Apricot honey: description, nuances of growing, reviews
Apricot Honey is not included in the State Register of the Russian Federation, but it is interesting as one representative of a rare yet class of winter-hardy apricots. The variety was bred at the Chelyabinsk Research Institute, which already gives reason to consider it suitable for cultivation in the Southern Urals and - more broadly - in the Middle lane.
Apricot Honey: Description
Apricot - the culture is not new for Turkey, the southern regions of Ukraine, the North Caucasus, but for the Middle Strip or Moscow Region it is exotic. It is not surprising that information on some varieties distributed as winter-hardy is very scarce. Apricot Honey also belongs to such grades.
It was bred at the South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato (UUNIISK) in 1996. Selection - K.K. Mullayanova, who is also the author or co-author of such apricot varieties as Kichiginsky, Prizewinner, Snezhinsky, Golden Bone, Early Chelyabinsk, Velvet.
Apricot Honey is obtained by the method of free pollination of trees of the Kichiginsky variety, bred at the same research institute. Apricot Kichiginsky is a medium-sized tree that begins to bear fruit relatively late - at the 5th year, with yellow small fruits - 14 g, but with rather high tasting ratings - 4.5 points.
The direct ancestor of the variety Honey - apricot Kichiginsky
The Honey variety has slightly larger fruits - 15 g, also yellow in color, without blush, with a barely noticeable amount of red dots on top. The pulp is average in juiciness and density, yellow in color, with a well detachable bone. The tasting score is slightly lower - 4.3 points, but the taste attracts with subtle honey nuances. The fruits are sweet, do not bitter, do not acidify, like the ancestors of these varieties - Siberian and Manchurian apricots, which have fruits that are practically unsuitable for food. Despite the fact that the fruits of Honey apricot are not very prominent, if we compare them with the varieties of this crop in general, they have a strong average level in size and taste, and are very good, especially considering the high frost resistance of the tree. Suitable for fresh consumption, due to their density and size, they are good for home cooking.
The tree is able to tolerate winter frosts down to -40 ° C, it is not so prone to aging and does not suffer as much from spring return frosts as southern varieties. Trees of the Honey variety grow quite high - up to 4–5 m, the crown is sprawling, about 4 m in diameter. It comes into fertility in the 5th year, the yield from one tree is 20-30 kg.
Minus is a self-fertile variety, a pollinator is needed. For this purpose, the Kichiginsky variety is well suited.
Original photo of Honey Apricot taken by breeders of UNIISK
Varieties of Ural breeding
Landing: step by step instructions
There are general rules for planting fruit trees:
- The soil is prepared in advance.
- A seedling is placed in water before planting.
- Inspect the roots before planting, remove the damaged, diseased, cut too long.
- The vaccination site should be 10 cm higher than the ground level.
- In the spring they plant only in warmed, thawed ground.
- For warm crops: spring planting is carried out after the threat of frost has passed.
Purchase and preparation of seedlings
Buy honey apricot seedlings should be from the originator - in UNIISK. When buying in other places, you need to be careful - dishonest merchants often sell southern plants under different names. Such an apricot in the middle lane will die in the first year. The best option is to buy seedlings from well-known reliable practicing gardeners in your region, but this is far from always possible. Seedlings are taken at the age of 1-2 years - the younger the plant, the more adaptive it is. The ideal option is to grow your own plant from the seed. Its adaptability to local conditions will be even better. Purchased seedlings must have a well-developed healthy root system. Saplings with an open root system are soaked in a solution of a growth stimulant (Kornevin, Epin, Heteroauxin) for 12-24 hours.
Apricot seedlings of the Chelyabinsk selection on a semi-dwarf rootstock sold by the NGO Gardens of Russia. Root System - Closed
Keep in mind that seedlings packaged in a mixture of peat and sawdust and wrapped in a net are also considered seedlings with an open root system.
Step-by-step landing instructions
The Honey variety is planted in the same way as other apricot varieties:
- It is better to plant in the early spring. When calculating the distance between plants, it is taken into account that the root system of the tree is twice as large as the crown (recall, the diameter of the crown of the apricot Honey is 4 m). The standard distances for planting apricots are 3 m between trees, 5 m between rows.
- Pits for seedlings are prepared in advance, in the fall. The size of one pit is 80 cm3, a stake is driven into the center of the pit so that it rises 50 cm above the ground level.
- Drainage is poured to the bottom of the pit - a layer of rubble, coarse pebbles, broken brick. The thickness depends on the microclimate, usually 15–20 cm.
