Bauchinia: orchid tree at home
This is not to say that bauhinia is a common indoor plant. Meanwhile, she is quite worthy to become the pearl of any collection. This unusual tree is distinguished by the duration, abundance and beauty of flowering. Often lovers of indoor plants refuse to buy, believing in advance that they cannot afford caring for a capricious and demanding culture. However, in fact, this exotic is surprisingly unpretentious, even a beginner grower can cope with the content of an orchid tree at home.
What does a bauhinia look like?
Bauhinia (Bauhinia), also known as the "orchid tree" - a genus of plants belonging to the family legumes (Fabaceae). Their appearance is very different - it can be vines, and shrubs, and shrubs, and trees more than 10 m high. But they can easily identify close relatives, thanks to the flowers, in shape resembling orchids. This is due to the nickname of the plant, which has nothing to do with the Orchid family.
Bauchinia in nature is most often a tall tree or a sprawling shrub.
According to various sources, in nature there are from two hundred to three hundred species of bauhinia. Most of them can be found in South and Central America, Southeast Asia. Less common plant in India, China, Africa, Australia. The climatic conditions in which it successfully survives are very different - these are humid tropical forests, and swamps, and savannas with long droughts, and highlands.
At home, the dimensions of the Bauhinia are much more modest
The name of the plant was given by the famous French botanist Charles Plume in honor of the brothers Baugin, Caspar and Johann. Swiss scientists have made a great contribution to the study of American flora and its systematization. The name was officially fixed when in one of his works Karl Linnaeus mentioned it.
Where climate permits, bauhinia is widely used in landscape design
Individual varieties, such as mottled and racemose bauchinia, are widely used in Asian folk medicine. Decoctions and poultices from leaves and bark treat various skin diseases, indigestion and even leprosy. The effectiveness of such funds is due to the presence of amino acids and flavonoids.
At home, the bauchinia is a small (1–1.5 m high) very elegant tree or bush. It does not differ in growth rate in “captivity”, in nature this happens much faster.
The plant is literally strewn with large (8-15 cm in diameter) flowers - snow-white, yellowish, lemon, peach, pastel pink, scarlet, raspberry, lilac, purple. Each of them is short-lived (lives from day to week, depending on the species), but new ones are constantly blooming. Thanks to this, the flowering period stretches for several months - from the beginning of April to September-October. Buds are collected in inflorescences of 2–4 pieces. Petals can be decorated with thin strokes and specks of a contrasting color, sometimes a different shade base is found.
Bauchinia flowers not only look very impressive, but also spread an unobtrusive pleasant aroma
In place of fallen flowers, fruits are formed - large pods 10–25 cm long. Fully ripened crack along. Each contains several brown flat seeds, very similar in shape to beans. You can’t eat them, they are poisonous. At home, pollination is done by a flower grower, transferring pollen from one plant to another with a brush.
Bauchinia fruits - large pods with staggered seeds
Without flowers, bauchinia also looks pretty. Its leaves (about 12 cm long) of a deep green tint in the sun are cast in silver and have a very interesting shape, similar to a heart or a hoof - they consist of two “lobes” and close at night, folding along the central vein. If this occurs during daylight hours, then the plant suffers from elevated temperatures. Thus, bauhinia reduces the area from which moisture evaporates. The leaves contrast effectively with the bark of a brick or pale red color.
The Bauchinia has very interesting leaves, folding at night and in the heat along the central vein
A stylized Bauhinia flower can be seen on the coat of arms and flag of Hong Kong, as well as banknotes of this state. It has been its emblem since 1965. Leaves of bauhinia in Asia are often called "leaves of wisdom." Pupils and students use them instead of bookmarks for textbooks, believing that this helps to successfully pass exams.
Hong Kong flag design was officially approved in 1990
Video: appearance of the bauhinia
To grow at home, quite a few varieties of bauhinia have adapted. Most often you can find the following:
- Corymbosa bauchinia. Liana with flowers collected in inflorescences in the form of a loose brush. Petals are pale lilac with thin pink and purple streaks. Fruits - bright green pods about 25 cm long, changing color to brown as they ripen. Each of them has 16 seeds. The leaves are small, 4–5 cm. Petioles are short (1.5–2 cm), reddish.
