

toliam1

I practically do not eat berries of viburnum, but I grow viburnum in the country house - a very beautiful plant and the birds like it. I have three bushes - red guelder-rose, guelder-rose Buldonezh and yellow-fruited Xanthocarpum. In addition to the fact that her fruits are yellow, the foliage does not redden in the fall, but remains green, acquiring a slightly yellow tint. The size of the leaves is larger than that of red. The berries taste normal, they do not differ from red, after frosts they become translucent - they look beautiful, just like glass yellow beads. Winters in the suburbs well. It grows in a rather damp and sunny place, its pests, like any viburnum, are very fond of, especially aphids, but the rose growing nearby is not at all interested in aphids.

Svetlana Yurievna

It is better to plant Buldenezh variety in the sun and not to forget that the bush will grow greatly and up and in breadth! You can cut it, but it seems to me that you don’t need to .. it looks spectacular precisely when it is big and all in its white balls! Ours is still growing, and acquaintances already have a giant near the house - and you can’t get past such beauty, believe me! Everyone who sees freezes ... and does not die soon. I advise? Definitely - YES! Unpretentious and spectacular!

ISAN3188

Features of planting and transplanting viburnum bush

When choosing a place for planting viburnum, focus on areas with partial shade that have neutral or slightly acidic well-moistened soil. Guelder-rose will grow on sandy and podzolic badlands, but you will not receive a good crop.

Viburnum grows best on the banks of streams, rivers, artificial reservoirs.

A month before planting, it is recommended to introduce peat and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers into the soil. Planting a seedling of viburnum can be carried out in spring or autumn, guided by the following technology:

  1. They dig a planting hole measuring about 50x50x50 cm. When planting several plants, a distance of at least 3 m is provided between them.
  2. The upper fertile soil layer is mixed with peat or humus (1 bucket per planting pit), 3 tbsp. Are added to the mixture. l urea and 0.5 l of ash or dolomite flour.
  3. The seedling is placed vertically in the center of the pit, monitoring the location of the root neck. It can be buried no more than 5 cm.
  4. A pit with a seedling is covered with prepared soil mixture.
  5. Around the seedling organize a hole for watering. The initial watering should be plentiful (about 30 liters of water).
  6. The trunk circle is mulched with sawdust and peat.

Viburnum seedling should be removed from the container and carefully spread the roots

Viburnum transplant

If the viburnum has been planted for a long time, but grows poorly and bears fruit, it is necessary to think about a transplant. It is necessary in the following cases:

  • viburnum is not enough space for normal growth and development. It is oppressed by outbuildings and other landings;
  • the plot is not comfortable for the plant in terms of illumination. The bright midday sun dries the soil, a strong shadow negatively affects the health of the plant;
  • you use a fairly mature plant as a seedling (you took from your friends, neighbors, dug wild viburnum in the forest).

A transplant can be carried out in spring, autumn or summer, following simple rules:

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  1. Preparing for a transplant plant. It is desirable that the tree is young and healthy. Damaged branches are removed from it, and then a bush is dug around the trunk. Do this gently and carefully, trying not to harm the root system. If necessary, remove the thickest root shoots, lubricating the places of cuts with charcoal.
  2. Preparing a place for a transplant. We dig a planting hole, focusing on the size of the root system, but not less than 50x50x50 cm. To backfill the transplanted plant, we use the soil mixture that we prepare, as well as for planting the viburnum seedling.
  3. After the seedling is sprinkled with earth and the soil around the trodden, at least 2 buckets of water are poured into the hole. This will help to compact the soil and remove possible voids.
  4. If the transplant is carried out in the fall, then, in addition to mulching, it is recommended to warm, cover the plant for the winter.
  5. The transplanted plant needs to be trimmed. With autumn planting, this procedure can be delayed until spring. Damaged, dry branches are pruned to the root, and the rest are 20–25 cm above ground level. Such pruning will help rejuvenate the transplanted bush.

