Apricot Russian: frost-resistant variety for the middle lane
Apricots are grown mainly in the southern regions, because they are very fond of the sun, warmly and very poorly react to winter alternations of frosts and thaws. However, as far back as the 19th century, the cultivation of cultivars suitable for cultivation in central Russia began, and in our time apricots have advanced far to the north. One of the most popular varieties for the Central zone is an apricot with the patriotic name Russian.
Description apricot varieties Russian
Winter-hardy apricot Russian was bred in the North Caucasus, but the goal of the breeders was to obtain a variety specifically for central Russia, and this problem was successfully solved. A Russian withstands frosts down to -30 ° C, grows a relatively low tree: for an apricot, 4 meters in height is quite a bit, this apricot grows as if in width. At least, harvesting does not require any extra strong and very high stepladders, which is an important advantage for an apricot, which gives a solid crop. And the Russian yield is very high: up to 75 kg of fruits from a tree.
Fruits are arranged densely, therefore solid yields are collected from a four-meter tree
The first fruits can be obtained only in the fourth year after planting, and already in the fifth year, the number of crops begins to grow rapidly. The variety is considered mid-early: fruit ripening occurs in mid-summer. A Russian is very slightly susceptible to disease and is almost not affected by pests. When planting, it must be borne in mind that it has very powerful roots that extend far beyond the crown projection.
Apricot fruits A Russian of ordinary shape: round, slightly flattened, rather large (weighing about 50 g, up to a maximum of 65 g). The color is yellow-orange with a slight pinkish blush, pubescence is weak. The pulp is fragrant, loose, bright yellow, pleasant taste, very sweet. The fruits are consumed mainly in fresh form; it is believed that during processing they lose their basic qualities.
The main advantages of the variety include excellent winter hardiness, excellent fruit taste and high productivity.
Apricot planting: step by step instructions
Buying ready-made apricot seedlings is easy for Russians. Often offered and seedlings with a closed root system in containers. Of course, they cost more, but they can be planted almost all year round. Usually our summer residents still get seedlings with open roots; you can look at them, check their quality. Planting all apricot varieties is almost the same, and the Russian is no exception.
Russian responds normally to any soil composition, but, like other varieties, grows better on neutral or slightly alkaline, breathable. Heavy clay soil can be corrected by adding sand, peat, lime and humus, as well as the annual addition of wood ash.
When choosing a place for planting an apricot, you need to understand that this site will be given over to the tree for several decades.
The timing of planting seedlings with open roots depends on the climate of the area. In the south, you can plant it both in spring and autumn, if only the sap flow has not yet begun, and the kidneys have not awakened. They may be swollen, but not blooming. Since the Russian is a variety that is more valuable in the midland of Russia, it is the spring variant that is of interest. Here, the autumn planting is quite risky: a poorly acclimated seedling in the winter can freeze and die. In the middle lane, planting should be carried out only in the spring, and rather early, until the buds are awake. In most cases, there is only one or two weeks falling on the last decade of April, while the seedlings are still sleeping, and it is already possible to work with the land. You can try to plant apricot in the fall, in late September or early October, but the risk of such a planting is very high.
So, we will consider the main stages associated with the proper planting of an apricot Russian, believing that we are in a zone of risky farming with an unstable climate. Progress is expected to be as follows:
- Choose a place on the site. This must be done in the fall of the preceding planting season. Apricot in a few years will grow in the form of a strong tree, spreading its roots far beyond the boundaries of the planting pit. Almost nothing can be planted next to him, and this also must be taken into account. In addition, for good pollination, it is advisable to plant at least one more apricot tree nearby, planting it 3-4 meters later. But the apricot should be maximally lit by the sun's rays and protected from blowing by the winds, especially northern ones. Therefore, a place must be found where there is protection from the winds: a house or a blank fence. In no case do not choose a place where cold air accumulates or there is stagnation of water.