- Pointy or Malaysian Bauhinia (acuminate). The bush is about 1.5 m high. The flowers are snow-white, 8-10 cm in diameter. Each of them fades in a day, but the flowering process stretches from mid-spring to early fall. The length of the leaves is about 10 cm.
- Felt Bauchinia (tomentosa). A tree, whose height at home rarely exceeds 1.5–2 m. The branches are quite thin, therefore they wilt under the weight of flowers and fruits. The leaves are bright green, veins are highlighted in a darker color. Petals lemon yellow with a brownish spot at the base. Each flower lives no more than a day, during this time managing to change the shade to saturated purple. The pods are thin, up to 10 cm long. Each contains 8–10 seeds. Young fruits are smooth and green; as they ripen, their skin becomes velvety to the touch and turns brown. Because of this feature, the view was named.
- Bauchinia purpurea. The most common species grown at home. This is a tree with a crown in the shape of an almost regular ball and slightly wilted shoots. Leaves of salad color with a bluish tint, length - 10-12 cm. The flowers are large, with a diameter of up to 10 cm. Petals shimmer in different shades of purple. The base and the pattern of thin strokes of white. The fruits are very large (25-30 cm in length). It was this plant that received the nickname "purple orchid tree", which then spread to the entire genus.
- Bauhinia pied (variegata). Chameleon tree. The color of leaves and petals varies depending on the place of growth. Sometimes it is very reminiscent of purple bauchinia. It can be distinguished by the "overlapping" petals and the number of stamens (5–6 instead of 3–4).
- Bauhinia lonely (monandra). A tree that reaches a height of 6 m in nature, at home 1–1.5 m. The leaves are large (about 15 cm in length), under their weight the branches tend to land. Flowers are collected in racemose inflorescences. All but one of the petals is pastel yellow with pinkish dots. The latter is covered with bright raspberry touches. After a day, the main background changes to pink in various shades. The peak of flowering occurs in the summer, but individual buds can appear throughout the year. Pods 10-15 cm long, “wooden” to the touch.
- Blakeana's Bauchinia, sometimes not quite correctly referred to as "black" or "black". A breeding hybrid discovered in 1880. Author unknown. "Parents" - Bauchinia variegated and purple. The name is given in honor of the then Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Henry Blake. Officially recognized as the most beautiful variety of this plant. The flowers are purple and scarlet. It does not produce viable seeds.
But the variety Bauchinia blue, despite the widespread misconception, does not exist. Neither "natural" varieties, nor breeding hybrids can have such a petal shade.
Photo Gallery: Bauchinias popular with amateur gardeners
- Bauhinia Blake - a very beautiful breeding hybrid whose origin is shrouded in mystery
- A lonely Bauchinia literally during the day changes the shade of the petals from pale yellow to pink
- The color of the leaves and petals of bauhinia variegated varies depending on the growing conditions
- Bauhinia purpurea - the most popular variety among amateur gardeners
- Felt Bauchinia owes the name to the velvety surface of ripened fruits
- Pointy Bauchinia flowers are short-lived, but new buds are constantly forming
- Bauchinia corymbose due to dimensions in florist apartments is rare
Optimal conditions for orchid tree cultivation
Despite its exotic origin, Bauhinia is surprisingly unpretentious. The only thing that can keep the grower from buying is the dimensions of the plant. It is unlikely that a two-meter intensively branching tree and its owner can simultaneously coexist comfortably, for example, in the "Khrushchev".
Table: how to create a microclimate suitable for Bauhinia
|Location||Near the window facing south, southeast, southwest. In summer, it is advisable to take the plant out into the fresh air, protecting it from rain and cold drafts.|
|Lighting||The best option is bright light with shading during hours of maximum solar activity. The plant will survive in partial shade, and under diffused light, but in this case the flowering will not be so plentiful, and the branches will stretch and grow limp. In winter, to prolong daylight hours to 10-12 hours, additional illumination is required. After a period of rest, the Bauhinia is gradually accustomed to the bright sun.|
|Temperature||The best indicator is 22–25ºС. It tolerates sudden changes in temperature. The critical minimum in summer is 15ºС. If it comes out cold and rainy, the bauhinia almost stops growing, a lot of "empty" buds are formed, which fall before they are fully formed. At rest - 12-15ºС. It can tolerate short-term frosts up to -5ºС.|
|Air humidity||If possible, provide high humidity (75–80%), but a standard 40–50% bauhinia will be fine. The plant is sprayed only in extreme heat, making sure that the drops do not fall on the flowers and buds. Once a week, wipe the leaves with a wet sponge.|
If the Bauhinia lacks light, it forms much fewer buds than under the bright sun
The bauhinia purchased at the store gets used to the new conditions of detention for a rather long time, it transfers painfully. During the first few months, the discharge of buds, foliage and a general not too presentable appearance is normal.