If after transplanting, viburnum still blooms poorly, it can be cut almost to the root, leaving the trunk and branches 20 cm from the ground

Fertilizer and watering

In dry times, the plant needs watering (twice a week, 2 buckets of water under the bush). To obtain a good harvest of berries and a lush color in decorative forms, viburnum is recommended to be fed:

  • in the spring, it is recommended to carry out 2 dressings. Before swelling of the kidneys, urea (50 g per 1 m2) is scattered in the near-stem circle. Before flowering, you can use potassium sulphide (50 g per 1 m2) or wood ash (1 tbsp. Sprinkle and lightly dig around the bush);
  • in the second half of summer, viburnum requires phosphorus and potassium, so you can make complex mineral fertilizers (75 g) or 50 g of phosphorus and 25 g of potash fertilizers per 1 m2;
  • every 2 years, when digging the soil around viburnum, rotted manure (a bucket under the bush) is brought into the trunk circle.

Important! After spilling mineral fertilizers, the bush must be watered. If during the summer feeding is arid weather, then fertilizers are recommended to be dissolved in water.

Proper pruning viburnum

Viburnum is a fast-growing plant. Over the year, its branches grow by 50 cm, so the bush must be cut annually. It is recommended to do this in early spring before the start of sap flow, taking into account the following rules:

  • be sure to remove dry, damaged, old (over 6 years old) branches;
  • part of the branches in the center of the crown should be removed to ensure good illumination, on which the yield of viburnum depends.

Pruning helps the plant not only grow well and bear fruit, but also allows you to adjust the size and volume of the bush.

Using proper pruning, you can form a small tree from the viburnum bush. In this case, the formation is carried out around the selected central trunk, and all side branches and root shoots are removed. When an even trunk with a height of about 2 m is formed, they begin to form a crown. To do this, pinch the central trunk so that it begins to branch.

You need to know some features of pruning different varieties of viburnum. For example, if you grow viburnum Buldenezh, then for the future abundant flowering of a seedling in the first year, it is necessary to prune the emerging inflorescences. This will enable the plant to direct its forces to rooting and strengthening. In subsequent years, it is recommended to trim the bush in the fall, so that the plant has time to lay new flower buds for lush flowering next year.

Propagation of viburnum

There are several ways to propagate viburnum: seeds, dividing the bush, using cuttings, vertical and horizontal layering.

Seed propagation

The seed method is rarely used for the following reasons:

  • This is a fairly lengthy process that can take more than 2 years;
  • the method does not guarantee the preservation of varietal characteristics of the plant.

The seed of viburnum ordinary is flat and resembles a heart shape

The advantage of such propagation is the viability and maximum adaptability of the resulting seedlings to the proposed growing conditions. If you sow the seeds in the fall, then the seedlings will appear only after a year. Then the small seedlings should overwinter, and only after that they will enter the phase of active growth. This process can be accelerated by stratification:

  1. Seeds are placed in a humid environment. It can be sand, moss or sawdust. Containers should be stored at room temperature. After about 2 months, the seeds begin to peck.
  2. Germinated seeds are placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator and kept there for about a month. 3 months of artificial stratification replace the year during which the seeds would germinate in vivo.
  3. Then the seeds are sown in a container filled with nutrient soil.
  4. If in spring the seedlings got stronger, gained strength, 2-3 pairs of true leaflets developed on them, then it is recommended to plant them in a nursery located in open ground. At the same time, they should be provided with regular watering, top dressing and shelter for the winter.

    In the open ground, you can plant a strong seedling having several pairs of true leaves

  5. Weak seedlings are left in the planting tank, placing it outdoors. Planting the remaining seedlings in an open nursery is recommended after a year.
  6. After growing in the nursery, the strongest plants are planted in permanent places.

Viburnum seeds are characterized by poor germination: up to 20% of sowing.

Reproduction by dividing the bush

This method is most acceptable in the presence of a large bush of a good variety of viburnum, which requires a transplant to a new place. The dug bush with a sharp tool is divided into parts. Places of root cuts are treated with charcoal. When dividing, make sure that in each part there are at least 3 healthy kidneys. Each part is planted in a separate landing pit, as in a plant transplant. Propagate viburnum by dividing the bush in autumn and spring.

