Alycha Naiden - description and cultivation
At the end of the last century, the Belarusian cherry plum Nayden crossed the borders and quite successfully spread to the regions of Central Russia. What qualities contributed to this, than she earned recognition. Is it worth the gardener to opt for this variety, planning the laying of the garden.
The fruit of the joint efforts of the Belarusian Research Institute of Horticulture and the Crimean Experimental Breeding Station (Krymsk, Krasnodar Territory) of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Growing. Allocated in 1986 and included in the State Register in 1993. Zoned in the Central Black Earth and Lower Volga regions.
The tree is medium-sized with a flat-rounded crown. Branches are horizontal, thick (3.5–4 cm), weakly branching. Winter hardiness is high, immunity to diseases and pests is medium, drought tolerance is medium.
Early fruit ripening - in the second decade of July. Early maturity is good - 2-3 years after vaccination. Productivity is high, regular. Ripened fruits can remain on the branches for a long time without crumbling and not cracking.
The berries are ovoid, with an average weight of 26–27 grams. According to VNIISPK (All-Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding) - 31 grams. The skin color is burgundy, according to VNIISPK - red-violet. The peel is thin, medium dense, easily detachable. The pulp is yellow, juicy, dense. According to VNIISPK - orange, fibrous, medium-dense, low-fat. The taste is sweet and sour, good. The stone is small, slightly detachable. The purpose of the fruit is universal.
The skin color of cherry plum Nayden - burgundy
Types of pollinators
The variety is self-fertile, blooms early in early April. To set fruit, it is necessary to have simultaneously flowering pollinators such as cherry plum varieties in the neighborhood:
- Gift to St. Petersburg;
- Traveler and others.
Video: short review of cherry plum Nayden
Planting cherry plum varieties Nayden
Alycha Nayden is unpretentious in soil composition and maintenance, but it can not grow anywhere. It will not grow on swampy and flooded soils. Acidic, saline, heavy soils are also not for her. The cold north wind is disastrous for cherry plum. And also it will not bloom in a thick shadow.
It is best to plant Naydenu on the south or southwest slope, where there are thick trees, the wall of the building or the fence on the north or northeast side. If there is no such protection - it is worth taking care of the manufacture of special boards painted white with lime mortar. Such protection will protect the young tree from the cold wind. The white surface of the shield reflects the sun's rays, which will additionally warm and light the cherry plum.
Purchased seedlings with a closed root system can be planted at any time from April to October. If seedlings with open roots, they should be planted only in the early spring before buds open.
Step-by-step landing instructions
As usual, the process begins with the acquisition of a seedling. It is better to do this in the fall - at this time a wide selection of high-quality planting material. Prefer one or two year old plants with a good root system, a healthy bark, on which there are no cracks and damage. Until spring, the seedling is stored dug in the ground or in the basement at a temperature of 0–5 ° C. The roots should be in a moist state. Next, proceed to the implementation of planting activities.
The root system of cherry plum seedling should be well developed
- Prepare a landing pit. For this:
- Dig a hole 70–80 centimeters deep and of the same diameter.
- In the case when the soil is heavy, clayy - a drainage layer 12-15 centimeters thick is laid on the bottom. To do this, use broken brick, expanded clay, gravel, etc.
- A mixture of equal proportions of chernozem, sand, peat and humus is poured to the top.
- Add 300-400 grams of superphosphate, 3-4 liters of wood ash and mix well with a shovel or pitchfork.
- They cover it with waterproof material until spring (slate, roofing material, etc.) so that melt water does not wash out nutrients.
- In the spring they take out a seedling from the shelter. After making sure that he has wintered safely, the roots in the water are soaked with the addition of Kornevin, Epin, Heteroauxin or another root stimulant.
Before planting, the roots of a seedling of cherry plum are soaked for 2-3 hours in water
- After 2-3 hours, a part of the soil is removed from the planting pit so that the root system of the seedling fits.
- A small mound is made in the pit, the top of which should be at ground level.
- The seedling is placed on the knoll so that the root neck rests on top, and the roots are spread around.
- They fill the pit with earth in a few tricks, each time densifying well. Since the mound was loose, during compaction the soil will settle and the root neck will be at ground level - this is what is needed.
