Autumn planting of raspberries: when and how to do it right
Raspberries are a favorite berry culture in our gardens. It can be planted in spring and autumn. Container plants take root well, even planted in the summer. But, given the development cycles of this culture, it is advisable to carry out planting work after the end of the growing season. And since the autumn period is characterized by a more moderate temperature and increased humidity, it contributes to the rapid rooting of plants.
Is it possible to plant raspberries in autumn
Planting raspberries is best done at the end of the season. By this time, the harvest has already been harvested, almost all the work in the garden is completed. You can slowly prepare the site, purchase high-quality planting material, the choice of which is much greater in the fall. And if you plant seedlings before the onset of cold weather, they will have time to take root, grow stronger and winter well. And in the spring, all efforts should be directed to the development of the aerial part and fruiting.
Autumn is the best time to plant raspberries
At the beginning of the season, you can simply not have time to plant raspberries before the start of the growing season - it quickly starts growing, not having time to build up the root system. Weak seedlings take root long and painfully. In addition, severe frosts can occur in the spring, often the soil is not sufficiently warmed up, and the plants do not receive the necessary nutrition from the frozen ground. In the afternoon, when the air is heated, the kidneys begin to open, taking all the juices, vegetative shoots often dry up and die.
In autumn, warm, rainy weather prevails, there is no withering heat, which creates optimal conditions for strengthening and developing the root system. With autumn planting, seedlings give the best growth and berries can be obtained already in the next season.
With autumn planting, already in the next season you can get the first crop
When is it better to plant raspberries in autumn
The main rule of autumn planting of raspberries is to complete it 3 weeks before the onset of frost. Specific dates depend on the climatic characteristics of the regions and raspberry variety. In the suburbs and central regions, planting operations are carried out from September to mid-October. In Ukraine and southern Russia, berry bushes are planted from late September to late October. The best time for planting raspberries in the northern and central parts of Ukraine is the beginning of October, in the south - from the end of October to mid-November. In the Urals and Siberia, if the autumn is warm, raspberries are planted in early September.
In the early autumn in the Urals it’s still warm, planted raspberry bushes have time to take root
The main sign that determines the seedlings' readiness for planting is the formation of replacement buds on the root neck. In early varieties, they appear in September, in later ones by October.
The main criterion by which the seedling is ready for planting is the formation of buds on the root neck
Video: planting raspberries
How to plant raspberries in the fall
To get a generous harvest, you need to purchase high-quality planting material and properly place raspberries in the garden, creating the most comfortable conditions for it.
Raspberries grow well and bear fruit in areas that are illuminated most of the day by the sun. Shrubs should not be planted in rows between fruit trees, which impairs their aeration, light and nutritional conditions. In the shade, the berries become smaller, lose their sweetness, and yield decreases.
Raspberries need to be planted in a well-lit area
The culture does not like drafts, therefore it is better to plant it along the fence to protect it from strong winds, backing at least a meter from the hedge. Moisture-loving raspberries should not be placed on dry slopes where plants suffer from a lack of moisture. The soil in the raspberry should not dry out. But waterlogging is detrimental to berry bushes - pathogenic microflora develops, the risk of developing root rot increases. Therefore, damp lowlands should be avoided, where shoots often melt away when snow falls. Groundwater should pass no higher than one and a half meters from the surface of the earth.
When laying a raspberry, the author of these lines always adheres to a crop rotation and does not use areas where he grew tomatoes, eggplants, potatoes and strawberries. Berry bushes will grow well after pumpkins, zucchini, cucumbers, beans or green manure crops, which I plow in the soil a month before planting raspberries. In the place of the old raspberry, I plant seedlings no earlier than after 4–5 years to reduce the likelihood of diseases that are easily transmitted through the ground. It is also very important to choose good neighbors for raspberries. She gets along well with red currants, blackberries, but sea buckthorn and grapes are best planted in another corner of the garden: competing plants, fighting for food and moisture, will weaken each other.
Raspberries get along well in the area next to the blackberry bushes
The best soil for raspberries is loam or sandstone, but it will also grow in sandy areas with large doses of fertilizer and regular irrigation. In clay places, raspberries will be weakened and unproductive, so if it is not possible to plant it in another corner of the garden, you need to add sand (1 bucket \ m2) to the clay soil.
The soil in the raspberry should be loose and fertile
Raspberries prefer to grow in areas with neutral acidity. In an acidic environment, many nutrients are inaccessible to it, so it is necessary to carry out neutralization - to add lime (500 g \ m2) during digging.
The acidity level is easy to establish by yourself, if you look closely at the weeds growing in the garden. Horsetail, plantain, sorrel, fluffy fireweed quickly grow in areas with strong soil acidification. Cuff, chamomile, clover, nettle develop on soil with neutral acidity.