How to plant and transplant a plant
Bauchinia is transplanted annually, increasing the diameter of the pot by 1–2 cm. If for some reason this is not possible, remove the earthen lump and cut the roots by 2–3 cm. Fill the free space below with a fresh substrate and return the plant to the container. Very large specimens, which are physically impossible to transplant due to size, change the upper 7-10 cm of soil. The best time for the procedure is the beginning of spring.
Bauhinia is undemanding to the quality of the soil. She is quite satisfied with the standard substrate for flowering houseplants. Independently, the soil is mixed from fertile turf, leafy soil, humus or rotted compost and perlite (2: 2: 2: 1). The latter can be replaced by coarse river sand.
Bauchinia feels rather well and develops in ordinary soil for flowering indoor plants
Since the plant is quite tall and massive, the capacity is chosen stable, similar in shape to a bucket. A prerequisite is the presence of drainage holes. A thick (4–5 cm) layer of expanded clay or fine pebbles is poured onto the bottom. If the plant is quite large, this material can also be mixed into the substrate itself. This will provide better aeration of the soil, prevent water from stagnating and make the pot a little heavier.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
The aerial part of the adult bauchinia is quite massive, therefore, the container needs to be voluminous and stable
Transplanted Bauhinia by transshipment method:
- Half an hour before the procedure, water the plant. Remove it from the old pot. Try to keep the earth ball intact.
- If necessary, trim the roots with a sharpened, sanitized knife. Sprinkle “wounds” with crushed chalk, activated carbon, colloidal sulfur.
- In a bauchinia, severely affected by rot, shake off the substrate from the roots, cut off all the damaged areas and soak them for 2–3 hours in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate or 1% of any fungicide (HOM, Bordeaux liquid, Kuprozan).
- Pour a fresh substrate (a layer 2-3 cm thick) into the drainage pot. Place an earthen lump in the container and add soil around the edges.
- Water the plant gently. Within 3-4 days, protect it from direct sunlight.
Household Care Practitioners
Even a grower who does not have much experience can cope with the care of bauhinia. The main rule to be learned is not to fill it. Rot is rapidly developing in the acidifying substrate.
The drought in the pot is much better tolerated by the bauhinia than the swamp. Therefore, it needs a fairly rare, but plentiful watering. Enough once every 4-7 days. Intervals are adjusted depending on the weather outside. Between procedures, the soil should dry at least 2/3 in depth. But to bring to such a state when it begins to move away from the walls of the pot is undesirable.
Most often, orchids are watered by immersion, but this method is also suitable for an orchid tree - it allows you to avoid getting drops on the flowers
Water for irrigation is warmed to room temperature. Ideally, it should be rain or melt, but also filtered, boiled or settled. Since bauchinia prefers a slightly acidic substrate, with every third watering, you can add citric acid or apple cider vinegar (a few granules or drops) to it.
In early spring, the Bauhinia growing green mass needs nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Suitable for indoor plants, as well as those that are usually used in the garden - carbamide, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate. Another option is natural organics (infusion of fresh cow manure, diluted 1:15 with water). You can alternate feeding. Frequency - once every 3-4 weeks.
From May to July, complex fertilizers are introduced with a predominance of phosphorus and potassium in the composition. An excess of nitrogen at this time will lead to the fact that all the forces of Bauhinia will go to the formation of shoots and leaves, flowering will be sparse, if at all.
Universal fertilizers for flowering indoor plants are quite suitable for feeding bauchinia, you just need to pay attention to the composition
By the end of summer, all feeding is stopped. The shoots formed this year cease to grow and become lignified. This will help the plant more easily winter.
