Beans: species and varietal diversity

Beans are among the ten most common and consumed vegetables. Therefore, it is not surprising that in almost every garden you can find beds of this useful crop from the legume family. Indeed, one garden is not enough here, because the enormous species diversity of the culture and the unpretentious nature of cultivation and care attracts gardeners to plant different varieties that differ not only in the appearance of the plant itself, but also in the color, taste and quality characteristics of the fruits.

Options for the appearance and shape of the bean bush

If the type of plant is used as the basis for the classification of beans, that is, the appearance and shape of the bush, then the following varieties can be distinguished:

  • bush;
  • curly;
  • half-wobbling.

Bush beans

Shrub bean is a low plant with a maximum bush height of not more than 60 cm. Since it does not require support, it is grown on farms and for industrial purposes. Most varieties of this subspecies are characterized by early maturity, unpretentiousness, cold resistance and high productivity.

Shrub bean grows low. does not require supports and garters

Table: popular varieties of bush beans included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements

Grade namePlant characteristicsRipening periodBean CharacteristicSeed characteristicsFeatures
CinderellaShrub plant up to 55 cm high with

dark green wrinkled leaves

Early ripe
  • Rounded
  • curved;
  • no parchment layer;
  • yellow color;
  • length up to 14 cm;
  • up to 55 beans are formed on one plant;
  • productivity about 1, 7 kg / sq.m
Elliptical, white, strongly veneeredGood taste. Resistance to Anthracnosis and Bacteriosis
Purple queenShrub, undersized with dark green, slightly wrinkled leavesMid-season
  • Curved;
  • no parchment layer;
  • the color is dark purple;
  • average length;
  • the cross section is round;
  • productivity up to 3 kg / sq. m
  • Kidney-shaped;
  • curved;
  • Brown;
  • strongly venated
Great taste
ArrowBush, highMid-season with a growing season of about 80 daysBeans in the initial stage of seed growth are green, almost straight, medium length
  • Plain
  • purple
  • kidney-shaped with weak curvature;
  • the color of the ring near the hem differs from the color of the seed;
  • productivity about 0.2 kg / sq.m
High value qualities. Resistance to Anthracnosis, Bacteriosis and Yellow Mosaic Virus
Mistress's dreamBush

up to 60 cm high

Mid-season with a growing season of about 85 days
  • Direct;
  • long
  • wide
  • White with a white hem;
  • kidney-shaped;
  • productivity about 0.3 kg / sq.m
  • Resistant to lodging and shedding;
  • high drought tolerance;
  • weak defeat with anthracnosis and ascochitosis

Photo Gallery: Popular Bush Bean Varieties

The vegetative period of the bean variety Purple Queen is 55-60 days

Beans Beans Dream hostesses in technical maturity have a dark green color, in biological - straw yellow

Cinderella Beans - an early ripening sugar variety that begins to bear fruit 45–50 days after germination

Curly beans

The lengths of curled beans may reach five meters, so most often it is grown at fences, walls of houses or other buildings. Landings of this variety perfectly decorate the house and garden areas. When growing on an open bed, climbing vines require a support with a height of at least 2 meters.

The undeniable advantage of the variety is a significant saving of space on the site - from one square meter it gives a plentiful harvest. The growing season of varieties of curly beans is longer, in comparison with bush forms.

Vertical planting of curly beans save space in small areas and decorate them during flowering and fruiting

Table: popular varieties of bush beans included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements

Grade namePlant characteristicsRipening periodBean CharacteristicSeed characteristicsFeatures
TurkClimbing plant up to 3.5 m high with light green leavesMid-season
  • Direct;
  • elliptical across;
  • parchment layer and fibers are absent;
  • yield up to 4.3 kg / sq. m
  • Rounded
  • white
  • venation is average
Good taste. Requires support when growing
VioletClimbing plant up to 2.5 m high with dark green wrinkled leavesMid-seasonLong
  • Curved and strongly curved;
  • parchment layer and fibers are absent;
  • color light purple;
  • heart-shaped cross section;
  • productivity within 2.5 kg / sq. m
  • Brown;
  • kidney-shaped;
  • with moderate venation
Require support
Gerda
  • Curly;
  • about 3 meters high; medium-sized
Early ripe
  • Light yellow with a pointed tip;
  • parchment layer and fiberiness are absent;
  • length about 20 cm;
  • width up to 1.2 cm;
  • rounded across;
  • productivity about 4 kg / sq.m
  • Narrowly elliptical;
  • white color;
  • with moderate venation
They require garters to support. Good taste
Lace makerClimbing plant about 2 m highMid-season
  • Yellow;
  • long
  • wide;
  • slightly curved;
  • without parchment layer and fibers;
  • productivity about 2, 5 kg / sq.m
  • Large;
  • elliptical;
  • white
  • weak venation
Good taste

Photo Gallery: Popular Varieties of Curly Beans

Violetta beans - a very early, unpretentious variety, characterized by excellent yield in any region

The growing season of the variety of Gerda beans is 50 days from seedling to fruiting

70–77 beans are simultaneously ripened on the Lacemaker beans

Variety Turchanka is liked by gardeners for its delicate taste and beauty of the plant itself

If the height of the beans ranges from 70 cm to 2 m, then the variety is classified as semi-mature.

Beans: Vegetable and Grain

According to the method of eating, beans can be divided into grain and vegetable, that is, ripe beans or shoulder blades along with unripe grains are used for food. Interestingly, grains used to be considered rough food, suitable exclusively for the common people. But the pods were very popular with the aristocracy.

Haricot bean

In a grain variety, only seeds are edible. Before use, the beans are peeled, hence another name for this variety - peeled beans. The beans (pods) of such beans have a hard wax coating, they are hard and tasteless. But the beans themselves are excellent in taste, have a diverse appearance and special nutritional value.

Peel the beans after drying, then the pods open easily

Table: Popular Bean Varieties

Grade namePlant characteristicsRipening periodBean CharacteristicSeed characteristicsFeatures
Red Riding HoodShrub form up to 35 cm high with feathery yellow-green leavesMid-season, technical ripeness reaches in 55–65 days, and biological - in 100 days
  • Bivalve with internal incomplete partitions;
  • there is a parchment layer;
  • pod length about 12 cm
  • oval, slightly flattened;
  • white color with a bright red spot at the eye;
  • medium size (about 1 cm)
Resistant to lodging and defeat anthracnosis and bacteriosis. During heat treatment, the seeds do not digest
SwallowUndersized bush formEarly ripelength about 15 cmWhite grains with a pattern resembling swallow wingsGreat taste.

It boils quickly during heat treatment

Chocolate girlShrub form up to 60 cm highMedium late with a growing season of about 100 days
  • Direct;
  • medium in length;
  • beak without bending
  • brown color with a white hem at the eye;
  • productivity about 0.4 kg / sq.m
Resistant to lodging, shedding, drought. Weakly affected by anthracnosis and bacteriosis
BalladShrub plant up to 50 cm highThe average late, growing season is about 100 days
  • direct;
  • middle length;
  • the beak is long. slightly curved
  • Beige with dots and stripes of purple;
  • productivity about 0.3 kg / sq.m
Resistant to lodging, shedding and drought. Good taste

Photo Gallery: Popular Bean Shellers

Advantages of the Ballad variety: resistant to shedding, lodging, drought, good culinary assessment, disease resistance

Beans Little Red Riding Hood got its name due to its original appearance - white beans with a large red spot located in the eye area

Beans of the Swallow variety got its name because of the grain pattern - it resembles the shape of a swallow’s tail

The lack of beans of the variety Shokoladnitsa - a relatively low content of amino acids

Vegetable beans

Recently, vegetable beans varieties have become especially popular among gardeners. It differs from grain in that not only grains are edible in it, but also the pods themselves. For this reason, vegetable beans are often called green beans, asparagus, or sugar. The vegetable bean pod does not have a parchment layer and coarse fibers even in a mature state, therefore, for the preparation of various dishes, canning and freezing, the entire shoulder blade, most often with immature seeds, is used. String beans can be either bush or curly, it has excellent decorative qualities, which is why it has gained the love and veneration of many gardeners and gardeners.

