Anthurium: features of care, pests, diseases and their treatment
Anthurium or male happiness catches your eye thanks to the magnificent inflorescences, painted in the brightest colors of the spectrum: red, purple, yellow, pink, blue. Glossy leaves of anthurium are also decorative, and some varieties are distinguished by a silvery frame of veins. Anthurium is considered an unpretentious plant, but for beautiful flowering and growth it needs certain conditions. If your plant has a painful appearance, analyze the errors in the content and eliminate them, guided by our tips.
Optimal growing conditions
Anthurium moved to our apartments from the tropics of Central and South America, so it’s used to shading. The best place in the apartment for him will be the windowsills of the western and eastern windows. The optimum cultivation temperature is 16–20 ° C in winter and 20–25 ° C in summer.
Anthurium is a big lover of moisture. Like many tropical plants (zamioculcas, monstera, calla) with high soil and air humidity, anthurium is able to "cry" due to special pores on the leaves. But it is worth remembering that in everything you need to know the measure. A non-drying, moist substrate will quickly lead to rotting of the roots and death of the plant.
Soil for anthurium, as for most epiphytes, should be quite light, slightly acidic. A great option is ready-made special soil mixtures for aroid.
Important! All parts of the anthurium, like most plants of the aroid family, contain poisonous juice, so it is necessary to isolate it from small children and domestic animals.
Gallery: a variety of colors of Anthurium flowers
- Spectacular white Anthurium White Hart will not leave indifferent any grower
- Violet Anthurium Fiorino has a simple laconic inflorescence that looks very beautiful in a bouquet
- Anthurium Black Queen has an original appearance - as the bud opens, the flower changes its color from cherry to almost black
- Romantic natures will love the exotic blue Anthurium Princess Alexia Blue
- Red Anthurium Andre is the ancestor of modern species of Anthurium
Major Care Mistakes
Anthurium can hardly be called a capricious plant, but mistakes in growing can be fatal for him. Here are the main signs by which you can understand that something is wrong with your plant.
Table: main diseases of anthurium and their causes
|Disease||Pests||Eating disorders||Other reasons|
|Leaves turn yellow||-||Spider mite, aphid||Chlorine in Irrigation Water|
|Leaves turn black||-||-||Too much calcium in the soil|
|Brown spots on the leaves||Septoria, rust||Aphid||-|
|Black spots on leaves, brown tubercles||-||Shield||-||-|
|Brown spots with a yellow rim||Septoria||-||-||-|
|Plant dries||Anthracnose||-||-||Lack of moisture in soil or air|
|Dark dots on leaves||-||Thrips||-|
|Spots of violet-brown color on the leaves||Late blight||-||-||-|
|Yellow faded leaves||-||-||Soil nutrient deficiency|
|Pimples on the leaves||-||-||Excess watering|
|Spider web on leaves||-||Spider mite||-||-|
|Leaves turn pale||-||-||Soil nutrient deficiency|
|White chlorotic spots on the leaves||Peronosporosis||-||-||-|
|Small flowers / leaves||-||-||Lack of trace elements in the soil||Insufficient watering|
|Mass yellowing, dying of leaves or rotting of roots||Fusarium wilt||-||-||Continuous excess moisture|
|Leaves fade||Septoria||Shield, thrips||-||-|
|Leaves "cry" after watering||-||-||-||Combination of plentiful watering and moist air (guttation)|
|White plaque on leaves||Powdery mildew||-||-||-|
|Pinkish plaque on the root neck||Fusarium wilt||-||-||-|
|Torn leaves||-||-||-||Dry air|
|Flowers turn green||-||-||Soil nutrient deficiency||-|
|Flowers dry up||-||-||Lack of nutrients in the soil||Dry air|
|On the peduncles pimples||-||Shield||-||-|
|Does not grow||-||-||Soil nutrient deficiency|
|The plant wilt||-||Aphids, scale insects, thrips||Nutrient deficiency||Insufficient watering|
|The flower does not take root||-||Aphids, scale insects, thrips||Soil nutrient deficiency||-|
|Anthurium barrel rotted||Fusarium wilt||-||-||Excess watering|
|Rotted growth point||Fusarium wilt||-||-||Excess watering|
|Anthurium does not bloom||-||-||-|
|Anthurium leg blackens||-||-||-||Excess watering|
|The plant is falling apart||Mycoses||-||-||Excess watering|
|Growing slowly||Pest and disease damage||Soil nutrient deficiency||Lack of lighting|
Errors in caring for anthurium are usually not difficult to fix (rearrange the plant from the battery, water more or less, feed, change the window sill, etc.), but coping with dangerous diseases and pests is not so simple.
