All the nuances of planting beans on seedlings and in the open ground
Beans are considered unpretentious plants. On the one hand, we can agree with this - culture is not very capricious. But, on the other hand, there are a number of rules, the non-observance of which may adversely affect the harvest. When growing beans, success largely depends on proper planting.
Planting and growing beans seedlings
In the seedling method, beans are grown mainly in the northern latitudes in order to extend the harvest period in short summer conditions. In central Russia and the southern latitudes there is no special need to grow bean seedlings, it can be sown immediately in open ground.
Preparation of tanks and soil
Bean seedlings do not tolerate damage to roots during transplantation, so it is not recommended to grow it in boxes or pallets, it is better to use separate containers. It can be plastic cups, but seedlings must be carefully removed from them. Ideal option - peat pots or paper cups. In this case, when plants are planted in a permanent place, the root system will be fully preserved.
If you grow bean seedlings in peat pots, the root system will not be damaged when transplanting plants
The main soil requirement for growing bean seedlings is high absorption capacity, breathability and loose structure. One of the following soil compositions can be recommended:
- 2 parts of peat, 2 parts of humus and 1 part of sawdust (peat mixture). Before adding sawdust to the mixture, they are washed 2-3 times with boiling water.
- Compost and turf in equal proportions.
- 3 parts of garden land and 2 parts of turf land.
About two% sand and a little ash should be added to the last two mixtures.
Presowing seed treatment
To increase the germination of beans and disinfect it, you need to carry out pre-sowing seed treatment. It is as follows:
- Calibration Initially, you can visually reject damaged or discolored seeds. The selected planting material is kept in a 3-5% solution of sodium chloride. Seeds that have surfaced to the surface are unsuitable for planting, sank to the bottom - full and high-quality. They are washed with salt and further processed.
When calibrating seeds, high-grade and high-quality seeds are selected, unsuitable for planting are rejected
- Disinfection. Seeds are kept in a 1-2% manganese solution (1-2 g per 100 ml of water) for 20 minutes, then washed well in running water and dried.
For disinfection, bean seeds are placed in a solution of manganese for 20 minutes
- Soak. So that the beans sprout faster, it is soaked for 12-15 hours (but no more, otherwise the seeds will turn sour) in melt or rain water. To do this, a moist cloth is placed in a container with a wide bottom, beans are placed on it and covered with gauze folded in several layers. They make sure that the seeds remain moist and at the same time there is no stagnation of water.
To accelerate germination, the beans are soaked in containers with a wide bottom, using a damp cloth
- Hardening. It is used for regions where there is a risk of a decrease in temperature after transplanting seedlings into the ground. Soaked beans are kept in the refrigerator for 5-6 hours at a temperature of + 4 ° C.
Dates and rules for planting beans on seedlings
Seedlings develop within three to four weeks. Its transplantation time to open ground depends on the climatic conditions of the growing region. In mid-latitudes, seedlings are planted on a bed in the last ten days of May; accordingly, beans must be sown in containers at the end of April or in early May.
Before sowing, the soil is moderately moistened. They deepen the seeds by 3-4 cm. If there is doubt about germination, you can plant two seeds, and then choose a stronger plant from them. But, as a rule, bean seeds germinate well.
Containers with planted seeds are covered with a film and kept at + 23 ° C until germination. It is important to prevent the formation of soil crust, as it will prevent seed germination. Tender sprouts can even break, breaking through the crust. Usually after 4-5 days shoots appear.
Before the emergence of seedlings, containers with seedlings are covered with a film
After the seeds have sprouted, the temperature of +16 ° C is maintained during the entire period of seedling cultivation. It should not be allowed to lower the temperature, as the seedlings can stop growing or even die.
Beans are demanding on light, so seedlings need to provide a sunny place. Seedlings moderately water and maintain the soil in a loose state. 5-7 days before transplanting seedlings to a permanent place, the plants are quenched in the open air. Seedlings are ready for planting in the ground when three or four true leaves appear.
When 3-4 real leaflets appear on seedlings, it is ready for planting in open ground
Transplanting seedlings in the open ground
When preparing the soil after deep digging, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied to it (per 1 m2):
- humus or compost - 2-3 kg;
- wood ash - 1 glass;
- superphosphate - 1 tablespoon;
- nitrophoska - 1 tablespoon.
After fertilizing, they are mixed with soil by shallow (10-12 cm) digging.
Plants are watered abundantly on the day of planting. Make indentations in the soil according to the size of the cups and also moisturize well. The seedlings are carefully removed from the plastic cups, trying not to damage the lump of the earth, and placed in a hole 1-2 cm deeper than the seedlings grew in the tank. Peat or paper cups are lowered into a hole with seedlings. Sprinkle the soil so that there are no voids, water and mulch. If there is a threat of lowering the temperature, the plants are protected with a covering material at night.
For climbing varieties, supports are installed before planting. You can plant plants near the existing capital buildings on the site.
Video: Sowing Bean Seeds in Sawdust
Sowing beans in open ground seeds
Beans are demanding on heat, active growth occurs at an air temperature of 20–25 ° C. Shoots can die already at a temperature of -1 ° C.
In the southern regions, beans are sown in open ground at the end of April. In the middle latitudes - after May 20, and in the northern regions they are waiting for the risk of night frost to disappear, as a rule, this happens in early June. Usually, the timing of sowing beans and cucumbers is the same. If, nevertheless, there is a risk of a temperature drop below zero, the shoots at night are covered with a film.
