Asparagus: how to grow an exotic vegetable
It turns out that asparagus is not at all a new vegetable in our garden plots. Before the revolution, asparagus was eaten with pleasure. Then the vegetable moved into the category of bourgeois, and therefore enemy products, and gradually disappeared from our tables and beds. Currently, this food product appears on the shelves of supermarkets, it’s a pity that it’s just more frozen. But to grow this royal vegetable on an ordinary bed is not difficult at all. You just need to have a little patience and know the rules of agricultural technology.
How to Propagate Asparagus
Asparagus is a healthy and tasty vegetable crop. It is incredibly popular in Europe, Asia and America. Several types of asparagus are grown there:
Unusual-looking vegetable - asparagus, extremely popular all over the world
Unfortunately, our gardeners have almost no interest in this crop. And how to grow this delicacy, few people know. But asparagus is the earliest vegetable plant that can support the body exactly when the vitamin range is very scarce.
Asparagus - an early vegetable that helps replenish the body's vitamin reserve
There are several ways to propagate this perennial herb, which greatly facilitates the cultivation of asparagus.
This is perhaps the easiest and most affordable way to propagate asparagus, even for beginners. The survival rate of segments of rhizomes with kidneys is very high - almost 100%. Moreover, you can engage in this method of breeding in the spring, summer and autumn. It is most advisable to divide the bush during transplantation. For this, a 4 or 5-year-old plant is suitable.
Asparagus has a very powerful root system, extending more than a meter deep into the soil
- Carefully dig a bush from the soil, being careful not to damage the roots much. To do this, you will have to dig a wide and deep hole, since the roots of the plant are very powerful. It is very convenient to extract the plant using a pitchfork.
- Divide the rhizome into pieces with a sharp knife so that at least 1 shoot is on each dividend.
Each part of the rhizome must have an escape
- Set a segment of rhizome in the center of the planting pit or trench. Spread the roots so that they do not twist.
When planting, roots need to be straightened
- Sprinkle the roots with a layer of soil at least 10 cm. In this case, the apical bud should be sprinkled with a 5-centimeter layer.
Sprinkle the planted parts of the rhizome after watering
- Water the landing. As the soil settles, the soil needs to be replenished.
If there are many divisions, you can plant them in a trench 30 cm deep and 50 cm wide. The distance between plants is 50-60 cm. With a two-row planting, the distance between the rows should be at least 1 m.
Important information when planting asparagus
- Since asparagus is a perennial plant, nutrients must be added to the soil before planting. 1 m² needed
- 15 g of ammonium sulfate;
- 30 g of potassium sulfate;
- 60 g of superphosphate;
- mineral fertilizers can be replaced with organic. On 1 m² you need to make at least 6 kg of well-overripe humus;
- asparagus is well grown after crops and vegetables, which require deep digging of the soil, such as potatoes.
This method of culture propagation is best done from March to June. As cuttings use green shoots.
- From last year’s shoot, cut the cuttings, dip in the solution of any root stimulant.
Last year's cuttings can already be rooted
- Drop it in a small container with wet sand.
- To create favorable conditions for rooting, cover the stalk with a cropped plastic bottle.
- In the process of rooting and growth, the stalk should be regularly ventilated and sprayed.
After a month or 1.5, the stalk will take root, after which it will be dived into a slightly larger pot.
In general, growing asparagus from seeds is not difficult for an experienced gardener. But the unpopularity of this method is primarily associated with poor seed germination. Well, caring for seedlings is fraught with some difficulties.
Asparagus seeds are not often found on sale, but you can collect them yourself
Before planting, the seeds are soaked to speed up germination. For seedlings, seed is sown in two ways:
- sowing in seedlings;
- sowing directly to the garden.
Dates of landing based on the selected option are different. Asparagus grown from seeds begins to produce crops only in the 3rd year.
Seedlings can be grown without additional illumination, but it is advisable to put young plants on the window with maximum lighting. The temperature at which seed germination occurs is an average of 25 ° C. Watering is moderate, the main thing is not to let the soil dry out very much. To maintain the conditions at a comfortable level, cover the seed box with a transparent bag or glass.
The first sprouts will appear soon, after 1.5 months
The first top dressing is introduced 4 weeks after emergence. Then - a week or two after the dive.