Table: Popular Bean Varieties

Grade namePlant characteristicsRipening timeBean CharacteristicSeed characteristicsFeatures
Oil king
  • bush;
  • average height;
  • leaves are light green, slightly wrinkled
Early ripe
  • Curved;
  • long
  • light yellow;
  • rounded across;
  • without parchment layer and fibers;
  • productivity about 3 kg / sq.m
  • Kidney-shaped;
  • white
  • slightly veined
Great taste
Sax without fiber 615Bush height up to 40 cmEarly ripening, the period from seedlings to technical ripeness is about 50 days, to seed ripening - 75 days
  • Light green;
  • slightly curved;
  • rounded across;
  • parchment layer and fibers are absent;
  • length - up to 12 cm;
  • width about 0.6 cm;
  • productivity about 1, 5 kg / sq.m
  • yellowish greenish;
  • elongated shape
To a medium degree affected by bacterial, viral diseases and anthracnosis
Golden Saxon
  • Bush;
  • low;
  • leaves are green, small, slightly wrinkled
Early ripe
  • Curved;
  • parchment layer and fibers are absent;
  • light yellow color;
  • rounded across;
  • the top of the bean is pointed;
  • productivity up to 1.9 kg / sq.m
  • white
  • elliptical shape;
  • small and medium size;
  • slightly veined
Great taste
Mauritanian
  • Curly;
  • up to 3 m high;
  • medium-sized;
  • leaves are small, green, medium-wrinkled
Mid-season, the period from germination to the start of harvesting is about 55 days
  • Short (about 12 cm);
  • not wide (about 0.7 cm);
  • direct;
  • green
  • with a short beak and a blunt tip;
  • rounded in cross section;
  • parchment layer and fibers are absent;
  • productivity up to 2.5 kg / sq.m
Elliptical, black with a slight venation
  • Requires garter to support;
  • good taste;
  • high productivity;
  • long fruiting period;
  • cold resistance

Photo Gallery: Popular Varieties of Vegetable Beans

From July to autumn, Sax bean without fiber 615 will throw new fruits

Bean variety Golden saxa is used in home cooking, for freezing and canning in the phase of milk-wax ripeness

The taste of the variety Oil King is very pleasant, similar to the taste of young asparagus shoots

Mauritank beans are recommended for cultivation in open ground on supports

Please note that there are semi-sugar bean varieties. Their feature is that the beans can be eaten only in an unripe state. Over time, a parchment layer forms on them, they become stiff. In this case, you need to wait for the seeds to ripen, husk them and use them as food grains.

Video: Asparagus Beans, Benefit

Red, White, Yellow, Black and Other Beans

Both pods and bean seeds can have a different shape and color, differ in their nutritional and taste qualities. Four bean colors are the most popular:

  • white. It is rich in iron and calcium;
  • red. It is recommended to use it to maintain immunity and improve the digestive system;
  • yellow. This variety is characterized by the content of a large number of vitamins and minerals, as well as its versatility;
  • purple. It changes color when cooked.

The variety of beans is not limited to the named colors. Among gardeners, black, green and motley beans are also popular.

The color of the seeds and pods of the bean depends on the variety and can be white, yellowish, light or bright green, variegated, purple and even black

White beans

White beans are most often grown in gardens. She is the most familiar, quickly cooks, as she does not need preliminary soaking. Varieties with white grains have the following advantages:

  • they contain a small amount of protein, therefore they are recommended for dietary nutrition;
  • contain a lot of iron, which helps strengthen the cardiovascular system;
  • go well with all vegetables.

White beans can be bushy, curly and semi-curly. Many varieties of asparagus beans also have white seeds. Its productivity depends on varietal characteristics and the correct application of agricultural techniques. Speaking of white beans, I want to talk about unusual varieties of this vegetable.

Black eye

This white bean is considered by many as a variety of asparagus. In fact, the Black Eye belongs to the genus Vigna from the Legume family. He is the closest relative of all Fasolevs, but differs from them at the biochemical level. The variety has a very thin pod and the original appearance of the grains. They are white, but there is always a small black spot near each eye. The grains of the Black Eye are quickly boiled, as they have a thin and delicate skin.