For winter, the bauhinia is placed in the brightest place in the apartment, providing the required coolness. A glazed loggia is suitable, for example. Watering is reduced to once every 15–20 days; top dressing is not applied at all.
If it is not possible to create the desired temperature, the bauhinia is moved as close to the window as possible, covering the heating batteries with a blanket or a thick cloth. The plant is periodically sprayed (heating appliances dry the air strongly) and watered more often than when kept in cold.
Trimming for bauhinia is a must. Some varieties (especially those with large leaves) without this at home simply do not branch. The first time it is carried out on a three-year-old plant. It is shortened to a height from which the appearance of lateral shoots is desirable (usually about 40 cm). Since the best time for this is spring, pruning is most often combined with a transplant.
Bauchinia from the age of three years are recommended to be cut for greater “bushiness” and abundance of flowering
In the future, young shoots pinch each spring on 2-3 upper leaves. The plant tolerates pruning relatively easily, but you should not be zealous. At a time, you can remove no more than a quarter of the green mass.
Bauhinia is well suited for growing bonsai. It is possible to form a crown of the desired configuration in a tree of normal size. Most often, shoots for this are wrapped with wire (for a maximum of three months). You just need to remember that they must be lignified.
In Asia, bauhinia is widely used for bonsai cultivation; the crown of a tree is easily formed
And also, in the form of a tree you can grow a durant, read about it: rastenija / duranta-kak-vyrastit-nebesnyj-cvetok.html
Common mistakes of an amateur gardener
Bauhinia is a hardy plant that can forgive the grower many mistakes in care. But for a tree, such errors do not pass without a trace, it noticeably loses in decorativeness. Most clearly, something is wrong with the plant, evidence of a lack of flowering. But there are other disturbing symptoms.
Table: how Bauchinia responds to errors in care
|What does the plant look like||What is the reason|
|Bauchinia does not bloom.||The absence of a dormant period, a long-term transplant, too rare top dressing or an excess of nitrogen in the soil.|
|Falling buds||The room is too cold. Or Bauchinia is in a draft.|
|Beige, whitish or silvery dry spots on the leaves.||Sunburn. Most often, it appears on plants that are sprayed and exposed to bright rays. Drops of water play the role of lenses focusing the light.|
|Yellowing leaves with green streaks.||Overly plentiful watering.|
|Turning leaves.||Too much light. This can happen with a plant that, after wintering, without adaptation, was exposed to direct sunlight.|
|Turning pale and fading leaves, thinning drooping shoots.||Lack of light.|
|Curl leaves||Calcium deficiency.|
|Leaves remaining folded during the day.||The room is too hot and / or the air is too dry.|
|The blackening base of the trunk and shoots.||Low temperature combined with a “swamp” in the pot. Because of this, root rot develops.|
Yellowing Bauchinia Leaves Indicate Irrigation
Common Diseases and Flower Pests
Bauchinia at home is especially often affected by root rot. Also, it is often attacked by pests that feed on plant sap. Any disease is much easier to prevent than to deal with the consequences. Therefore, special attention should be paid to simple preventive measures:
- quarantine new copies of the collection for 20-30 days;
- regular inspection of indoor plants (preferably in a magnifying glass) and immediate isolation of those on which suspicious symptoms are identified;
- placement of home and cut flowers (especially roses and chrysanthemums) as far as possible from each other;
- daily airing of the room, erasing dust from leaves at least once a week;
- use only disinfected soil, sterilized pots and tools;
- periodic replacement of water for irrigation with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate or 1% m - any fungicide (every 10-15 days);
- weekly irradiation of leaves on both sides with a quartz lamp for 2-3 minutes.