Asparagus seedlings are picked when the plants become crowded in a common seedling box. Usually, seedlings that have reached 15 cm in height are subjected to the procedure. Given that the seedlings are quite developed, the depth of the new capacity should correspond to the size of the root system.
- So that asparagus seedlings can develop further, they need a free space equal to 5 cm in depth and 5 cm in diameter.
- A few hours before the procedure, the plants are well watered to avoid injury to the root system. The picking is carried out by the transshipment method - for this, each seedling is poked with a spoon and, together with a lump of earth, transferred to a new container, while slightly deepening.
Using a spoon, you can easily remove the seedling from the soil
- The soil for seedlings should be light and nutritious. You can independently prepare the soil mixture, consisting of the following components:
- 2 parts of fertile soil;
- 1 part peat;
- 1 part humus;
- 1 part of sand.
The seedling has a rather long root, so the new container must have sufficient depth
After a dive, long and thin stems of seedlings can bend to the ground. But do not worry, this is a temporary phenomenon.
This process allows you to get a delicious and nutritious product in winter or early spring.
- Rhizomes of a 5 or 6-year-old plant are dug out of the soil in October and placed in the basement until winter. The temperature of the storage room should not be higher than 2 ° C.
- In early December, asparagus is planted in the greenhouse.
- Planting density in this case is allowed to be high - at least 20 plants are planted per 1 m².
- Seedlings are covered with a rotted humus layer of about 20 cm and covered with a plastic film on top.
- In the first week, the permissible temperature should not exceed 10 ° C.
- As soon as the rhizomes begin to grow, the temperature is increased to 18 ° C.
This temperature should be maintained throughout the harvest period.
Asparagus planting density is high during distillation
Outdoor Asparagus Care
Planting in the open ground only needs hardened asparagus seedlings. In central Russia, transplantation is carried out in early June. Landing site, choose a well-lit and calm. If the soil temperature is below 10 ° C, then asparagus will slow its growth and development of underground shoots. In this case, you will need a film cover that is easy to install and dismantle.
Given that asparagus is growing too much, give it a place along the fence so that the plant does not bother anyone.
Look for a dry plot for growing. Groundwater should not come closer to the soil surface than 1.4 m. Before planting, cultivate the land - dig up perennial crops, fertilize well. In general, relate to the preparation of the site with full responsibility, because asparagus is able to grow in one place and bring a harvest for 20 years, and even a little more.
Despite the aspiration of asparagus to waterlogged soils, planted seedlings need to be watered frequently. This is especially important in the first 2 weeks after planting, while asparagus has not formed a deep root system. In this case, after absorbing moisture, loosening the soil in the aisles should be carried out, but this must be done very carefully so as not to damage the roots. Land on asparagus beds should be slightly moist. Insufficient watering will affect the condition of the young plant. It will become weak and painful.
So that the soil in the aisles does not dry out very quickly, you can mulch it with a dense plastic film, which also will not allow weeds to grow.
Adult plants are not watered as often as young plants. But, nevertheless, soil moisture should be monitored. If the soil is dry, the shoots become bitter, fibrous and rough. In order for asparagus to receive the necessary amount of moisture, 6-8 liters of water per bush are enough when watering.
Asparagus loves moderate but timely watering
The yield of asparagus directly depends on high-quality nutrition. But here there are some nuances.
- asparagus practically does not feel the need for nitrogen, so the proportion of this element in the plant’s nutrition is very small;
- while a lack of copper and potassium will negatively affect the ability of asparagus to produce juicy shoots;
- Asparagus is very fond of organic matter, so give priority to manure and herbal tinctures.
In order for asparagus shoots to have greater tenderness and be white (which is especially appreciated by gourmets), it is necessary in autumn or May, when the first sprouts begin to appear, pour humus on the garden - 1 bucket of organics per plant.
- In spring, in addition to organic matter, fertilizers include potassium, calcium and phosphorus. If these substances are applied in a dry form, then they do it exclusively under watering;
- in July, to maintain the strength of the plant after harvesting, you can use a solution of chicken droppings. By the way, note that the indicated concentration of the solution is high - 1/10;
- at the end of October, it is advisable to use complex fertilizers. Most often at this time, asparagus plantings are fed with superphosphate and potassium salt - 30 g of each substance per 1 m².
It’s impossible to harvest this wonderful vegetable without top dressing.
