Apricot Saratov ruby: a find for the middle band
Apricot Saratov ruby is one of the new varieties characterized by abundant annual crops. The variety is characterized by increased resistance to disease and very high frost resistance, due to which it is planted both in amateur gardens and in large agricultural enterprises.
Apricot variety Saratov ruby is intended for cultivation both in the south of the country and in central Russia. It was developed and patented by the Saratov breeder A. M. Golubev. The “parents” of the hybrid are the elite forms of Beauty and Pharaoh. The main area of work of the breeder is the cultivation of varieties intended for cultivation in regions with a changing climate. The variety was published in 2012 and is protected by the patent for selection achievement No. 7843 of April 29, 2015. According to Article 1415 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, “A patent for a selection achievement certifies the priority of a selection achievement, authorship and the exclusive right to a selection achievement”.
According to current data, the Saratov ruby demonstrates the highest yield, of course, in the territories of the Middle and Lower Volga. Data from other places are still scarce, which is quite natural, and we can say that the variety is still being tested for its relation to various climatic conditions.
The Saratov ruby belongs to the mid-early variety: the ripeness of the fruit occurs in mid-July. The fruits are quite large: about 40 g, have a very good taste and delicious appearance. The maximum registered weight of one fruit is 66.7 g. At the stage of full maturity, the color of apricots corresponds to the name: the main color is orange-ruby, very saturated. Rather, it is so: a large ruby-red spot, spreading over most of the fruit, is allegedly applied to the orange skin.
The color of the fruit is fully consistent with the name: the ruby spot occupies most of the area
The pulp is tender, bright orange, not very juicy, sweet, with the aroma inherent in many varieties of apricot. Professional tasters taste is estimated at 4.4-4.5 points. The stone is small (average weight 1 g), easily separated from the pulp. The core contains traces of bitterness. Resistance to cracking even in conditions of high humidity is good, durability and transportability for medium early varieties is quite high. Fruits can be stored in a refrigerator or cellar, at a temperature of about +5 ° C, for up to two months.
Universal variety: suitable for fresh consumption, for drying, and for all types of culinary processing. Fruiting is annual, from one tree in optimal climatic conditions and with proper care, yields reach 120 kg.
Strong-growing trees, with a round crown, grow up to 4-5 m, are not recommended for small summer cottages. Like other varieties, for good growth and fruiting, they require an area free from other plantations: more than the crown projection takes. The variety has a very high frost resistance: perennial wood withstands frosts down to -42 ° C, and fruit buds up to -36 ° C. The resistance of the stem to heating is increased: the winter thaws are not afraid of the tree until mid-February, since the variety has a long period of deep dormancy. Saratov ruby is famous for its high resistance to various fungal diseases (moniliosis, fruit rot, etc.).
Saratov ruby grows in the form of a large tree, which should be considered by the owners of small gardens
The variety is characterized by its creator and enthusiasts, who tested it on their sites, as unpretentious.
For guaranteed pollination, the inventor recommends varieties from his collection - Dessert Golubev and Lakomka, and for more northern regions - Triumph Northern and Zhigulevsky souvenirs.
The variety is intended for use in various gardens of the middle and southern zones of Russia.
Planting apricot varieties Saratov ruby: step-by-step instructions
Buying ready-made apricot seedlings Saratov ruby is not difficult, despite the fact that this variety is quite young. At the very least, offers for sale are full of web pages and paper publications. Especially persistently offered seedlings with a closed root system, in containers. Of course, they cost more, but they can be planted almost all year round. It is easy to make the vaccine acquired somewhere in a safe place by the handle. You can plant it in the crown of an existing frost-resistant apricot tree or in the stem of plums, thorns, cherry plums. The planting technique is no different from the planting of trees of other apricot varieties.
Saratov ruby normally responds to any type of soil, but, like any other apricot, grows better on light, breathable soils with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. Heavy clay soil can be corrected by adding sand, peat, lime and humus, as well as the annual addition of wood ash.
When choosing a place for planting an apricot tree, you need to understand that it will grow for at least 30 years.
The timing of planting seedlings with an open root system depends on the climate of the area. In the south, with equal success, you can plant it both in spring and autumn, if only the sap flow has not yet begun and the buds have not awakened. However, since the Saratov ruby is a variety more valuable in the middle zone of Russia (and the Saratov climate is more similar to the Moscow region than the Astrakhan one), we will consider just such an option. Here, the autumn planting is quite risky: a seedling that has not yet completely taken root in the winter can freeze and die. In the middle lane, planting should be carried out only in the spring, and rather early, until the buds are awake. In most areas, there is only one or two weeks falling on the last decade of April, while the trees are still sleeping, and you can already work with the land. You can try to plant apricot in the fall, in late September or early October, but the risk of such a planting is very high.
