Anyuta grapes - a masterpiece of amateur selection
Despite the fact that grapes have been grown by people for more than a thousand years, breeders do not leave work on the cultivation of new varieties with improved characteristics. One of the representatives of the latest hybrids is Annie, which has gained popularity among winegrowers due to its excellent taste and attractive appearance of bunches. What are the main features of this variety and how to create the most favorable conditions for it on your site?
History of Anyuta grape growing
The appearance of Anyuta, winegrowers are obliged to the outstanding Russian amateur breeder V.N. Krainov. He bred this variety by crossing the Talisman and Radiant Kishmish and named it after his granddaughter.
In addition to Annie, Krainov created more than a dozen grape varieties, many of which are widely known in Russia and the CIS countries.
In 2016, the variety Anyuta was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements, as approved for cultivation in garden plots. Officially, authorship was assigned to V. N. Krainov, I. A. Kostrikin, L. P. Troshin and L. A. Maistrenko.
Variety Anyuta has a high vigor growth force. With the correct formation by the age of three, it reaches three meters in length. The leaves are large, dissected, not pubescent. Bisexual flowers of Annie are easily pollinated even in rainy weather.
The oval berries of Annie are quite large. Their weight often exceeds 15 grams. The clusters are friable, conical in shape. Their mass usually ranges from 500 to 900 grams. But under favorable climatic conditions and competent care, it can reach 1.5 kg.
The length of Anyuta berries can reach 3.5 cm
The peel of the berries is dense, bright pink. The pulp is fleshy, when re-poured, it can acquire a mucous consistency. The fruits of Annie contain 1-2 seeds. Sometimes their number can increase to 4.
Characteristics of Anyuta grapes
Anyuta is a table grape variety of medium ripening period. From the beginning of the growing season to the start of berry picking, about 140 days pass. In the southern regions of our country, the harvesting period usually falls on the first half of September. In areas with cooler climates, it moves closer to early October.
Annie is not among the early ripening varieties. She brings the first berries only in the fifth year of cultivation. But this shortcoming is more than offset by a plentiful harvest. From one adult bush you can collect more than 6 kg of berries, and from a hectare of planting - up to 188 centners.
With good care and favorable climatic conditions, Anyuta is able to bring a rich harvest of delicious and beautiful berries.
The pulp of ripe Anyuta fruit has an excellent taste and a bright nutmeg aroma. When overripe, they do not crumble and remain on the bush for a long time. In addition, berries of this variety easily tolerate transportation and long-term storage.
With excessive moisture, the fruits of Annie may crack.
Anyuta grapes can withstand temperatures down to -22 ° C. In regions with colder winters, he needs mandatory shelter. Resistance to fungal diseases in this variety is average. Experts rate it at 3.5 points.
Video: Anuta variety review
Features of agricultural technology
Annie is a rather unpretentious variety. Nevertheless, in order to obtain high yields for winegrowers who have decided to plant Anyuta on their site, it is necessary to observe the basic agricultural rules.
Annie, like most other grape varieties, feels good in sunny and sheltered from the wind. In Central Russia, it is most often planted along the southern walls of brick or stone structures, which not only prevent the negative influence of drafts, but also prevent excessive cooling of the bushes at night, giving them the heat received during the day. When planting such a tall-growing variety, as Anyuta, the distance from buildings to bushes should be at least 70 cm.
Annie is not too demanding on the composition of the soil. It does not tolerate only soils with a significant salt content. The high level of groundwater, which often leads to decay of the roots, is also detrimental to it.
The right choice of planting material is very important. Healthy plants have elastic, cut white roots with no signs of damage or mold, and greenish shoots. It is better to buy seedlings in large nurseries and garden centers. This will help avoid over-grading and the acquisition of improperly stored plants.
Strong and healthy seedlings are the key to a good harvest
Anyuta is very well rooted, so the seedling can be prepared independently. To do this, cut the stalk from the plant you like and put it in water until the roots appear. If desired, water can be replaced with wet sawdust or another substrate. On average, 2–4 weeks are enough for roots to appear.
Video: the subtleties of rooting grape cuttings
Anyuta grapes can be planted both in spring and autumn. According to experienced winegrowers, preference should be given to spring planting, which allows a young plant to grow a powerful root system before winter. This is especially true in regions with short and cold autumn.
To plant Anyuta, a pit with a depth of at least 70 cm is required. If several plants of this variety are planted, the distance between them should be at least one meter. Too frequent planting can lead to inhibition of plants and, as a result, to a significant decrease in productivity.
During spring planting, a pit is prepared in the fall. A drainage layer of small pebbles with a thickness of at least 10 cm is necessarily laid at its bottom. It prevents stagnation of water, leading to rotting of the roots. Then the pit is filled with a mixture of fertile land and complex fertilizer, which can be replaced with wood ash, and watered abundantly, after which they forget about it until spring.
Grapes are planted after the threat of repeated frost passes, and the earth warms up to a temperature of at least +15 ° C. It is produced in several stages:
- At the bottom of the pit, a support is installed at least twice as high as the plant.
- From the south side, place a seedling at an angle of 45 ° to the surface of the earth and carefully tie it to a support.
- They fill the hole with a mixture of sand and chernozem, making sure that the root neck remains 4-5 cm above the ground.
- Poured earth is thoroughly compacted and well shed with water.
- The trunk circle is mulched with humus, sawdust or moss.
Video: how to plant grapes correctly
Care for Anyuta grapes includes regular watering, loosening of tree trunks and row-spacing, top dressing, vine formation and pest and disease control. In addition, in regions with winter temperatures below -22 ° C, they must cover it.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Watering and fertilizing
Annuta is a rather drought-resistant grape variety, but in regions with hot summers and insufficient rainfall, it needs regular watering. Usually it is produced two to three times per season. Also in the southern regions, water-charging irrigation is often practiced in spring and autumn.