Horsetail on the plot - an indicator of acid soil
How to choose seedlings
For planting, healthy annual seedlings should be taken with a developed root system, consisting of 2-3 roots about 10 cm long and root lobes. Shoots should be flexible, about 10 mm thick.
A healthy raspberry seedling should have a developed root system without signs of rot and flexible shoots about 1 cm thick
High-quality planting material can be purchased in specialized garden centers or nurseries with a good reputation. They usually offer plants grown in containers, which, when transplanted, are simply transferred to the landing pit along with the ground, so their survival rate is almost 100%.
Potted seedlings are planted with an earthen lump and easily take root in a new place
Preplanting work is carried out one and a half months before planting seedlings. The area after digging and cleaning weeds is seasoned with fertilizers. 2 m2 of humus, 60 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulfate are added to m2.
Fertilizers are applied to the area reserved for planting for digging
Instead of the mineral composition, ash (300 g / m2) can be used. On poor sandy or clay soils, it is useful to introduce AgroProst biofertilizer (12 kg \ m2) as a nutrient base, containing all macro- and microelements necessary for plants in oxygen-enriched form. At a high level of acidity, soil is alkalized with lime (500 g / m2).
Improving the composition of the soil will help the introduction of AgroProst biofertilizer into the planting pits
Planting raspberries is carried out in many ways. In the bush scheme, 60x40 cm pits are dug under the seedlings at a distance of 1 m from each other, making a row spacing of 1.5 m. One or 2 bushes are placed in the prepared pit. This is the most common planting method in small areas, allowing you to grow raspberries in different parts of the garden.
When forming raspberries from single bushes, use the bush method of planting
On large plantations, it is more efficient to use the tape method. In this case, trenches of 50X50 cm are prepared, into which single plants are planted every 0.7 m, aligning them with rope marking. Between the rows, an interval of 2 m is observed. A two-level trellis is installed along the trench, on which shoots will be tied up as they grow.
Industrial use of raspberry tape planting
Every fall I plant new varieties of raspberries. To do this, dig a trench in advance and lay organic waste from the beds - tops and weeds at the bottom. Well compacted and sprinkled with a small layer of earth. After a month and a half, I fill up the nutrient soil and plant the plants. Be sure to water them abundantly. Organics at the bottom of the trench, gradually decomposing, improves the structure of the soil, activates the vital activity of beneficial microorganisms, providing raspberries with nutrition for 3 years.
To increase soil fertility, I use plant waste that I put on the bottom of the planting pit or trench
Raspberry planting pattern in autumn
Before planting, the raspberry roots are soaked in water for an hour with the addition of a growth stimulant - Kornevin or Heteroauxin.
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- At the bottom of the pit or trench, a fertile layer of soil is poured in the form of a knoll.
- A seedling is lowered into the center of the pit, spreading the roots in different directions. Plants are planted in trenches at a distance of 70 cm from each other.
Sapling with straightened roots is lowered into the pit.
- The seedlings are covered with fertile soil, shaking them slightly so that there are no underground voids, otherwise the roots may freeze in winter.
- The root neck should remain open. Deepening of the seedling can slow down its development and even lead to death, and too small planting can cause drying out of the buds located at the roots.
Sprinkle the seedling with earth to the root neck
- They compact the soil around the bush and form a circular watering groove in which 0.5 l of water is introduced.
- Cut the shoots at a height of 20 cm from the ground.
- The surface of the soil is sprinkled with hay, straw or humus. Earth covered with a 10 cm thick mulch layer freezes slowly, resulting in additional time for the growth of the root system, which does not stop even when the temperature drops to -2 ° С.
After planting, the root zone must be mulched with hay
To save space on my site, I grow raspberries in containers. I dig plastic buckets with a cut bottom into the ground, fill it with fertile soil and plant plants. Such insulating barriers, buried 30 cm deep in the soil, prevent raspberries from spreading over the area.
As a barrier to the spread of raspberries in the area, I use plastic buckets without a bottom
Video: trench method of planting raspberries
Features of autumn planting in the regions
Autumn planting in different climatic zones has its own characteristics. The most comfortable conditions for growing raspberries are created in the suburbs and central regions. The central part of Russia is located in the zone of temperate continental climate, which is characterized by rather warm (+ 8–12 ° C) autumn with frequent rains. Such weather is favorable for rooting seedlings. Here, raspberries feel comfortable in the spring and summer without the drying up southern heat and in the winter without too severe Siberian frosts.
Raspberry planting in the Urals
For each region, zoned varieties should be selected. Raspberries for the Urals must meet the highest standards for productivity and have excellent adaptive capabilities to put up with the harsh local climate.
Dry autumn without precipitation in this region leads to a moisture deficit, therefore, after planting, seedlings should be abundantly watered and water-charging irrigation should be carried out before frosts. In addition, at the beginning of winter, the thermometer here can drop to -31 ° C, and there is practically no snow. As a result, plants without snow cover often freeze and die. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare the planted plants for wintering, cover them with agrofibre.