As mentioned above, anthurium is a moisture-loving plant, therefore, it has a high chance of contracting mycoses. These are diseases caused by microscopic fungi that love a moist environment.
Downy mildew (peronosporosis)
On the leaves of anthurium appear whitish, yellowish spots, so familiar to gardeners. Cucumbers are often affected by this disease. On the back of the sheet, the formation of gray spores can usually be observed.
The source of this common disease is a microscopic fungus, which is extremely sensitive to air humidity. The main condition for getting rid of this parasitic fungus is a decrease in air humidity in combination with the use of fungicidal preparations of contact action (Topaz, Acrobat).
The disease affects the leaves of anthurium. Rusty chlorine spots appear on the outer surface, and active spore formation occurs on the bottom. As in the case of downy mildew, the main method for controlling and preventing leaf rust is to maintain optimal air humidity. For prophylaxis, biological fungicides can be used, for example, Albit, Alirin, Fitosporin.
Anthurium leaf affected by rust must be treated with fungicide
This type of mycosis inhibits the whole plant. The fungal nature of the wilting of anthurium is given by a pinkish-white coating that forms on the root neck. The causative agent of the disease is species of fungi of the genus Fusarium (Fusarium).
Unfortunately, Fusarium infection occurs in many ways, including through water and air. And the spores of the fungus are extremely tenacious and resistant to high temperatures and chemicals. Therefore, the main thing in the fight against Fusarium infection is prevention, for example, the introduction of the antifungal drug Gliocladin into the soil. Systemic fungicides Vitaros, Rovral, Fundazol also proved to be good in the fight against fusarium.
Fusarium wilting depresses the whole plant
This common fungal disease appears on the leaves with brown spots, sharply outlined by a yellow rim. In the future, wilting of the leaves and death of the plant occurs. The main treatment is the treatment of anthurium with copper-containing fungicidal preparations (Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, Kuproksat).
Brown spots with a yellow rim on the leaves of anthurium - a sign of septoria
Another disease of anthurium, having a fungal nature. Leaves begin to dry and thin. Dry brown spots may appear from the edges or in the middle of the leaf plate. If urgent measures are not taken, the plant will quickly dry up and die soon.
With anthracnose, the leaves of the anthurium begin to dry from the edges.
Treatment should be carried out using systemic fungicides (Fundazole, Acrobat, Ridomil Gold). It is also necessary to treat the soil in which fungal spores are contained with fungicidal preparations. If it was not possible to save the anthurium, the remaining indoor plants should be protected. The spores of the fungus are extremely tenacious, so the vacated pot needs to be calcined. If this is not possible, then you will have to get rid of such dishes.
Anthurium is rarely affected by late blight, this disease still more often affects solanaceous plants. Despite this, if you notice small spots of violet-brown color on the leaves, you need to urgently take action. Phytophthrosis develops very quickly and affects the root system, dooming the plant to an early death.
The best option for controlling late blight is the use of systemic fungicides. Among them are Fitosporin-M, Fundazol, Alirin-B, Previkur. In this case, it is necessary to replace the soil, thoroughly rinse the roots under water, and heat the pot or replace it with a new one. The roots can also be treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Succulent stems and leaves of anthurium are a satisfying food for many sucking parasite insects. The plant can be affected by aphids, thrips, scutes, spider mites.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The "classic" parasite of garden and indoor plants. Yellowed, wilted or twisted leaves in anthurium are the main signs of aphid damage.
On sale there is a huge amount of chemicals to combat aphids, they can be purchased at any specialized store. The most famous of them are Aktellik, Fitoverm, Akarin, Aktara. You can also use the traditional remedy for aphids - treat plants with a solution of warm soapy water or infusion of tobacco.
Young aphids breed very quickly on succulent leaves and stems of indoor plants
This microscopic arthropod cannot be seen with the naked eye. Its size is only 0.5–1 mm. Nevertheless, such a crumb can deliver a lot of trouble. The spider mite feeds on the juice of the host plants. When infected with a pest, the anthurium ceases to develop normally, the affected leaves turn yellow, which subsequently leads to the death of the plant.
It is easy to diagnose a spider mite lesion. These small parasites secrete a secret that in appearance resembles a web. When a spider web appears on the leaves, urgent measures must be taken. First of all, it is necessary to get rid of the culprits of the disease. This is best done by washing the plant under running water. Then it is necessary to process the leaves with one of the insecticides (Vertimek, Fitoverm, Akarin, Lightning ) . This is best done by covering the plant with a plastic bag, and then leaving it under cover for 2-3 hours.
Unfortunately, in 3-4 days young growth will hatch from the soil, and the treatment will have to be repeated according to the same scheme. Anthurium will need to be processed 2-3 more times with an interval of a week.
A spider mite is visible only under a microscope.