The root neck of the seedling should be at ground level
- Around the tree, a trunk circle is formed along the diameter of the pit. This is convenient to do with a chopper or a plane cutter.
- Water it so that all the soil in the pit is well moistened. Wet ground adheres well to the roots and no sinuses should remain around them.
- After 2-3 days, the soil must be loosened and covered with a layer of mulch with a thickness of 5-7 centimeters.
- The seedling is cut to a height of 60-80 centimeters. If there are branches - shorten them by 40-50%.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
There is nothing special and unusual in the rules for the cultivation of cherry plum Nayden, as well as caring for her, no. A standard set of ordinary agricultural activities, which are short.
Cherry plum is watered infrequently - about once a month. While the tree is young and the roots have not yet grown, more frequent watering may be required. Water consumption should provide soil moisture to a depth of 25-30 centimeters. After 1-2 days, the trunk circle is loosened and mulched.
When watering cherry plum, you need to moisten the soil to a depth of 25-30 centimeters
A sufficient amount of nutrition is laid in the landing pit in the first years of the plant's life. As a rule, additional top dressing begins to be applied after the beginning of fruiting, when nutrients are consumed in large quantities.
Table: types of top dressing, timing and methods of application
|Fertilizers||Consumption rates and application methods||Dates, frequency|
|Compost, humus, grass peat||One bucket per two square meters is embedded in the soil||In spring or autumn with an interval of 2-3 years|
|Liquid||Insist two liters of mullein (you can apply one liter of bird droppings or half a bucket of freshly cut grass) in a bucket of water for 5-7 days. Then diluted with water 1: 10 and watered.||The first time during the formation of the ovaries, then two more times every 2-3 weeks|
|Nitrogen (urea, ammonium nitrate, nitroammofosk)||Close up in the soil when digging, the norm is 20-30 grams per square meter||Annually in spring|
|Potash (potassium sulfate, potassium monophosphate)||Dissolve 10-20 grams in a bucket of water - this is the norm per square meter||Annually in early summer|
|Integrated||Apply according to instructions|
Do not "overfeed" cherry plum. Excess fertilizer harms the tree more than their shortage.
Some gardeners do not pay due attention to cuts of cherry plum and completely in vain. Correctly and on time, the trimming done allows you to get higher yields.
Table: types of cuts, terms and methods of implementation
|Trim Name||When spend||How|
|Formative||Early March. The first time after planting and then for 4–5 years.||Give the crown the shape of an improved "bowl"|
|Regulatory||Annually, in early March||In cases when the crown is thickened, tops and shoots growing inside the crown are cut out|
|Supporting||Annually in June||Young shoots are shortened by 10-12 centimeters (this technique is called chasing). As a result, the shoots begin to branch, additional fruit buds are laid.|
|Sanitary||Annually, end of October and beginning of March||Dry, broken and diseased branches are cut “into the ring”|
For cherry plum Naiden, a crown formation of the type of improved "bowl" is suitable
Diseases and Pests
Subject to precautionary measures, cherry plum, as a rule, is rarely affected by diseases and pests.
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Table: sanitary and preventive maintenance
|Scope of work||Deadlines|
|Collection and disposal of fallen leaves||October|
|Sanitary pruning||October, March|
|Whitening of boles and skeletal branches with slaked lime solution with the addition of 1% copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture||End of october|
|Deep digging of tree trunks with turning over layers of earth||End of october|
|Spraying the soil and crown with 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid||End of October, beginning of March|
|Spraying the crown and the stem with DNOC (once every three years) and Nitrafen (annually)||Early March|
|Installation of hunting belts||Early March|
|Spraying the crown with systemic fungicides (Skor, Chorus, Quadris, etc.)||After flowering, then every two to three weeks|
The gardener should know the signs of the main plum disease. As a rule, these are fungal diseases and are treated with fungicides.