The black eye is popular in the USA, China, Asia, Africa, Americans, for example, prepare from it the traditional New Year's dish “Leaping John”

Lima beans

It is also one of the varieties of white beans. Some notice the similarity of Lima bean seeds to mandarin slices, others to the growing moon. The grain size is large, slightly flattened. Due to the interesting creamy taste, this variety of beans is often called oily. Lima grains contain a lot of proteins, fats, vitamins and dietary fiber. Specialists note the usefulness of this variety for blood vessels and the heart.

This type of bean received its name from the capital of Peru - the city of Lima, where the variety was classified

Video: Lima Beans

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Chali

This bean is especially popular in Turkey and in some Asian countries. Chali grains are cooked for a long time, but their indisputable advantage is their large size, as well as their saturation with substances such as potassium and calcium.

The name of Chali beans is translated from Turkish as a bush

Navy

Beans from Boston are often called this small-fruited, pea-shaped, milky-white variety of beans. Grains of Nevi really resemble peas, they are small and rounded, but are champions in the content of fiber and vitamins. Navy is versatile in use, quickly cooks, has a pleasant aroma.

Nevi was known in ancient Egypt and China, and in ancient Rome it was used for the manufacture of whitewash and powder.

Red beans

Almost all Mexican national dishes include red beans. Its grains resemble a crescent, have a glossy surface and color from motley pink to rich burgundy. The shell of red bean seeds is usually dense, and the flesh is tender and oily.

Kindy

Kindi beans have a dark purple or deep burgundy color, as well as a smooth glossy tone. During heat treatment, they brighten. It is recommended to cook Kindi in combination with other vegetables for better absorption of iron, which is rich in beans. The variety is recommended for use in diabetes mellitus, rheumatism. It is ideal for canning.

The combination of pleasant aroma and rich rich taste earned Kindi beans gourmet love around the world

Azuki

This culture also belongs to the genus Vigna. It has a sweet taste and aroma, it is used to make sweet soups, bean pastas, desserts. To make vitamin salads and snacks, Azuki bean seeds are often sprouted. The variety is especially popular in Japan and some Asian countries.

Azuki is appreciated for the speed of cooking, as it does not require pre-soaking and long cooking

Purple bean

Many chefs note the tenderness and juiciness of purple string beans. During heat treatment, it completely changes its color and turns green. The most popular varieties of purple vegetable beans are the Blauchilde and Purple Queen varieties, which we described above, and the cereal - Violet.

Blauchild

This is an early ripe, high-yielding variety of curly form, and it gives excellent crops in any region. The growing season from sowing to harvesting is approximately 2 months. The plant is tall (about 3 m), powerful, it definitely needs support. Beans are long (up to 25 cm) and wide (up to 1.5 cm), flat-rounded. Parchment layer and fiber are absent. Blauchild seeds are white in color, have usefulness and nourishment, like beans. Unripe pods are used for food, which can not only be boiled, but also fried, marinated and frozen.

Blauchilde - curly purple beans, and everything is purple in her: flowers, pods and even leaves become dark purple over time

Violet

Violet is a curly shape. It is not only valuable grain, but also decorative. The variety is very harvested: during fruiting, the whole plant is hung with long lilac beans. Grains inside, as they ripen, change their color from green to dark purple.

Violet adult plant grows to 2.5 m in height

Yellow beans

Yellow beans stand out with their bright, elegant beans among many varieties of this crop. It is universal in use, tasty after heat treatment, it can be pickled, canned and frozen. Raw yellow shoulder blades in various vegetable salads are also useful. We already talked about some varieties of beans with yellow beans: Oil King, Lacemaker, Gerda, Golden Saxon. Another popular representative in this category is Sweet Courage beans. This is an early ripe bush type bean. Already 55 days after the emergence of seedlings, you can harvest the first crop of long (from 12 cm), juicy beans with a bright yellow color.

You can recognize asparagus of the Sweet Courage variety by cylindrical pods that have a smooth bend and are painted in bright yellow color.

