Amirkhan grapes: one of the varieties suitable for regions with a harsh climate
Grapes Amirkhan - a table variety of grapes of early ripening. The variety is not outstanding, but due to its simplicity and resistance to cold, it is regionalized not only in the European part of our country, but also in Siberia and the Far East. Amirkhan is an ordinary sweet grape for summer consumption, enjoying average popularity.
The history of the cultivation of Amirkhan grape varieties
The Amirkhan grape was bred in the Kuban, in the city of Novocherkassk, in the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Culture and Culture named after Ya.I. Potapenko, where they have been breeding grapes for a very long time. The institute's work is aimed at obtaining new hybrid forms that can grow in regions with a harsh climate. And since there are a lot of amateur winegrowers in the Kuban, there are no problems with the comprehensive study of new varieties.
The All-Russian Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking was organized in the pre-war years. Varieties obtained at the institute are used for further breeding work in the same place, as well as winegrowers in many countries. And such as Rapture, Talisman, Victoria and other outstanding hybrid forms are still widely used by many amateur breeders to breed the latest grape varieties.
In 1958, a variety testing of grapes was organized at the state level. During the time that has passed since then, the Institute transferred 77 varieties for testing, including 52 interspecific hybrids. The State Register of Selection Achievements Allowed for Use includes 20 varieties of breeding VNIIViV. The Institute’s employees themselves consider the best varieties to be Vostorg, Agat Donskoy, Northern Cabernet, Druzhba, Platovsky, Finist and others. Amirkhan was not included in this list. Apparently, in comparison with other varieties, the creators themselves did not see any special advantages in Amirkhan.
Amirkhan was created by hybridizing the varieties Yagdon and Pearls of Saba. As in all cases of successful hybridization, he took from parents their best parental traits. But the main thing that Amirkhan can be proud of is that it can be grown in almost any climatic zone. Currently, it is known almost throughout Russia, successfully grown in Siberia and the Far East.
Grapes Pearl Saba - one of Amirkhan's parents
Amirkhan grows in the form of a small or medium-sized bush. The maturation and fruitfulness of shoots is very high. The leaves are oval, slightly dissected, with solid edges. Declared frost resistance - up to -23 ... -25 ° C, resistance to diseases at an average level. Easily propagated by well-lignified cuttings, but in Siberia and the Altai Territory it is often grown by grafting on even more frost-resistant varieties. The excess crop is poorly kept, normalization is necessary: without it, the ripening of the berries is delayed, and their size is significantly reduced.
The yield of the variety is small: about 3 kg of berries are collected from the bush. The variety is one of the earliest: from the moment of opening of the first buds to harvesting, it takes about four months. Thus, in the southern regions of Russia, berries become edible in mid-August, and in the middle zone or southern regions of Belarus - closer to the beginning of autumn. In Siberia, it is considered a medium-ripening grape. The variety is self-fertile, it does not require pollinators, therefore, for fresh consumption, only one bush can be planted, but for a large family and to extend the term for eating grapes, you must, of course, have another 1-2 bushes of another variety. The variety is practically not exposed to peeling, it is perfectly pollinated even at high humidity.
The clusters are mainly cylindrical, of medium size: weight from 400 to 800 g. Individual specimens can reach up to 1 kg. All berries are about the same size and tightly pressed against each other. Bunches well tolerate transportation.
The perfectly ripe berries of Amirkhan are not quite pink; only a small part of them crack
The berries are slightly elongated, have a thin skin and a very juicy pulp. The seeds are very small. The size of the berries is average, the mass is from 4 to 6 g. The grapes have an excellent presentation. The taste is simple, sweet, and has a delicate shade of nutmeg. The sugar content in berries is 17–19%. Shelf life is quite long, one and a half to two months. Grapes Amirkhan belongs to the table varieties: it is mainly eaten fresh, but it can also be used for various preparations (such as juices, fruit drinks, preserves, raisins).
Characteristics of Amirkhan Grapes
Having examined the description of Amirkhan grapes, we will try to give him a generalized description. Of course, by any sign you can find the best and worst varieties, and if you compare Amirkhan precisely with table varieties of early ripening, this variety does not stand out. The clear advantages include:
- good commodity qualities of bunches and their transportability;
- great taste of sweet berries;
- lack of peeling;
- self-fertility (does not require pollinators);
- good crop safety both in the bushes and in the refrigerator;
- fast growth and good ripening of shoots;
- ease of propagation by cuttings;
- high frost resistance;
- ease of care.
Relative disadvantages of the variety, viticulturists consider:
- medium resistance to major grape diseases;
- the need for skilled pruning and rationing of the crop, without which the berries are much smaller;
- relatively low productivity.
Features of planting and growing
Even novice summer residents can plant Amirkhan on their site, since caring for this grape is simple. Neither the rules of planting, nor the technology for caring for it do not differ from those in the case of other table varieties. Amirkhan is a classic table grape variety that requires light shelter for the winter. The ideal soil for growing grapes would be chernozem rich in minerals.
Like any grape, he loves sunny areas protected from cold winds. It is advisable that the walls of the house or a high blank fence protect the bushes from the north side. If this is not possible, many gardeners construct special protective screens from improvised means.