- Soil from the pit is mixed with peat, fertilizers (humus, ash, superphosphate), lime may be required, and poured back into the pit. The type, amount and proportion of additives depends on the initial qualities of the soil. Try to bring it closer to the ideal: nutritious sandy loam or loam with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. Apricot is generally undemanding to soil fertility, pay attention to the mechanical properties of the soil - it should be light, breathable, well moisture-permeable. In most cases, a mixture of ordinary land, peat and sand in a ratio of 1: 1: 1 is enough.
- You can arrange an organic-mineral pillow - this is a more concentrated nutrient mixture, which is sprinkled on top with a layer of ordinary soil, and only then a seedling is planted - it is necessary that the roots do not touch the pillow.
The layout of the planting pit for apricot
- In the spring, dig a hole of the right size, focusing on the length of the roots of the seedling, form a small slide from the soil, water and trample it, then put a seedling in the hole, spreading its roots along the hill. If the root system is closed, the lump of earth is simply freed from the protective film and placed in a hole without touching the roots.
- Sprinkle with earth so that the root neck rises slightly above the ground. You can’t dig in!
- Around the tree form a watering circle and sides. This is necessary so that the water does not flood the barrel, and at the same time does not flow around.
- The tree is abundantly watered and tied to a peg.
A few recommendations for preparing the site and soil:
- It is better to choose not a flat place, but a small slope, on which excess moisture will flow, protecting the tree from aging.
- If there is no slope, make an artificial hill (diameter - 2 m, height - 0.5 m).
- If the soil is clay, add more sand, small stones.
- Too acidic soil is lime.
- In insufficiently nutritious soil should be made (per 1 planting hole): humus - 30-40 kg, superphosphate - 600 g, ash - 2 kg.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
In general, the plant is unpretentious, but young plants of the Honey variety require skillful care. And the point is not that this is a capricious variety, a problem in the culture as a whole, do not forget that even apricots zoned for Siberia and the Urals are still a novelty.
Watering and feeding
The adult apricot is resistant to droughts, but the young plant likes regular and plentiful watering - it is necessary for it to form new roots. In a dry summer, watering is required. Focus on your conditions - excessive watering is also undesirable, the roots of the plant are sensitive to excess moisture. To preserve moisture and get rid of weeds, the soil is loosened and mulched.
If the plant was planted in well-fertilized soil, the first 2 years of feeding it will not be needed. Then you can start feeding:
- For the 3rd year, 100 g of complex mineral fertilizer is added to the trunk circle.
- This dose can be divided into two parts: one should be applied in March, and the other immediately after flowering (the period of ovary formation).
- Instead of complex fertilizers, urea and ammonium nitrate can be worn (30 and 40 g per each sq. M.)
- Watch your pH - its level should be at 7.0 or slightly higher. For deoxidation of the soil, dolomite flour (300-400 g per tree) is added once every 3-4 years.
For a crop such as apricot, proper formation is extremely important - both early maturity and yield, and how easy this crop will be to harvest, depend on it. The culture is photophilous, actively growing, thickening of the crown and the lack of access of light to the lower branches will greatly reduce yields.
One possible apricot pruning scheme by year
Immediately after planting, the plant is cut at a height of 70–80 cm from the ground. This stimulates the growth of skeletal branches. In one year, the branches of a young apricot will grow by 70 cm. In the middle of summer, they are pinched to stimulate the formation of branches of the next order.
Sanitary przekzu conduct at their discretion - cut out excess, growing inside the crown, interfering branches. Be sure to remove the branches growing to the trunk closer than 45-50 °. Apricot after pruning from one growth point often produces two shoots, one of these shoots should be removed, simply breaking out a weaker one.
After 2 years, the apricot acquires a lush crown. Spurs begin to appear on its skeletal branches - it is from them that the main crop is harvested. They are located on the branches of 2-3 years of age. That is, in the future, pruning of old branches will be required, but such pruning will be required no more than once every 4-6 years.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Apricot bears fruit on short branches - spurs, which are formed on skeletal branches
How to cope with boiling
Apricot dehydration is one of the main difficulties that gardeners face in the conditions of the Urals, Siberia or the Moscow Region. To prevent this problem, choose the right place: sunny, well protected from the wind, preferably on a hill. Lowlands, humid places, the proximity of groundwater, the shadow of taller trees or buildings - gross errors, most likely, the tree will die. Avoid places where snow will melt too long in spring. From the beginning of March, it is necessary to ensure that the trunk of the tree does not come into contact with snow, especially with wet snow. In autumn, you should also try to protect the tree from excess moisture - trees are spudded so that water flows down. In early November, the trunk is distanced from the snow: 4-6 pegs are driven in at a distance of several centimeters from the trunk and an insulating material is pulled (for example, polypropylene). The top of the material is tied with twine. In this way, the trunk is kept dry.