So, we will consider the main stages associated with the proper planting of apricot Saratov ruby, believing that we are in the zone of risky farming with an unstable climate. Progress is expected to be as follows:
- Choose a place on the site. This is done back in the fall of the preceding season. In a few years, the Saratov ruby will grow in the form of a powerful tree, obscuring the nearby space. Almost nothing can be planted next to him, which must also be taken into account. In addition, for good pollination, you will have to plant next to at least one more tree recommended by the author of the variety, planting it after 3-4 meters. But the apricot should be maximally lit by the sun's rays and protected from blowing by the winds, especially northern ones. Therefore, the best place to find where there is protection from the winds: a house or a blank fence. In no case do not choose a place where cold air accumulates or there is stagnation of water.
It is desirable that the apricot be protected from the winds by buildings or a fence
- Digging a landing hole. Also back in the fall. A large pit is needed: with dimensions not less than 70 cm in depth and the same in diameter. At the same time, we put the upper, fertile layer of soil in one pile, and the lower, unproductive, in another: then we take it out of the area or scatter along the paths.
Digging a planting hole is physically the hardest thing when planting an apricot
- We place drainage at the bottom of the pit. For clay soils, drainage is mandatory: 10–15 centimeters of gravel, river sand, broken brick, etc. On sandy soils, it is the other way around: it is better to put some clay on the bottom of the pit, with a layer of up to 15 cm, to hold water during irrigation.
In the case of heavy soil, drainage poured to the bottom of the planting pit will protect the apricot roots from rotting with excess water
- Cooking a nutritious mixture. The soil removed from the upper layers of the pit must be thoroughly mixed with fertilizers. The main fertilizer at this moment is organic: humus, compost. We take a lot of it: buckets 5. Of the mineral fertilizers, the most convenient are complex, for example, azofoska, which contains the main nutrients in a balanced ratio. About 500 g of complex fertilizer must be evenly distributed in the excavated soil. If the soil on the site is highly acidic, add half a bucket of slaked lime or chalk to the mixture. And do not forget about the most environmentally friendly fertilizer - wood ash. Her apricot needs a lot, so pour at least four liters. Having fallen asleep to the top, we leave for the winter.
Wood ash is the best supplier of potassium for apricot: there is a lot of it, but is released gradually
- Spring has come, we are buying a seedling. When acquiring an apricot seedling, we focus on its roots. The main roots going straight from the base of the stem should be at least three: elastic, not over-dried. Lively fibrous small roots should leave them in large quantities. The debatable question is, how old should the seedling be: 1, 2 or 3? Any options are possible: two-year-olds and well-developed one-year-olds are easier to take root, three-year-olds are harder, but if they are successfully planted, we will get the first crop faster.
The main thing in the seedling is its roots: healthy and branched
- Preparing the seedling for planting. The roots of the seedling brought to the site for planting should be dipped in a talker made from cow manure and clay (about 1: 2), mixed in water until the consistency of liquid sour cream. If it is not there, we will place the roots in the water, where they will lie until the planting, will be saturated with moisture.
After dipping the roots in a mash of clay and mullein, seedlings are easier to take root
- Drive in a count. It is necessary to firmly hammer a strong stake (metal pipe, long reinforcement, etc.) into the pit. It should protrude outward by almost a meter. Next to it, you need to place a seedling: directly on a horizontal surface, without digging a hole! This is an important feature of apricot planting that distinguishes the planting of this tree from most others: it is planted on a knoll in most places.
Sometimes for strong fixation they drive even not one, but 2-3 strong stakes
- We fall asleep roots, building a mound. Of course, this operation is worth doing together. One holds a seedling, placing it on a horizontal surface, and spreads the roots so that they assume a “no tension” position. The second gradually pours fertile soil on the roots (without fertilizers!). Condensing the soil, it is necessary to make sure that a small hill is formed. As a result of the hill above its top should be the root neck. It is better if it is 2-3 cm higher, but it is impossible for the root neck to be underground.
The diagram clearly shows how the seedling should look on an artificial mound
- We tie a sapling. After arranging the knoll we take a strong rope and loosely tie the trunk to the “eight” driven stake.
The "eight" tying is reliable and not traumatic for the seedling
- We make a side. At first, planted apricots need to drink a lot until powerful roots grow. Therefore, not far from the trunk, around the circumference of the knoll, we construct a kind of roller so that the water does not leave the hill during irrigation. The hill can be overlaid with turf or sow grass on it, which must be mowed as it grows.
The purpose of the side is to hold irrigation water, so it will have to be destroyed in the winter, and built again in the spring
- Water the seedling. Carefully, without having washed away the top of the hill, we introduce several buckets of water around the stem. In the first year it is necessary to water systematically: the soil should not dry out for a single day. After each watering, the mound will have to be loosened so that a sufficient amount of oxygen arrives at the roots.