Weeding and cultivation
These are very important steps in caring for a plant unusual for our beds. As already noted, shallow loosening should be carried out after each watering - at least 8 times per season. For asparagus sprouts, which are located under the mound, it is extremely important to get enough oxygen for development. To improve aeration, you can use a homemade device. It consists of a wooden roller, in which nails are driven in, no more than 2 cm long. Rolling such a roller on the surface of an earthen hill, you destroy the soil crust and restore air circulation.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Aisles in planting asparagus always keep clean. Weeding weed grass will save the royal vegetable from many troubles in the form of pests and diseases.
Weeding and cultivating on asparagus beds is the key to a good harvest
During asparagus growth, it is important that the plant be spudded on time. The procedure is carried out when the green branches of the vegetable are reached a height of 20 cm. This process allows the growth buds to be converted into juicy shoots. Hilling is especially relevant for young plants that may suffer from frost in the winter.
Features of asparagus care in the greenhouse
Not all asparagus varieties are suitable for growing in a greenhouse. The advantages are early hybrids and varieties:
- Connovers Colossal;
- Marta Washinqton.
Asparagus Argentel fine variety for greenhouse cultivation
In greenhouse conditions, asparagus is propagated in the usual way - by dividing the rhizome and seeds. You can grow seedlings right there. This is very convenient, since the plants do not need to be tempered, they are already adapted to the conditions of further growth.
Please note that when a greenhouse is planted in divisions, the apical kidney does not deepen much - it should be in the upper layer of the greenhouse soil.
Necessary conditions for growing
Greenhouse - a special place. Here you can create ideal conditions for growing an early asparagus crop. The peculiarity of the plant is that it does not need additional illumination. Sprouts begin to form under a layer of soil and, having broken through to the surface, are quite capable of dispensing with existing light sources.
But the vegetable is more whimsical to the temperature regime. Gentle sprouts begin to form in the soil at a temperature of 15 ° C. The maximum value should not exceed 25 ° C. In this thermal interval, asparagus will show excellent yields.
Watering and feeding
Since the conditions of the greenhouse allow you to maintain the humidity inside at a higher level, watering is carried out only as necessary. Top dressing is carried out with the same fertilizers as in open ground.
By cultivating asparagus in a greenhouse, you can get great results.
Is it possible to grow asparagus at home
To grow asparagus at home just like a vegetable plant is a thankless task. And the question is not even special care. Just the rhizome of asparagus for normal development requires too much space, both in depth and in width. It is unlikely that it will be possible to provide the plant with sufficient soil volumes in small balconies. But to contain asparagus as a decorative plant - please. Indoor asparagus (this is what asparagus is called in Latin) will decorate any corner of the apartment with fresh herbs.
At home, asparagus can only please an abundance of greenery
Features growing asparagus in different regions
Asparagus can be grown in almost any region except, perhaps, the Far North. It would seem that a thermophilic plant is able to perfectly withstand low temperatures - up to -30 ° C even with a slight snow cover. Therefore, you can grow this vegetable in the open ground both in the Urals and in Siberia. Just in winter, the beds are covered with a thick layer of mulch, for example, with the same manure, which overheats, heats the soil. True, young asparagus is very afraid of frost, even a small one. Until the asparagus begins to form a crop, it is better to grow a young plant under film shelter in the cold season.
Gardeners in cold regions have one secret to growing asparagus. They leave only male plants on the beds that tolerate low temperatures perfectly. But female plants are less cold-resistant.
In the cold season, Siberian asparagus is cozy under light shelter
For the middle zone of Russia and the Moscow Region, as well as for Belarus, there are many varieties of asparagus suitable for open ground conditions. The most famous:
- Early yellow;
- Danish white enhanced;
- Harvest 6.
If agricultural technology is followed, it is possible to get asparagus crops in these climatic conditions without any problems. The most popular method of growing is seedling.
In the Kuban, Crimea and Ukraine asparagus seedlings are planted earlier than in central Russia. This is possible after the second half of May. After all, the abundance of the sun allows the soil to warm up very quickly. A feature of growing asparagus in hot regions is control over compliance with irrigation.
In the south, plenty of heat and light benefits asparagus
Diseases and Pests
Asparagus is considered a hardy plant that is rarely affected by diseases and pests. But there are specific diseases that are able to quickly destroy plantings and deprive the long-awaited crop.