These harmful sucking insects are a real disaster for indoor plants. Scaffolds are reliably protected from external influences by a special "carapace", therefore it is not easy to get rid of them. Scabies are visible to the naked eye. They cause the appearance of black spots on the leaves, wilting and subsequent death of the plant.
If you notice signs of damage to the anthurium with the scale, place the plant in “quarantine” so that it does not infect healthy brethren.
To get rid of scutes, they are cleaned manually from the leaves and stems with a soft cloth. After this, it is necessary to treat the plant with special chemicals (Actellic or Fosbecidum), following the instructions. Be careful - these drugs are toxic! It is better not to carry out the treatment indoors.
The stem of the anthurium, affected by the scab, is cleaned with a soft cloth
Small, not larger than 1 mm, sucking parasites. Signs of anthurium thrips are in many ways similar to aphid infections. These are fading, yellowing leaves, in addition, on the underside of the leaf you can see small black dots.
The main method of dealing with thrips is the treatment of plants with specialized chemicals. Before starting the procedure, it is necessary to remove all parts of the plant affected by parasites. It is also advisable to get rid of the topsoil, as it may contain thrips eggs. Processing should be carried out several times: 3-4 treatments in 7-10 days.
For greater efficiency, it is recommended to spray the plants in a plastic bag, you can leave it like that for 2-3 hours. This will allow the highest quality etch thrips.
Gallery: different stages of thrips development and signs of plant damage
- Plants suffer not only from adult thrips, but also from their larvae and nymphs
- Under optimal conditions, thrips can double their population in 4–6 days.
- The main symptoms of anthurium thrips: rapid wilting, yellowing and dying foliage
Resuscitation of anthurium
Even if the anthurium has lost all the foliage, this is not a reason to get rid of it.
Living Anthurium Rhizomes Can Still Be Reanimated
First of all, you should find out what caused such a deplorable state - improper care, illness, or pests. Next, do the following:
- get rid of contaminated land, as it most likely contains spores of parasitic fungi or insect eggs;
- turn up the pot by heat treatment, boil for 5 minutes in water with soda.
If you do not do these preventive procedures, young overgrown leaves of anthurium will become a welcome treat for newly hatched parasites.
A disease brought in by the soil can destroy a weakened plant. Therefore, it is very important to disinfect the new soil in any way possible:
- Steam treatment. The soil is spread on a fine wire mesh over boiling water for 30–40 minutes. This is a time consuming, but very effective way.
- Freezing. The soil is kept at a negative temperature for a week, then it is brought into a warm room for thawing. This is a lengthy process and is easiest to carry out in winter, when you can use a balcony as a freezer.
- Potassium permanganate. This is a way for the lazy. All you need to do is to spill the soil with a raspberry solution of potassium permanganate and wait 30-40 minutes until the soil dries.
The main stages of resuscitation of anthurium
- The rhizome left without leaves for disinfection should be soaked for 30–40 min in light pink potassium permanganate, and then placed for 3-4 hours in the Kornevin solution. The drug stimulates the development of roots, it contains phytohormones that contribute to the accelerated development of the root system of plants. This procedure will allow Anthurium to quickly cope with the stress of transplantation and accumulate strength for the growth of new young leaves.
A plant treated with Kornevin (on the right in the picture) forms many new roots
- While the rhizome is "soaking", it is necessary to prepare a new soil for the plant. You can use ready-made mixtures for aroid or prepare the substrate yourself. The soil should be light enough, contain peat, sphagnum, vermiculite, charcoal and bark. Sphagnum in the composition of the soil not only retains moisture, but also has bactericidal properties. Biohumus will provide the soil with the necessary microflora. Vermiculite accumulates excess moisture and gives it to the plant as needed. The soil also needs to be “filled” with fertilizers for indoor flowers.
Sphagnum, vermiculite and peat, taken in equal quantities, form the basis of the soil mixture for Anthurium
- After this, the rhizome can be planted in a pot with prepared soil. Sprinkle the roots with a substrate, gently tapping the pot so that the soil is compacted. Anthurium cannot be deeply deepened, the root neck should remain above the surface of the substrate.
- Before the start of active growth, it is not necessary to water the anthurium, it is enough just to spray the soil surface. It is advisable to cover the pot with a plastic bag; it can be removed when the first young leaf appears. Further, the plant requires normal care.
If the procedure for resuscitation of anthurium is carried out correctly, then after a while young leaves from sleeping buds will appear
Video: Anthurium Transplant Rules
Anthurium feels great in the conditions of our apartments. But you should be very careful about his needs and take timely measures to prevent possible diseases. If you take care of the plant correctly, then the anthurium will delight you with the brightest flowers of the most exotic colors throughout the year.