Even a fence a few meters away and a little further away - a tall house will help the apricot cope with the northern winds
- In the autumn, we dig a landing pit. A large pit is needed: with dimensions not less than 70 cm in depth and the same in diameter. In this case, the upper, fertile soil layer is folded in one direction, and the lower, unproductive, in the other: then we take it out of the area or scatter along the paths.
When digging a hole, it is important to maintain the upper fertile layer
- In the case of clay soil, pour crushed stone or pebbles to the bottom with a layer of 10-15 cm, in extreme cases, coarse river sand. This layer will perform the function of drainage. On sandy soils, on the contrary, we put clay: it will retain water during rains or irrigation.
A layer of gravel will prevent stagnation of water in the root zone
- Cooking a nutritious mixture. The soil removed from the upper layers must be thoroughly mixed with fertilizers. The main fertilizer at this moment is organic: humus, compost. We take it a lot: five buckets. Of mineral fertilizers, the most convenient are complex, for example, nitrophoska, which contains nutrients in a balanced ratio. About 0.5 kg of complex fertilizer must be evenly distributed in the excavated soil. If the soil in the plot is highly acidic, add half a bucket of slaked lime or dolomite flour to the mixture. And do not forget about the most affordable fertilizer - wood ash. Her apricot needs a lot, so pour at least three liters. Having fallen asleep to the top, we are waiting for spring.
Apricots are an excellent source of potassium, and the easiest way for them to take it from ordinary wood ash
- In the spring we buy a sapling. At the same time, we inspect its roots well. The main roots extending from the base of the stem should be at least three: elastic, not dry. From them in large quantities fibrous small roots should leave. The debatable question is, how old should the seedling be? Two-year-olds and well-developed one-year-olds are easier to take root, with three-year-olds heavier, but in them in the best case we will get the first crop faster.
Unfortunately, we do not see a closed root system, but such seedlings can be planted even by three years and not necessarily in the spring
- Preparing the seedling for planting. Its roots should be dipped in a talker made of mullein and clay (about 1: 2), mixed in water until the consistency of liquid sour cream. If it is not there, we put the roots in the water, where they will lie until the very planting, it is possible for a day.
Clay talker helps seedlings take root in a new place
- We drive a strong meter stake (a metal pipe, a long thick reinforcement, just a wooden thick stick) into the pit. Next to it, you need to place a seedling: directly on the soil, without digging a hole! This is important: now we will form a mound around the apricot.
If the seedling already has branches, the height of the stake should be slightly lower than the distance to the lowest of them.
- We fall asleep roots, building a mound. Of course, this operation is more convenient to perform together. One holds a seedling and spreads the roots so that they assume a “no stress” position. The second gradually covers the roots with clean, fertile soil. Compacting the soil, you need to build a small hill. As a result, 2-3 cm above the top of the hill should be the root neck.
The diagram shows that we do not bury the roots in the landing pit, but construct a mound above it
- We tie a sapling. After arranging the mound, we take a strong ribbon and tie the stem to the stake in the way the figure eight is familiar to any gardener.
It’s easy to make a “look”, but it holds firmly
- We build a side. At first, planted apricots require a lot of water until powerful roots grow. Therefore, not far from the trunk, around the mound, we build a kind of roller so that the water does not drain from the hill during irrigation or rain. The hill can be overlaid with turf or sow grass on it, which must be mowed as it grows.
On the hills, sometimes apple trees and pears are planted, but always run sides to hold water during irrigation
- Water the seedling. Carefully, without washing out the top of the hill, we introduce several buckets of water around the stem. In the first year it is necessary to water systematically: the soil should not dry out. After each watering, the mound will have to be loosened so that the roots have enough air.
Poured a few buckets of water should be absorbed into the soil in 5-10 minutes
- We cut the seedling. Everything is simple here. The first pruning is shortening. Its task is for weak roots to have the strength to feed the seedling for the first time. In the case of an annual seedling, you just need to shorten it by a third. If you planted a two-year-old, then you need to cut the seedling more seriously. We select the two most powerful branches, located, if possible, opposite each other, but at different heights. We shorten them by half. The rest is cut “into a ring”. Do not forget to cover all sections with garden varieties.