When watering, do not blur the mound
- We cut the seedling. Everything is simple here. The first pruning is shortening. Its task is for weak roots to have the strength to feed the seedling for the first time. In the case of an annual seedling (twig without branches), you just need to shorten it by a third. If you planted a two-year-old, then you need to cut the seedling more seriously. We select the two most powerful branches, located, if possible, opposite each other, but at different heights. We shorten them by half. The rest is cut “into a ring”. Do not forget to cover all sections with garden varieties.
The cropping scheme shows that in the first few years it is pretty simple
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
The main measures for the care of apricot varieties Saratov ruby do not differ from those for most other varieties of apricots. This is moderate watering, timely top dressing, the destruction of weeds, spraying from diseases and harmful insects, whitewashing trunks and skeletal branches for the winter.
As for watering, it is needed mainly during fruit loading. True, young trees that have not yet grown the root system should be watered frequently in the first 2–3 years, but not before waterlogging.
Adult apricots, if the summer did not turn out to be extremely dry, most of the growing season are quite capable of finding water for themselves.
In arid regions, watering is necessary, it is carried out approximately once a month, with sufficient water, but so that it does not stagnate around the trunk. Of course, ideally, this should be warm, standing water, but in extreme cases, regular watering from a hose is suitable only if the water does not come from an artesian well: this is usually too cold.
Apricot needs systematic top dressing. In the spring, the best option is liquid top dressing with solutions of mullein and bird droppings, which, as a first approximation, can be replaced with urea and potassium nitrate. In June, foliar top dressing is good - spraying tree foliage with solutions of complex fertilizers. From mid-summer, nitrogen-containing solutions must be replaced by phosphorus-potassium, they contribute to the formation of fruit ovaries. After harvesting, the best option is to sprinkle half a bucket of wood ash around the tree and bury it shallow with a shovel or hoe. Once in several years in the spring or late autumn, small holes are dug up next to the tree and 1–2 buckets of manure or compost are placed in them.
Apricots are prone to excessive growth of the crown, leading to excessive thickening. Saratov ruby is no exception, it requires regular shaping and sanitary-anti-aging pruning. In the process of forming its crown should be given a natural rounded shape for the variety. About the very first pruning in the life of an apricot was mentioned in the section devoted to its planting. In the next few years, up to 6–7 skeletal branches are formed on the apricot tree, on which second-order forks are formed.
Typically, trees such as an apple tree or a pear are pruned in spring and autumn. Apricot has to be cut in the summer. In spring, thin out the thickened areas of the crown, cut out weak and non-overwintered branches. Fruit branches older than three years are also cut: the yield on them will already be weak. The Saratov ruby almost does not lose excess fruit, as a result of which the branches can not withstand the heaviness of the crop and break, therefore, even after pruning, it will be necessary to carefully monitor the number of fruits that are tied and, if there are too many, support the skeletal branches. Spring pruning should be carried out a month before the start of the vegetative period, when frosts will not return, but sap flow has not yet begun. Thanks to this pruning, the crown becomes easily accessible to sunlight and reasonable ventilation.
In summer, the thinning operation can be repeated, but only if there is enough moisture (from rains or watering), shortening by three-fold and young shoots growing too powerful. If necessary, you can remove part of the extra fruit or completely extra branches. Summer pruning is beneficial for apricot: flower buds develop better on new shoots. Pruning in the summer is carried out in the first decade of June. After it, the fruits grow larger and become sweeter.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
In autumn, it is necessary to remove weak and sick shoots, covering large sections with garden varieties. Experienced gardeners during the autumn pruning shorten most of the young branches by 1/3 of the length, leaving only 6-7 buds on them. Apricot pruning should be carried out regularly, in its absence, the trees are threatened with fruiting frequency. Removing excess branches rejuvenates apricot, increases productivity and disease resistance. Pruning in the fall is carried out in mid-October.
Video: Formative pruning of apricot tree
Preparing a tree for wintering consists in cleaning all plant residues around it, digging a tree trunk, spraying with insecticidal preparations. The Saratov ruby hibernates in adulthood without any shelter, but it is worthwhile to oblige the stems of young trees for the winter with spruce branches, and wrap nonwoven material on top. Disputes among gardeners are caused by the earthing up of trunks of young trees with earth. On the one hand, this is a good warming procedure. But on the other hand, winter thaws in this case will hit the root neck even more painfully, and its aging for apricot is much worse than frosts.
To protect against hares and mice, the lower branches and trunk of young apricots must be covered with durable materials, and here, too, the prickly coniferous spruce branches are unrivaled. With the advent of spring, before the sap flow begins, apricot stems are bleached with lime, but such a procedure should be carried out even earlier if possible: the most dangerous sun shines on trees in March.