Table: how to recognize and control diseases and pests of Bauhinia
|Disease or pest||External manifestations||Control measures|
|Root rot||The base of the trunk blackens, the tissues soften. An unpleasant putrefactive odor appears, the mold becomes moldy.||A plant can be cured only in the early stages of rot development. If most of the roots are affected, it will have to be thrown away. |
|Chlorosis||Leaves turn yellow (veins remain green) and decrease, the edges curl. Бутоны опадают, цветы деформируются.|
|Shield||На листьях и побегах появляются твёрдые коричнево-серые бугорки, постепенно увеличивающиеся в объёме. Ткани вокруг них желтеют или краснеют.|
|Spider mite||Тонкие полупрозрачные паутинки оплетают черешки и основания побегов. На изнанке листа — расплывчатые светлые пятна и мелкие бежевые точки.|
|Whitefly||Мелкие белесые бабочки вспархивают с цветка при любом прикосновении к нему.|
|Aphid||Мелкие зеленовато-жёлтые или тёмно-коричневые насекомые облепляют верхушки побегов, бутоны и листья с изнанки.|
Фотогалерея: болезни и вредители, поражающие баухинию
- Тля — вредитель, который поражает большинство комнатных растений, баухиния тоже входит в сферу её интересов
- Белокрылка почему-то питает определённую слабость к жёлтому цвету; эту особенность используют при изготовлении самодельных ловушек
- С паутинным клещом борются, применяя специальные препараты — акарициды, ведь это не насекомое
- The durable carapace of the scale shield makes it invulnerable to most folk remedies
- Хлороз — заболевание, вызванное дефицитом железа
- Спасти растение, заражённое корневой гнилью, можно только на ранних стадиях развития заболевания
Как растение размножается в домашних условиях
Самый простой способ получить новую баухинию в домашних условиях — прорастить семена. Вегетативное размножение — достаточно сложный, долгий и трудоёмкий процесс.
Семена нужно собирать только из вызревших стручков, треснувших вдоль. Иначе они просто не прорастут. Обычно это происходит в середине или в конце зимы. Многие разновидности цветут уже на следующий год.
Семена баухинии можно без проблем получить в домашних условиях или приобрести
- Ранней весной на 2–3 дня замочите семена в воде. Отберите самые крупные и хорошо разбухшие.
- Gently scratch their shell with a nail file or a thin file. Sow 2-3 pieces into cups filled with a mixture of perlite and peat crumbs (1: 1), deepened by 3-5 mm. Sometimes seeds are recommended to germinate in wet gauze, but this delays the process to three to six weeks.
- Cover the containers with glass or film. Provide a temperature of 20-25ºС, lower heating, good lighting. Ventilate the “greenhouse” daily, as it dries, spray the soil with a weak (2-3 ml per liter of water) solution of any biostimulator - Epin, Heteroauxin, Zircon. You can dissolve the succinic acid tablet in a glass of water.
- Sprouts appear after 5-7 days. When the height of the seedlings reaches 10-15 cm and a minimum of 2-3 true leaves is formed, transplant them into individual pots filled with a substrate suitable for adult bauhinia. After about two months, pinch the top for more “bushiness”.
Bauchinia seeds sprout pretty quickly
Video: growing bauhinia from seeds
Cuttings quite often do not take root, the rooting process stretches for 2–4 months. But this is the only breeding method for breeding hybrids, for example, for Blake's Bauhinia.
Mini-greenhouse - a necessary device for rooting cuttings of Bauhinia
- Cut off the tops of the semi-lignified shoots 8–12 cm long. The donor plant must be adult and absolutely healthy.
- Allow planting material to dry outdoors for approximately 12 hours. Sprinkle slices with any powdery root stimulant.
- Plant the cuttings in a moderately moist perlite or vermiculite, deepening 2-3 cm. Place the containers in a home mini-greenhouse or cover them with jars, plastic bags.
- Ventilate the greenhouse daily, spray the substrate as it dries with a solution of the same biostimulant. Bright diffused light is obligatory for 12-14 hours daily, lower heating, constant temperature of about 30ºС.
- Be prepared for the fact that even under optimal conditions, about half of the cuttings (or even more) will decay instead of giving root.
- Transplant the remaining plants after the appearance of the first new leaves into the soil for adult bauhinia. Within two to three months, protect them from direct sunlight, water not with ordinary water, but with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate.
The florist who has decided to root the cuttings of Bauhinia should be patient and be prepared for disappointment
Exotic bauhinia immediately captivates with its beauty, standing out even in the largest collection of indoor plants. It is not difficult to get abundant and prolonged flowering from it. Even an inexperienced gardener can cope with the cultivation of an orchid tree at home.