Lack of moisture can crush berries
Excess moisture is much more dangerous for grapes than its lack. It enhances the negative effects of low temperatures and leads to the development of fungal diseases. You can not water during the flowering and ripening of fruits, as it often becomes the cause of dropping flowers and cracking berries.
The green parts of the grapes react extremely negatively to contact with water, so it is watered through drainage pipes or holes. The easiest way is the latter. During it, water is poured into holes dug around the bush around a depth of about 25 cm. At the same time, about 50 liters of water are consumed per square meter of landings. After soaking it, the hole is covered with earth.
Experienced growers often use drainage pipes to water the grapes, capable of delivering water directly to the roots of Anyuta, which are located quite deep. To install them, at a distance of 50–70 cm from the bush, a pit of 70x70x70 cm in size is dug. A layer of crushed stone about 30 cm high is poured into its bottom and a plastic or metal pipe with a diameter of 4 to 15 cm is inserted into it. Then, the pit is covered with earth, so that the pipe acted on 20-30 cm.
Video: installing a drainage pipe for root irrigation
When feeding grapes of Anyuta variety, both mineral and organic fertilizers are used. Usually they are applied simultaneously with watering. Moreover, in the spring they use fertilizers containing a large amount of nitrogen, and in the summer and in the autumn Anyuta is fed with potassium and phosphorus compounds.
Annie is distinguished by a high vigor growth force, therefore, it needs to be trimmed. It is carried out annually, immediately after the end of the growing season. Experienced growers are advised to prune the fruiting vine of this variety at a level of 8-12 buds. Excess shoots are also best removed. On one bush there should be no more than 30–35 of them.
Trimming and unripe parts of the vine require. Together with them, dry, too thin and damaged shoots are removed.
For pruning grapes use only clean and sharp tools.
Anyuta also needs to normalize the crop. When overloading the bushes, the taste of the berries significantly deteriorates and the ripening period increases. To prevent these negative phenomena, no more than two or three clusters are left on each shoot. In young plants, the number of brushes is reduced to one.
Pest and Disease Control
Variety Anyuta is resistant to most fungal diseases. Russian vineyards are most often used Topaz, Chorus, Strobi and Thanos. They spray the grape bushes several times during the season:
- in early spring, before the start of the growing season;
- during the blooming of leaves;
- after flowering.
Sweet grape varieties often suffer from wasps, but Anyuta is well protected from these insects by a dense skin that they cannot damage. Only birds can enjoy ripe berries. Preventing their invasion is pretty easy. It is enough to put mesh bags on the grapes, not allowing uninvited guests to dine with delicious fruits. If desired, the bush can be completely covered with a fine mesh.
The fine mesh perfectly protects the clusters of Annie from birds
In most regions of our country, the Annie variety requires shelter for the winter, which protects it from severe frosts. Immediately after pruning, the bush is tied and carefully bent to the ground. Top it is covered with burlap or non-woven material. To prevent the destruction of the structure by strong winds, its edges are firmly fixed. To increase thermal insulation, it can be thrown with spruce branches and snow.
The materials used for sheltering grapes for the winter should pass air well
In spring, shelter is removed only after the establishment of stable warm weather. If there is a risk of return frosts, the material is left in place until the buds open. In this case, it is necessary to make several holes in it for good ventilation of the landings.
Reviews of winegrowers
My “Annie" this year was the first time under stress. Bush for the fifth year. Clusters as a selection! Sweet, fragrant, noble, rich nutmeg - very beautiful! A little thicker skin, but quite eatable! But it hangs for a long time and without problems! This year they took off before the frosts themselves and at this stage we feast on it, moreover, without any losses! Even the comb stays green! AmazingTatyana Viktorovna
I have Anyuta a champion for pain. This was especially noticeable in the rainy summer of 2013. In the past, in 2014, on the contrary, it was dry and hot, it hurt less often, but if it was a mildew, then on Anyuta in the first place.Pro100Nick
Annie is really a very successful form of V.N.Krainov! I believe that she has a great future and a long life! It hangs well without loss of taste and marketability; I have never seen any peas on this form on any site, the pulp is not watery, the nutmeg is pleasant. Anyone who allows the area and works on the berry can plant a lot! The form is simply a favorite at the beginning of September!Liplyavka Elena Petrovna
My Anyuta bears fruit for the second year. Both years the appearance of the grapes is excellent. Taste with well-felt muscat. Growth and resistance to disease, I think, are average.Vladimir Vasiliev
For the second year, two shoulders, the bus of Anyuta left four signals (the toad said, it was possible to leave more). When the berry almost gained size, the berries cracked by the sun, ten percent. I already mentally began to sharpen the ax, but at the beginning of September, having tasted the ripe berry, I was delighted with the taste; nutmeg, honey, eatable skin. It is a pity there is no more space on the site, almost all in one copy, I would add another bush.alexey 48
Great shape! Not sick, fruitful, beautiful, not bursting. Of course, with rains, to put it mildly, it’s not very good. It manages to ripen before the “wet” season. I have never hung before the frost - it’s eaten right away. My nutmeg, like gourmet 1-12. The peel is slightly thick, but I think it is a plus - the wasp does not hit much, but it does not feel much when eating.Belichenko Dmitry
Annie combined, perhaps, all the best qualities of grapes. It has a great taste and excellent appearance of berries, and also has a fairly high resistance to adverse conditions, so this variety can be grown without much difficulty even by a beginner winegrower.