Green Bean Mash

Another representative of the Vigna genus is the bean culture Mash. This is the oldest cultural representative of his family, who began the conquest of the world from India. Mash fruits are especially popular in the national cuisine of Asian countries. The taste of the seeds of this culture resembles beans, but it has a nutty flavor. Mash is preparing quickly, its consumption does not cause increased flatulence, so it is recommended even to small children from six months of age.

Mash is a fairly nutritious product: 100 grams of grains contains 300 calories

Mash is universal in application. it can be combined with seafood, cereals, meat. But the most useful way to consume a vegetable is salads with its seedlings.

Video: how to germinate and eat Mash

Black bean

Black beans are not so often grown in garden plots as their white and red counterparts, but experts note the usefulness and nutritional value of its fruits. They contain more protein, so they can completely replace meat, especially since the characteristics of black bean proteins are closest to animal protein. In addition, the systematic use of vegetable seeds normalizes the chemical balance in the stomach.

One of the prominent representatives of this variety is Preto beans. It is common among Hispanic peoples. Brazilians, for example, prepare from it the main national dish - feijoad. Preto is distinguished by the small size of the grains, silky-black skin, creamy flesh with a delicate but dense structure. It has a sweet taste with a slight bitterness, as well as a pleasant berry aroma, especially manifested when soaking or boiling beans.

Preto beans need long cooking (at least 1.5 hours) with pre-soaking in water

Motley beans

Пёстрые разновидности фасоли довольно популярны и часто выращиваются на огородных участках. Мы уже рассказали о таких лущильных сортах, как Баллада, Ласточка, имеющие семена с пёстрой окраской. Ещё одним эффектным представителем этой разновидности является фасоль Пинто. Сырые семена этого сорта напоминают миниатюрные живописные полотна. После термической обработки оригинальность исчезает, но окупается нежным вкусом фасоли.

Зёрна Пинто очень полезны: они являются источником высококачественного растительного белка, а также способствуют снижению холестерина и стабилизации уровня сахара в крови.

Пинто в переводе с испанского означает «окрашенная»

Сорта фасоли для выращивания в различных регионах

Агротехнические приёмы и правила выращивания фасоли в южных и северных регионах, на востоке и западе страны практически не отличаются друг от друга. Различаются только подходы по улучшению физико-химического состояния почвы и посевной календарь. Для получения хорошего урожая немаловажно правильно определиться с сортом культуры и способом выращивания фасоли: в открытом или защищённом грунте, рассадным способом или посевом семян непосредственно в грунт.

Государственный реестр селекционных достижений не разграничивает сорта фасоли по регионам допуска и указывает, что все они могут выращиваться во всех регионах страны. Анализируя информацию, представленную в характеристиках сортов, а также то, что в северных регионах предпочтительнее выращивать более скороспелые разновидности, позволим себе сформировать рекомендательную таблицу сортов фасоли, включённой в Госреестр, для различных регионов страны.

Таблица: сорта фасоли для различных регионов

Страны, регионыСорта зерновой фасолиСорта овощной фасоли
Южные регионы РФ, Украина, КавказБаллада, Варвара, Гелиада, Мечта хозяйки, Снежана, СтаничнаяАмальтея, Весточка, Диалог, Зинаида, Златовласка, Надежда, Удача
Сибирь, Дальний Восток, УралЛукерья, Оливковая, Светлая, УфимскаяАнфиса, Виола, Дарина, Золото Сибири, Изумрудная, Маруся, Ника, Солнечная, Сибирячка, Юбилейная
Подмосковье, Поволжье, средняя полоса РФОран, Первомайская, Стрела, ШоколадницаАнтошка, Галепка, Золушка, Кружевница, Масляный король, Пурпурная королева, Сладкий кураж
Северо-Западный регионЗолотистая, Рубин, СиреневаяБона, Журавушка, Пагода, Рант, Санта без волокна 615, Секунда, Фламинго

Какая бы разновидность фасоли ни была выбрана для посадки на вашем участке, в любом случае вы получите уникальную белковую добавку для разных блюд, содержащую в себе также множество полезных витаминов и микроэлементов.

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