Protection of the young apricot from aging in the middle lane. The stem is completely isolated from contact with snow
Warming, even though the tree of the Honey variety is declared as frost-resistant and suitable for growing in the Urals, is still necessary. Fully adapted to frost apricots do not exist today, young plants simply do not have time to prepare for winter, for example, due to early, rainy and cold autumn. Honey apricot must be warmed up to 3-4 years of age, then - if necessary. Young apricots in the Urals or in Siberia are wrapped up completely - they put a film on the tree, the ends of which are attached to stakes driven into the ground, sprinkled with soil on top. In the middle zone, a layer of mulch (straw, sawdust) with a height of 20 cm near the trunk circle is sufficient.
Mulching Apricot Stem
But it should be understood for what reason culture is afraid of frost. In general, apricot has high frost resistance - growth buds withstand up to -45 ° C, fruit buds up to -35 ° C, flowers up to -5 ° C (and this despite the fact that the flowers of the apple tree freeze at -3 ° C), and the root system is the most frost-resistant of all fruit crops. The problem is the mismatch of the complex conditions. Apricot blooms much earlier than apple trees, which means it has a higher chance of encountering shock frosts for it. Apricots in nature grow on stony, dry, hygroscopic soils, they are sensitive to stagnation of moisture and do not tolerate at all, if this moisture is cold - neither the bark nor the roots are adapted to what the plants of Siberia and the Urals are adapted to: abundance of moisture in spring, when the snow began to melt, thaws and subsequent return frosts, when the surface of the plant can be covered with ice crust, sharp and frequent changes in temperature, a short, meager summer in the sun and a long cold period - despite the fact that the apricot flower buds are characterized by I have a very short rest period.
In scientific terms, apricot has high frost resistance, but low winter hardiness - that is, the ability to tolerate the whole set of unfavorable winter factors. The plant will tolerate a very cold, but stable winter, better than a warm winter with periodic warming and frost. Particular attention is paid to the “loose bud” phase (bud cakes just started to diverge) - it is during this period that the apricot is most vulnerable. At this stage, apricot is in April. Frosts down to -6 ° C will be detrimental to the ovaries - you will not have to wait for a crop in such a year. The Honey variety, like all varieties of the Chelyabinsk breeding, is characterized by increased resistance to spring return frosts.
Diseases and pests. The main types and solutions to the problem
Apricot in those practitioners who grow it in Siberia or in the Urals, shows itself to be a disease-resistant culture, more stable than, for example, plum. However, it may also be susceptible to specific diseases:
- Moniliosis or monilial burn. The causative agent is a fungus. It causes the ovaries to fall, then branches and leaves dry out. The gray fruit rot, which is manifested by spots on the fruits, is a type of moniliosis. The fight against this disease is ongoing. Prevention is very important: proper anti-aging pruning, lime bleaching with copper sulfate, spraying with fungicides (iron or copper sulfate, Bordeaux mixture). They are sprayed during periods of greatest vulnerability: in winter with systemic fungicides (Skor, Strobe, Saprol, Horus), 3-4 days before flowering with foundationol, 2-3 weeks after flowering with Horus or Topaz preparations. If signs of the disease are found on the fruits, they are simply removed and destroyed. An effective method is pruning according to the method of Professor P. G. Schitt, which allows delaying flowering for 7–10 days, which reduces the likelihood of frost and the plant's vulnerability to fungus.
Apricot leaves shrunk due to a lesion of moniliosis
- Perforated spotting (kleasterosporiosis). The causative agent is a fungus. One of the most common stone fruit diseases. Specks appear on leaves, buds, flowers, fruits, which grow over time. The spots are brown, with a characteristic raspberry border. Holes form in place of the spots, heavily affected leaves fall off. Treatment is similar to the treatment of moniliosis.
Apricot Leaves and Fruits Affected by Hole Spotting
- Brown spotting (gnomoniasis). The causative agent is also a fungus. It affects mainly the leaves, a little less - the fruits. Small yellow spots appear on the leaves in May, which grow and turn brown, capturing more and more significant areas, the center of the spots dries out, the edges become bright yellow, folded, with gaps. Affected leaves may fall. Spots appear on the fruits, more ripe fruits are deformed.
Brown spot caused by Gnomonia erythrostoma on apricot leaves
- Cytosporosis. This fungus infects the bark. The affected parts of the cortex dry, crack, tubercles appear on them (pathogens develop in them), flowers and leaves dry out, not falling down a tree for a long time, in advanced cases, the disease is accompanied by gumming. They treat the disease at the initial stage, removing the affected areas of the cortex and treating wounds with garden var.