The diagram clearly shows the main stages of trimming
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
The main measures for the care of apricot varieties Russian do not differ from those for most other varieties of apricots. This is moderate watering, timely top dressing, weed control, preventive spraying from diseases and harmful insects, whitewashing trunks and skeletal branches for the winter.
As for irrigation, it is needed mainly during the growth of fruits. True, young trees that have not yet grown the root system should be watered frequently in the first few years, but not until water stagnates. Adult apricots, if the summer did not turn out to be extremely dry, are most often quite capable of finding water for themselves.
In arid regions, watering is needed, it is carried out approximately once a month, with sufficient water, but so that it does not stagnate in the near-stem circle. Of course, ideally, this should be warm, standing water, but, in extreme cases, regular watering from a hose is suitable only if the water does not come from underground sources: this is usually too cold. It is better to water in the morning or in the evening.
Apricot needs systematic top dressing. In the spring, the best option is liquid top dressing with infusions of mullein or bird droppings, which, in extreme cases, can be replaced with urea and potassium nitrate. In June, foliar top dressing is useful - spraying foliage with solutions of complex fertilizers. Since mid-summer, nitrogen-containing formulations must be replaced by phosphorus-potassium ones; they contribute to the formation of fruit ovaries.
After harvesting, half a bucket of wood ash should be scattered around the tree and shallowly dig it with a shovel or hoe. Once in several years in the spring or late autumn, small holes are dug near the tree and 1–2 buckets of humus or compost are buried in them.
Apricots tend to immoderate overgrowth of the crown, leading to severe thickening. The Russian is no exception, he requires regular shaping and anti-aging pruning. In the process of forming the crown should be given a natural rounded shape for the variety. The first pruning in the life of an apricot was mentioned in the section devoted to its planting. In the next few years, up to 5–8 skeletal branches are formed on apricot, from which branches of the following orders grow.
Apricot has to be cut not only in spring and autumn, but also in summer. In the spring, thickened areas of the crown should be thinned out, branches that are weak and frozen in winter should be cut out. Fruit branches older than three years are also cut: the harvest will already be small on them. Spring pruning should be carried out a month before the start of the vegetative period, when frosts will not return, but sap flow has not yet begun. Thanks to this pruning, the crown becomes easily accessible to sunlight and reasonable ventilation.
Adult apricots sometimes have to be cut and radically: they rejuvenate from this
Thinning operation in summer can be repeated, but only if there is sufficient moisture (from rain or watering), shortening young shoots by a third and overgrowing. If necessary, you can remove part of the extra fruit or completely extra branches. Summer pruning is beneficial for apricot: flower buds develop better on young shoots. Summer pruning is carried out at the very beginning of June. After it, the fruits grow larger and become sweeter.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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In autumn, in the middle of October, it is necessary to remove weak and diseased shoots, covering large sections with garden varieties. Most annual shoots make sense to shorten by a third or even more, depending on the strength of their growth. Apricot pruning should be carried out regularly, in its absence, the trees are threatened with fruiting frequency. Removing extra branches increases productivity and disease resistance.
Preparing an apricot for hibernation consists in cleaning all weed residues around it, digging the trunk, prophylactic spraying with insecticidal preparations. A Russian adult in winter hibernates without any shelter, but the stems of young trees for the winter should be tied with spruce branches and wrapped with non-woven material on top. Disputes among gardeners are caused by the earthing up of trunks of young trees with earth. On the one hand, this is an insulating procedure. But on the other hand, winter thaws will hit the root neck even harder, and its aging for the apricot is worse than frost.
To protect against rodents, the lower branches and trunk of young apricots must be covered with durable materials, and here, too, the prickly spruce branch is the best option. With the advent of spring, before the sap flow begins, apricot stems are bleached with lime, but such a procedure should be carried out even earlier if possible: the most dangerous sun illuminates the trees in March.
Such devices also save from hares
In the harshest regions in the first winter, many send apricots under cover with a plastic film, built in the form of a hut. Just disassemble such a shelter in the spring should not be late.