The wall on the north side will reliably close the grapes from the cold winds
Amirkhan is very easily propagated by cuttings, the survival rate of which is very high. Therefore, the seedling can be grown by yourself, you can plant the acquired stem in the stem of another, more wild variety, for example, Amur grapes. Usually in the Far East and Siberia they do so. When choosing a seedling, the main thing is that it has well-developed roots. Immediately before planting, the seedling should be lowered into the water for a day, slightly cutting off the tips of the roots so that it is saturated with moisture. You can plant grapes in the autumn, but it is better in the spring, in April.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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For spring planting, the pit should be ready in the fall. And in advance, in summer, the selected site must be dug up with fertilizers (compost, ash, superphosphate), removing perennial weeds. In autumn, you need to dig a large hole, at least 70 centimeters in depth and in diameter. Drainage at the bottom (15–20 cm of gravel, pebble or broken brick) is necessary for the grapes. At the bottom of the pit, a layer of fertilizer mixed with good soil should be placed. And above, where young roots will be, only clean fertile soil should be placed. At the bottom of the pit, you need to draw a piece of thick pipe, so that in the first years, water the seedling directly into the roots.
For the first few years, a pipe drawn to the roots will provide ease of watering.
Grapes should be planted deep so that no more than two buds remain on the surface. Watering the seedling well, it is advisable to mulch the soil around it.
Caring for Amirkhan is simple: watering, fertilizing, garter shoots, pruning, preventative treatments. Everything except cropping does not require special knowledge. Trimming, however, must be learned, without this it is impossible: the harvest will only get worse every year.
Excess water is not required, but periodic irrigation is necessary, especially in arid regions. The need for water is especially great during the growth of berries, but from the end of July Amirkhan's watering must be stopped: let the berries gain sugar and become tasty. In the case of dry autumn, winter watering is necessary shortly before sheltering the bushes for the winter. Feeding is generally recommended with ash: bury 1-2 liters annually under a bush. Every two years in early spring - to make two buckets of humus, burying them in shallow pits along the periphery of the bush. And 2-3 times during the summer it is necessary to carry out foliar top dressing by spraying the leaves with weak solutions of fertilizers. Before flowering and immediately after it, it is convenient to use mineral complex complexes; when feeding them after another 2-3 weeks, they are limited only to potash and phosphorus ones.
Amirkhan has an average resistance to grape diseases, and for prophylactic purposes, early spring spraying with a solution of iron sulfate is required. According to the green cone, that is, at the time of the beginning of the extension of leaves from the buds, you can process 1% Bordeaux fluid. If several leaves appear on the shoots, it is necessary to sprinkle the vineyard with the drug Ridomil Gold.
They try to exclude copper-containing preparations from everyday use, but there are still not many fungicides that are simpler and more reliable than Bordeaux mixture.
In the early spring, before the start of sap flow, only a small crop of the bush can be made. It is much more convenient to cut the grapes in late autumn, before shelter for the winter. But the main work on normalizing the bush from extra shoots, breaking down stepsons and, unfortunately, part of the clusters should be done in the summer, while they are still green and small: no more than two clusters should be left on each shoot at Amirkhan, according to the characteristics of the variety. If you work hard in the summer, in the fall it will be much easier. The total load on the bush should be no more than 40 eyes.
Green operations on grapes are easy and do no harm.
Before the onset of frost (around the end of October), all vines must be removed from the trellis, tied in bunches and covered with any warming materials on the ground. In not very harsh regions, spruce or pine spruce branches, dry foliage of trees are suitable for this, in harsh climates they try to use non-woven materials or old rags. The trouble is that under them feel good mice that gnaw the bark of grapes. As a result, the entire aboveground part of the bush dies. Therefore, in the case of a powerful shelter, the pesticides for rodents should definitely be decomposed under it.
Unfortunately, about such an unremarkable grape variety as Amirkhan, quality videos have not even been shot, and what is offered on the network is not very convenient for viewing. The description in them comes in a mechanical voice.
Video: Amirkhan grape
I am growing Amirkhan for 18 years. I like him. This year came out very good. good, the cluster was the largest 850 gr., and mainly 600-700. Berry 4–5, the skin is thin, the flesh is fleshy-juicy, tender. There is almost never any irrigation; it is pollinated well even in rainy weather. He doesn’t like overloading, then the berries are smaller (I had it last year, when I left 2 clusters to escape). It is prone to gray rot, but it is extremely rare. Wasps adore him, and he burns in the sun, I hang a spandbod.Vladimir Petrov
The variety is very demanding on the regulation of both clusters and shoots. With a slight overload of bunches, the berry does not pick up sugar and the vine matures poorly. It is necessary to pay attention to clusters. The clusters are very dense and during ripening the berry itself crushes itself, and the juice ran here for you and wasps and gray rot. I was engaged in a haircut of bunches, inside the brush on peas, removed all small and part of the normal berries. As a result, the brushes turned out to be more friable, the berry is a little larger and most importantly, the berry did not push itself.Vladimir
Amirkhanchik firmly entrenched in my area. 4th fruiting. Ripens every summer with good sugar. A very dense bunch before the deformation of the berries, but never cracked or rotted. Likes to sunbathe.Victor
Amirkhan is a grape variety that has not shown anything special, but is grown on a large territory of our country. This is due to its unpretentiousness, early harvest and good taste of berries. Due to the low yield, the gardener may need to plant a couple more bushes of other varieties, but Amirkhan even without pollinators bears fruit regularly.