In spring, when the cherry plum blossoms and the bees collect nectar, they, along with pollen, spread spores of the causative agent of the disease on the legs. The fungus infects the flower of the plant, through the pestle penetrates into the shoot and then penetrates the leaves. Affected parts of the plant wither, then blacken. Outwardly, it looks like frostbite or a burn with a flame. Hence the second name of the disease - monilial burn. Having found signs of the disease, immediately cut the affected shoots. In this case, it is necessary to capture 20-30 centimeters of healthy wood, since the fungus may already be further than the affected areas. Then carry out the treatment with fungicides. In the summer, moniliosis affects cherry plum berries with gray rot - such fruits need to be collected and destroyed.
In summer, moniliosis affects cherry plum berries with gray rot
A sign of polystigmosis is the formation of red spots on the leaves of cherry plum. This phenomenon gave the second name of the disease - red spotting. With the further development of the fungus, the leaves dry out and fall off, the fruits become stained and tasteless.
The first sign of cherry plum infection with polystigmosis is the appearance of red spots on the leaves
This disease is similar to the previous one. The difference is that the red-brown spots that appear on the leaves during infection with the fungus grow and turn into holes. Hence the second name of the disease - hole spotting.
With kleasterosporiosis holes appear on the leaves
The main pests of cherry plum are butterflies and beetles that lay eggs on the leaves and flowers of the plant, from which caterpillars appear. The following pests are more common:
- The Thorax. The larvae of this beetle make their way inside the bones and eat out the core. As a result, the berries crumble before they ripen.
- Plum moth. Her larvae often eat ripe berries. On the surface of the affected fruit, small holes with drops of gum are usually observed.
- Plum sawfly. The larvae of this insect eat the seeds of green berries at a time when the hard shell has not yet formed. It is clear that the affected berry will not ripen.
Pest control should be carried out in the spring. It consists in spraying the tree crown with insecticides before flowering, after flowering and two more times with an interval of one week. Apply Decis, Fufanon, Iskra-Bio, etc.
During flowering, any processing is prohibited. Bees can suffer from this.
Photo gallery: possible cherry plum pests
- The centipede often annoys the gardener
- Larva larvae eats kernel kernels
- Butterfly plum moth has a nondescript appearance
- Caterpillar of the plum moth eats the berry from the inside
- Plum sawfly is a pretty pretty insect
- Inside this berry the plum sawfly larva
Two years ago, he planted a cherry plum Nayden, which he brought from the nursery from Smolensk. She didn’t take it, I had to dig it out. Today I saw the same variety in the store, bought, planted, cut the top of the crown. We will wait for it to grow ...
Kuzmin Igor Evgenievich, Moscow Region, Pavlovsky Posad
Elena Sergeevna wrote (a): Tell me, please. Cherry plum found, planted in 2005, prolific in 2008. It turned out to be low-yielding. Maybe this is a feature of the variety or my conditions? I did not form it and it grows in a bush. When I bought at TSHA, they emphasized that it was not vaccinated, but root. Maybe it's better to leave one trunk? Elena Sergeevna, cherry plum Nayden is hardly winter resistant. In your version (root), the bush form is more reliable. In anticipation of severe frosts in a snowless winter, it is advisable to mulch the trunk circle (see 15–20). With the death of the aerial part, and maintaining the root, everything will be restored. Productivity can increase if there are good pollinators (also cherry plum or whale plums) nearby, and proper nutrition (deoxidation of the soil). Compare the appearance with mine (in the album, p. 3). There are some doubts, met: yellow, I have t / red.
toliam1, St. Petersburg
Anatoly, I have Found a dark red, ripe even burgundy, like yours. Looks like yours. I think that at your advice you need to deoxidize the soil. Thanks to Anatoly and Chamomile for the advice.
Elena Sergeevna, Moscow, Veshnyaki
Lena, it turns out you definitely haven’t. My bone does not separate, but the flesh is not yellow, but almost red. Well, the jester with her, still tasty, large and does not freeze yet, so I will continue to plant it. The only funny thing is that no one on the forum can really identify the varieties of red cherry plum. The fruits of all are different and most bought in Rostock.
The main advantages of the variety of cherry plum Nayden - early maturity, productivity, winter hardiness and quality of fruits. Relative shortcomings do not prevent this variety from confidently occupying new and new niches in Central Russia. The gardener who planted Naiden on the site is unlikely to regret it later.