Diseases and control measures
Root rot, or Fusarium. The disease affects the roots and root of the neck. As a result, the whole bush suffers - twigs begin to crumble and soon the plant dies. Fundazole helps in the initial stage of the disease. If the disease is launched - you have to dig and destroy the whole bush.
The defeat of the root system leads to the death of the entire plant
Rust. In June, the affected shoots of asparagus acquire a dark color. Affected areas of the disease increase in size - this spores mature, which then migrate to healthy leaves. Rust grabs the asparagus ridge gradually. Therefore, carefully inspect the plantings, so that in case of the first signs of use fungicides to control the fungus.
Spotting on asparagus stalks is a sure sign of rust
Asparagus fly. From mid-May to the end of June, the fly lays eggs inside the asparagus shoots. After a week, larvae appear, which begin to eat away the core of the shoot. As a result, the stem bends, and then breaks and dries. To combat the fly use insecticides, for example, Actellic.
Asparagus fly larvae eat up asparagus stalks from the inside
Asparagus cracker. The beetle and its larva eat stems, foliage, berries. The plant first stops the growth, and then completely dries out. To control the pest, the soil in the asparagus plants is treated with Actellik's solution. Beetles are harvested by hand.
This beautiful beetle is a dangerous enemy for asparagus.
Prevention and treatment
Most often, asparagus suffers from diseases and pests as a result of improper care.
- Do not plant asparagus on heavy soils;
- before planting, bring the acidity level to normal values - pH 6 - 7;
- inspect plantings every week to identify the first signs of disease and pests;
- do not leave the remains of roots and stems in the aisles;
- do not pour asparagus, this leads to root diseases;
- if marigolds, calendula, basil or bushes of cherry tomatoes are planted along the perimeter of the bed with asparagus, the number of pests will be significantly reduced;
- in autumn, cut off all the dried asparagus sprouts and burn them.
In autumn and early spring, beds with asparagus need to be treated with fungicides - Topaz, Fitosporin. Bordeaux liquid enjoys the special love of gardeners.
Prevention is the best way to protect plants from diseases and pests
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting this amazing vegetable will begin only in the 3rd year after planting seedlings. Strong and fairly dense bushes above the surface of the garden will tell you about the readiness of the plant to form edible shoots. If the plant looks frail in due time, then it is better to postpone the harvest for another year.
The shoots reach technical ripeness by about mid-April. Of course, you need to focus on the precocity of the variety. Ready-to-eat shoots have a diameter of at least 1 - 2 cm. In length, they can grow from 15 to 20 cm. The main thing is to manage to cut the shoots before the heads begin to open.
Cutting off asparagus shoots is best with a special knife
- it is recommended to cut 2 - 3 shoots from a young bush. But not more than 5 pieces. Asparagus productivity is growing every year. Three-year plantings with 1 m² will give 2 kg of shoots. Next year, this figure will increase to 5 kg;
- Before cutting off the shoot, carefully scrape off the soil from it. In order not to damage the rhizome, cut 2 to 3 cm above it. After that, gently fill the stump with humus or peat compost;
- shoots are collected every 2 days. But in the south, especially in hot weather, this happens daily, sometimes up to 2 times a day.
The shoots of this vegetable, which is not quite usual for us, are not stored for a long time. In the refrigerator, asparagus is best preserved if it is pre-wrapped in a damp cloth and vertically placed in the compartment for vegetables and herbs. Before laying book shoots do not wash!
Keep asparagus shoots in the refrigerator in a strictly upright position
On the 3rd day of storage, asparagus begins to lose its palatability - juicy and soft shoots become stiff and dry.
Asparagus shoots can be frozen by first wrapping in cloth, cling film or bag. Under the influence of low temperatures, asparagus is able to maintain juiciness.
The most optimal storage conditions are high humidity - 90%, and temperature from 0 to 1 ° С. It is this environment that allows preserving the taste properties of asparagus for 3 to 4 weeks.
Shock freezing allows preserving the juiciness of asparagus shoots
There is nothing complicated about growing asparagus. And the time before the start of the harvest will fly by, because apart from asparagus, other plants grow in the garden. But when the time comes to collect and try the crop, the family will definitely appreciate your efforts. After all, asparagus is not only a delicious product, but also very healthy. In addition, the plant is able to revive any boring corner of the site with its lush greenery.