Propagation by cuttings

Cuttings are harvested in mid-summer. At this time, the branches of viburnum are particularly flexible, do not break. When cutting, it is necessary to ensure that each stalk is about 10 cm long and has at least 3 knots. The lower cut of the stalk is made oblique, green leaves are removed. Planting material is desirable to withstand in any root stimulant.

When using any root stimulant, you must strictly follow the instructions, since an overdose is very dangerous

Then the harvested cuttings are buried by 2 cm in the soil mixture, consisting of equal parts of river sand and peat. For good rooting, the cuttings need a fairly high temperature (about 30 ° C), so it is better to plant them in a greenhouse. Cuttings should be regularly watered, and for the winter it is necessary to cover with peat, sawdust or foliage. In the spring, grown healthy seedlings can be planted in a permanent place.

Propagation by layering

Viburnum can be propagated both by horizontal and vertical layering. For a horizontal lay, a maternal branch located close to the ground is selected, cut off its top, bent to the ground, pinned with a wire or wooden hook and covered with soil. The top of the shoot is left un dusted.

Over the summer, layering will give roots, and young branches will appear from the buds. The layer is separated from the parent branch, excavated with a lump of land and planted in a permanent place.

It is easy to propagate viburnum with vertical layers. Such reproduction includes the following steps:

  1. In autumn, the lower branches of the young viburnum bush are cut off, leaving at least 4 buds on them.
  2. Hubbing the bushes.
  3. In the spring, shoots emerging from the buds are again covered with earth.
  4. After the shoots grow to 25 cm, they can be separated from the mother plant and planted in a new place.

Video: viburnum propagation by layering

Pest and Disease Control

Fungal and bacterial diseases rarely affect viburnum, but they can lead to such troubles as loss of decorativeness, drying of inflorescences and decay of the fruit. It is important to identify and take measures to treat the plant in time.

Table: Viburnum disease

DiseaseSignsControl measures
Frost burnCracking and drying of the bark, the death of exposed tissues. Massive appearance of pale leaves, gradually turning brown and dry.
  1. Liquid clay or oil paint is used to cover cracks.
  2. Heavily affected stems are removed.
Ascochitic spottingGrayish rounded spots with a brownish border on the foliage. In these spots, the causative agent of the disease - the fungus - multiplies. Over time, the spots crack, dry out, their middle falls out.
  1. Destruction of affected leaves.
  2. For spring processing, Bordeaux fluid or copper oxychloride is used.
Gray rotThe leaves are covered with a brown coating. The same coating appears on the berries. Over the brown color, a grayish-smoky coating of the mycelium can appear.
  1. Destruction of affected leaves.
  2. The use of Vectra for the treatment of bushes.
Fruit rotDrying of young shoots, flowers, leaves and berries. Fruits are first covered with small scales, then blacken and dry.
  1. Removal of affected hands.
  2. Use for processing before and after flowering Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride.

Photo gallery: signs of viburnum diseases

With a frosty burn on the affected shoots of viburnum, pale, chlorous, quickly drying leaves appear

Affected by gray rot, the berries turn brown and dry, the mycelium permeates them through

When affected by ascochitic spotting, rounded or angular gray spots with a dark brown border appear on the leaves of viburnum

Harmful insects quite often attack viburnum and pose a serious danger to it. The plant loses its decorative effect, flowers and crops can die completely. Timely treatment of bushes with appropriate compounds will protect the plant from insects.

Table: Viburnum pests

PestsSigns of defeatControl measures
Viburnum aphidTwisted, deformed, dried leaves.Treatment with Intavir, Karbofos (according to the instructions).
Viburnum leaf beetleThe appearance of large holes in the leaves. A large colony of the pest attacks the fruits and branches.
  1. Mechanical removal of damaged shoots and leaves.
  2. Early spring treatment with preparations of Karbofos, Intavir, Fufanon (according to the instructions).

During the years of mass reproduction, the viburnum leaf beetle can gnaw the entire bush so that there will be no greenery at all

Video: proper fit and care for viburnum

Viburnum bush is an ideal resident of any garden plot. He will constantly delight you and your guests with decorativeness, unpretentiousness, usefulness and originality.

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