Diseases and pests, the main types and solutions to problems
Saratov ruby is quite resistant to major diseases, but periodic treatment with a preventive purpose should be carried out. In addition, excessive shedding of fruits against the background of a sufficient amount of water may indicate the need for chemicals: shedding may be a result of infection with gray fruit rot that has not yet fully manifested itself.
One of the clear advantages of the Saratov Ruby variety is its resistance to fungal diseases. Moniliosis, fruit rot and kleasterosporiasis attack it very rarely, which helps to minimize the number of sprayings with pesticides.
Among the main pests of apricots, the following are especially distinguished:
- Plum moth: lives mainly in the southern half of the European part of the country. One caterpillar destroys several fruits.
- Fruit moth: develops in the same way as apple moth, but young caterpillars live openly. During pupation, the cocoons are located not densely, as in an apple moth, but randomly, one by one.
- Plum dusted aphids, in addition to plums, affect apricot, peach, and cherry plum. Aphids are placed at the bottom of leaves, usually in several layers, and damaged leaves do not curl.
The main diseases affecting apricot:
- Stone fruit coccomycosis mainly affects cherry, especially in the western regions of the country, but also plum, cherry plum, apricot and other stone fruits. In June, small purple rounded spots appear on the leaves. Increasing in size, they merge and acquire an irregular shape. Affected leaves fall off, the fruits dry out.
- Clusterosporiosis, or holeiness of leaves, is found on all stone fruits, but it especially affects apricots and peaches. All the aboveground parts of the trees are affected. On the leaves, the disease manifests itself in the form of rounded light brown spots with a reddish border, first very small, then increasing in size. Leaves become as if shot through. With a severe defeat, they fall prematurely. Reddish spots with darker edges form on the shoots. Gum stands out from the cracks. With a severe defeat, the shoots die off. Affected buds die, and the flowers crumble.
- With moniliosis, the bark overgrows with light gray bloom, the leaves and branches darken and dry out, the yield on the tree decreases sharply: only some fruits ripen, but most of them crack, rot and dry out still green.
For the short time that the Saratov ruby won its place in the gardens, the algorithm of its preventive spraying has already been worked out. When determining the specific processing time for trees, the climate of the region and the current weather should be taken into account. In addition, you need to pay attention to the state of a particular tree. The first mandatory processing is carried out in early spring, the last - in the fall, immediately after the end of leaf fall.
During spring treatment, before the buds begin to bloom, copper sulfate or Bordeaux fluid is most popular, which is very effective against diseases such as moniliosis, spotting, coccomycosis and kleasteriosporiosis. At the same time, the barrel and crown are sprayed with a urea solution. In parallel with preventive treatment in early spring, it is useful to spray apricot with one of the drugs that increase immunity (for example, Zircon).
Bordeaux fluid is still one of the most popular and relatively harmless chemicals for the garden.
Before flowering, prophylactic spraying is carried out from overwintered parasites and leaf-eating insects using Kinmix and colloidal sulfur preparations. The following treatment is carried out during flowering or immediately after it: combined mixtures or the drug Ridomil are recommended.
During the growth and ripening of fruits, apricots are treated with Horus and sulfur preparations from powdery mildew and coccommycosis. But no processing is allowed later than 2-3 weeks before harvesting! After the leaves fall, the trees are sprayed with urea.
Today, despite the novelty of the Saratov ruby variety, many gardener reviews about this apricot have already accumulated.
Great variety for my conditions. Landed in Voronezh. One of the few varieties that perfectly dried without a hint of rot. Taste is very high (Golubev is very critical to this). Size (weight) 40-50 gr. Color is just a bomb !!! Nothing like this can be found for my zone. I have four elite hybrids from Golubev.
My Saratov ruby has not yet ripened. One wormy apricot fell unripe, but already edible. Even this tastes good, the bone is small and flat.
How to say, the taste is sweet, slightly sour, slightly fragrant, specific, somewhat similar to fig peach, different from our taste (ours has a more apricot taste and smell), the flesh is tender. at the beginning of ripening, a little rubbery, 1-2 days at home softens, ripen, the skin is not dense more velvet than ours, it chews like something, it chews, the pulp is juicy, fleshy, dark orange-reddish. At home, the harvested fruits are not stored for a long time, they mature. Part of the fruit was put in the refrigerator for the experiment. I think it’s not suitable to dry, so juicy flesh. The bone leaves easily, a little on one side the bone still holds, when removed it remains a little flesh.
Video: breeder about his apricot
Apricot Saratov ruby, despite his youth, has already won the hearts of numerous fans from among amateur gardeners and farmers. It is valued for its frost resistance, beautiful appearance and marketability of fruits, their excellent taste.