The defeat of the cortex by pathogens of cytosporosis - the fungus Cytospora carphosperma Fr
- Bacterial necrosis (black or ordinary cancer, burn). Cancer is similar to cytosporosis, although these are completely different diseases caused by different pathogens. With black cancer, not individual tubercles appear on the cortex, but concentric circles, the cortex is darker and begins to exfoliate, which does not happen with cytosporosis. With the last disease, the cortex remains in place, but becomes spongy. For the prevention of the disease, you must also carefully monitor the integrity of the cortex, process physical damage on time.
Black cancer on a fruit tree trunk
- Gum disease (hommosis) is not a separate disease, but a reaction to tissue damage. Unfortunately, these "tears" of the tree do not contain volatile, such as coniferous resin, but they contain polysaccharides that are attractive to microorganisms. Therefore, the expiration of the gum must be treated until the pathogen has penetrated through it and the tree has become even worse. All gum is removed with a sharp knife, stripped to clean wood, carefully observing that there are no diseased cells, then the wound is treated with 1% copper sulfate.
Apocos gum detection
- Aphid. Settles on the underside of leaves. The leaves themselves become sticky, curl into tubules, and fall off. Ovaries and fruits are damaged. Contribute to the appearance of heat insects and nearby anthills. The best way to fight is the timely removal of the affected leaves, this will allow you not to use insecticides. As a preventative measure, spicy herbs are grown nearby. The biological enemies of aphids are ladybugs, tits, and sparrows.
Leaves Affected by Aphids
- Leafworm is a small nocturnal butterfly whose larvae eat leaves and wrap themselves in them, like in a blanket. Pest control - inspection of the plant and timely removal of leaves with insects. The larvae are quite nimble, run off briskly, and they must be collected carefully. From the young Honey apricot, in order to preserve the green mass, only larvae are collected, without picking leaves. Высокие деревья обрабатывают инсектицидами.
- Плодожорка персиковая или сливовая. С яблоневой плодожоркой знакомы многие, это те самые гусенциы, что можно встретить в червивых яблоках. Персиковые и сливовые не сильно отличаются. Они активно едят молодые листья абрикоса и плоды. Зимуют в коре, поэтому основной метод профилактики — удаление старой коры, обработка ствола. А также: перекопка междурядий и приствольных кругов, рыхление, феромонные ловушки, ловчие пояса на стволы, правильная обрезка, своевременные обработки инсектицидами — ещё до того, как гусеницы начали повреждать плоды, сбор опавших поврежденных плодов — пока наевшиеся гусеницы не покинули их и не схоронились в коре или почве (а делают это они довольно быстро, в тот же день, когда упал плод).
Бабочка плодожорки сливовой
- Грызуны. Причиняют наибольший ущерб. Зайцы, мыши и крысы способны полностью погубить дерево. Для защиты от грызунов используют в основном механические преграды, например, обматывают стволы дерева плотной бумагой. Помогает побелка, обмазывание смесью глины, коровяка и карболовой кислоты, раскладывание возле ствола восковых брикетов Шторм.
Отзывы о выращивании абрикосов в Средней полосе
Запомните раз и навсегда Абрикосы растут и плодоносят в подмосковье, но только Московской и сибирской селекции! Главное это чётко соблюдать агротехнику и не сажать в холодных, сырых местах. Север области уже очень проблематично.Кондрат
Есть поговорка, овчинка выделки не стоит. При желании и старании можно и ананасы в огороде как капусту выращивать, но и вкус не тот и труда чрезмерно много. Даже у нас в Саратове абрикосы плодят ра в 3–4 года, места занимают много, тля его обожает в любое время. А когда весной уже распутившиеся цветки вдруг чернеют — плакать хочется. Правда есть и морозостойкие сорта куйбышевской селекции.Знаю, самыми стойкими являются мелкоплодные сорта. Внешне плоды невзрачные, смотреть жутко, но на вкус ничего, сладкие.Okluba
Привитые абрикосы сажала ежегодно в течение 6 лет, они так же регулярно пропадали. Шесть лет назад моя мама посеяла косточки, и мы уже третий год с абрикосами. И НИЧЕГО С НИМИ НЕ ДЕЛАЮ! Они САМИ растут (тьфу-тьфу-тьфу). Косточки — всем желающим…PMarina
Сорт Медовый пока ещё очень слабо испытан на практике, оригинатор получил первые сеянцы из косточек только в 1991 году, а первые плоды с Медовых абрикосов были сняты только в 1996 году. На сегодняшний день сорту чуть более 10 лет — это очень маленький срок для экспериментаторской культуры. Отваживаются выращивать абрикосы в Средней полосе и на Урале совсем немногие. Поэтому сказать, насколько Медовый абрикос интереснее, чем другие зимостойкие сорта, пока очень сложно, но перспективы, если судить по отзывам о сортах Сибирской и Уральской селекции вообще, у него хорошие.