Raspberry covered with nonwoven fabric wintered well
After all, winters here are very severe, frosts can reach -50 ° C, and in the Polar Urals they can drop to -60 ° C. Often there are snowstorms blowing snow from open elevated places. To increase the thickness of the snow cover, shields are installed near the bushes, shafts are made.
The raspberry is best placed in the back of the garden. Fruit trees, farm buildings will become an obstacle to the wind. A high fence will also help protect the berry bushes from gusts of wind, and so that it does not cast a shadow on the plantings, it can be made of transparent polycarbonate.
To protect against wind, raspberries should be grown next to the fence.
Varieties Zorenka Altai, Vysokoye, Novosti Kuzmina, Seedling Rubinova, Kichinovskaya, Kirzhach, and Kolokolchik are distinguished by high winter hardiness.
Variety Zorenka Altai adapted to sharply continental climate and delights gardeners of the Urals with delicious weighty berries weighing about 2.2 g
Features planting raspberries in Siberia
For the Siberian climate, frost-resistant varieties that withstand cold up to -40 ° C should be selected. 44 varieties of raspberries adapted to low winter temperatures have been bred in Siberia. These are red-fruited varieties Novosti Kuzmina, Vysluha, Altai Delicious, Barnaul, Kind, Shine, Arched, Charm, with black berries Ugolok, Turn, with yellow - Gift of Siberia, Good Luck.
Raspberry Barnaulskaya, created by Siberian breeders, is highly frost resistant
In regions with a cold climate, in the conditions of a short summer, it is advisable to grow raspberries near summer cottages, in that part of the garden, which is well lit and where snow begins to melt early. It is better to place raspberry bushes in the hills or in the loose ridges: the soil heats up faster, the water does not stagnate, and good air exchange is ensured. In the northern regions, where even in summer there is little heat and sun, it is very important to correctly arrange the ridge with raspberries - from north to south. With this orientation, the bushes will be well lit all day.
In Siberia, raspberries are best grown in the hills.
In the harsh conditions of Siberia, it is necessary to take care of warming young landings for the winter. The bushes are covered with non-woven material or an air-dry shelter is placed above them.
If the rainy autumn or early frosts, it is better to postpone raspberry planting in the risky farming zone until spring, and plant the seedlings in the garden.
Recently, many gardeners prefer to grow raspberries on logs. To do this, use rotting wood waste, which is laid at the bottom of the trench. Having spilled them with water, they add fertile soil on top and plant the plants. Landing on logs provides the bushes with good drainage with a simultaneous supply of water. Raspberry bears good fruit and gives less growth than with a traditional planting.
The method of growing raspberries on logs has recently become widespread among gardeners
Video: winter planting raspberries in the beds of Rosum
Raspberry planting in Ukraine
The specifics of raspberry planting in Ukraine and in the south of Russia are due to the peculiarity of the climate - warm, low snowy winters and early hot spring. In the winter months, with little snow cover, plants suffer from frequent thaws, when the aboveground part wakes up, and the frozen root cannot supply water to it. Also in the snowless period, strong winds drain the stems and the root layer of the soil. In the spring, under the scorching sun, the branches become dry and brittle, the leaves fade and turn yellow. Therefore, in the southern regions, special requirements are placed on the location of landings.
The climatic conditions of Ukraine are not favorable enough to obtain high yields of raspberries due to lack of moisture in the soil and air drought. The lack of precipitation violates the optimal moisture supply of plants, so before planting, you should consider the irrigation system. For planting, drought-resistant varieties of Lyachka, Brusvyana, Syaivo, Kosmicheskaya, and Princess should be selected.
Raspberry Lyachka is a drought tolerant variety, berries do not bake in the sun, do not deteriorate
The raspberry should be placed in a secluded corner of the garden, closed from the wind by a hedge, sheds. Industrial planting is preferably located under the protection of a forest belt.
In Ukraine, a well-lit area should be allocated for berry bushes, but which would be in the shade at least a few hours a day, otherwise the berries will be baked in the sun, and the shoots and leaves will wither. Or create an artificial shade for a raspberry by pulling a light non-woven material over it.
In regions with a hot climate, raspberries should be shaded
In arid areas, it is recommended to plant raspberries in deep furrows (40 cm), which are partially preserved even after the seedlings are sprinkled with earth. In winter, snow accumulates in these furrows, and in summer moisture is better preserved. Gradually, after 2-3 seasons, as a result of row-spacing processing, the surface of the site is leveled.
Video: autumn planting of raspberries from beginning to end
When laying a raspberry in the garden in autumn, it is necessary to have time to complete planting work before the onset of cold weather. When planting, one should take into account the climatic features of the region to create the most favorable conditions for plants. Timely autumn planting in compliance with all the rules of agricultural technology and a successful wintering are the guarantee that in the next season you can get a crop of fragrant berries.