Unfortunately, so far little attention has been paid to the apricot of the Russian variety on the Internet: for some reason, it is not discussed much in the forums, and films have not been made about it. But from the point of view of caring for him, you can focus on any videos about apricots for the middle strip.
Video: apricots in central Russia
Diseases and pests: the main types and solutions to the problem
Apricot variety Russian is quite resistant to major diseases, but he needs periodic treatment with a preventive purpose. In addition, excessive shedding of fruits against a background of sufficient moisture may indicate the need for spraying: shedding may be a result of infection with gray fruit rot that has not yet fully manifested itself.
Among the main pests of apricots, the following are mainly distinguished:
- Plum moth: lives mainly in the southern half of the European part of our country. One caterpillar can kill up to a dozen fruits.
- Fruit moth: similar to apple moth, but young caterpillars live openly. During pupation, cocoons are located not like an apple moth, entangling the whole tree, but one by one.
- Plum dusted aphids, in addition to plums, affect apricot, peach and cherry plum. Aphids are placed on leaves, usually in several layers, and damaged leaves do not curl.
The main diseases affecting apricot:
- Coccomycosis. It affects mainly cherry, especially in the western regions of the country, but also plum, cherry plum, apricot and other stone fruits. In early summer, small dark red round spots appear on the leaves. Growing in size, they merge and take on any shape. Affected leaves fall off, the fruits dry out.
- Clusterosporiosis, or holeiness of leaves, is found on all stone fruits, but especially often on apricot and peach. All the aboveground parts are affected. On the leaves, the disease manifests itself in the form of round light brown spots with a reddish rim, first very small, then increasing in size. Leaves become perforated. With severe damage, the leaves fall prematurely. Reddish spots with dark edges form on the shoots. Gum stands out from the cracks. With a severe defeat, the shoots die. Affected buds dry out and the flowers crumble.
This is not a bullet, it is a clusterosporiosis, a dangerous stone disease
- With moniliosis, the bark overgrows with gray bloom, leaves and branches darken and dry out, yields sharply decrease: only some fruits ripen, but most crack, rot and dry even green.
The preventive spraying algorithm for apricots is very simple. When determining the specific processing time for trees, the climate of the region and the current weather should be taken into account. In addition, you need to pay attention to the state of a particular tree. The first mandatory processing is carried out in early spring, the last - in the fall, immediately after the end of leaf fall.
During spring treatment, before the buds begin to bloom, copper sulfate or Bordeaux fluid is most popular: they are very effective against moniliosis, spotting, coccomycosis and klyasterosporiosis. In spring, the barrel and crown are sprayed with a urea solution. In parallel with early spring, it is useful to spray the apricot with one of the drugs that increase immunity (for example, Zircon).
Before flowering, an eradicating spray is carried out, destroying the overwintered parasites and leaf-eating insects, using Kinmix and colloidal sulfur preparations. The following treatment is carried out immediately after flowering: Ridomil Gold is recommended.
During fruit ripening, apricots are treated with colloidal sulfur from powdery mildew and coccommicosis. But any spraying is unacceptable later than three weeks before fruit ripening. After leaf fall, trees are sprayed with urea.
Of large-fruited deserves attention Russian. It is better not to look for a ready-made seedling, but to look for cuttings for grafting on shoots or plum seedlings. I say this because apricot seedlings usually sell root root grafts. Which is not suitable for the Middle Volga region, because the apricot bark in our country often just pops up in this place. Therefore, vaccination should be done no lower than 30 cm from the ground, and preferably even higher.
Varieties resistant to disease, good taste, etc., present no problem. Difficulties may be with the region ... Manitoba, Saratov ruby, Northern triumph, Russian, early Stavropol ...
Apricot variety Russian, bred specifically for central Russia, is good because it grows in a relatively low tree, convenient for picking fruits and caring for the plant. It is characterized by high productivity and a pleasant taste of fruits, for which he earned unquestioned authority among amateur gardeners.