Bean planting conditions
The place for beans is well-lit and protected from the cold wind. Most suitable for legumes is fertile soil with a light structure. On heavy clay soils, especially if groundwater is high, beans simply will not grow. On cold soils with a high level of groundwater, beans are grown in high ridges.
The beans should be sunny and well warmed up.
Organic fertilizers are best applied when growing bean precursors. If the soil was well seasoned with organic matter, it is enough to apply only phosphate and potash fertilizers. From nitrogen fertilizers, green mass will grow intensively to the detriment of the crop, so they are not added.
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- organic fertilizers (humus or compost) - 4-5 kg;
- superphosphate - 30 g;
- potash fertilizers - 20–25 g (or 0.5 l of wood ash).
Beans cannot tolerate increased soil acidity; soil with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction (pH 6–7) will be optimal. If the acidity is higher than normal, liming is necessary.
Bean seed germination begins when the soil warms up to a temperature of at least 10–12 ° C at a depth of 10 cm.
Preparing seeds for sowing
Seeds before planting in open ground are treated in the same way as when sowing them for seedlings: calibrated, disinfected and soaked. Treated beans for the prevention of seedling damage by nodule weevil immediately before planting are recommended to be lowered for several minutes in a warm solution of the following composition:
- water - 1 l;
- boric acid 0.2 g;
- ammonium molybdenum acid - 0.5–1 g.
Before planting bean seeds in open ground, the same measures for their pre-sowing treatment are carried out as when planting on seedlings: calibration, disinfection, soaking
Features and planting patterns of curly and bush beans
When planting climbing beans, they immediately provide support for the plants. Capital buildings on the site, such as a fence, a wall of a house or a barn, a gazebo, etc. can serve as a support.
If you plan to plant a separate bed, then equip a special trellis. For this, two supports 1.5–2 m high are installed along the edges of the beds and a wire or twine is pulled between them. Beans can be planted on each side of the trellis. Aisles for curly beans span at least 50 cm, in a row plants are planted at a distance of 20–25 cm.
To grow curly beans, set a trellis in the form of supports, between which a wire or twine is stretched
Curly beans can also be nested. With this variant of planting, a wooden stake is installed, for which the beans will easily catch on, and five plants are planted around it.
If you attach ropes to the top of the driven stake and fix them on the ground in a circle, the bean shoots will braid the structure and you will get a hut in which children can play. The second version of the hut is a support of a pyramidal shape made of rods stuck into the ground along the perimeter of a circle and connected by wire from above.
It is possible to construct a support for pyramidal-shaped beans in the form of a hut
Bush beans are planted at a distance of 15–20 cm with row spacing of 40 cm. It is possible to apply lowercase planting or arrange the plants in a checkerboard pattern, but in any case it is undesirable to plant more than four rows in one bed. Shrub bean is convenient for growing in that it does not require support.
Video: how to install a pyramidal support for curly beans
Before planting, beds are marked depending on the type of bean. Curly beans need a little more room for full development than bush. She often has higher yields.
On loamy soils, the sowing depth is 4–5 cm, on light soils - a centimeter deeper. The beds with planted seeds need to be watered, the soil should be compacted with the back of the rake and lightly mulched with humus or simply dry soil.
Shoots appear after 5-7 days. They are sheltered for the night to protect against cold weather. The sprouted seedlings are spudded to give them greater stability.
Video: sowing beans in open ground seeds
Bean planting methods
When sowing beans, you can use two methods: ordinary and tape. Both of them are widespread and successfully used by gardeners.
It is considered the simplest and most common way of planting beans, in which the plants are arranged in one row (line) at a small distance from each other with wide aisles. For beans, the average row spacing is 50 cm, and the row spacing is 25 cm. With ordinary sowing, a larger feeding area is obtained than with the tape method. However, planting density decreases, so this method is better to use when there is enough space for beds.
With the ordinary method of sowing seeds are planted at a small distance in a row and leave wide aisles
With tape (multi-line) sowing, two or three rows (lines) come together and form a ribbon. By the number of rows in the tape, crops are called two- or three-line. The distance between the plants in the row remains the same as with ordinary sowing, and the row spacing between the tapes is increased to 60–70 cm. The distance between the lines in the tape is 25 cm. Tape sowing allows you to more economically use soil moisture and nutrients, as well as successfully fight with weeds.
With the tape method, two or three rows come together and form ribbons, between which wide rows are marked
Features of planting bean mung bean
The bean culture of mash (mung) comes from India and is widespread in the subtropical zone. She has long beans that taste like beans with a slight nutty flavor. Since mung bean is a southern plant, it needs an air temperature of at least 30–35 ° C throughout the season. Existing cold-resistant varieties also grow in cooler climates, but crop yields in this case are somewhat reduced.
Mash bean is a southern plant, it needs an air temperature of 30–35 ° C for full development
The place is chosen sunny, well warmed up, as for ordinary beans. The soil should be very light, loose, air- and water-permeable with a neutral reaction. Since autumn, the preparation consists in distributing wood ash over the site and watering. In the spring, immediately before sowing, the soil is dug and very carefully harrowed.
An ideal option would be to cultivate the land using a walk-behind tractor, which makes it loose, like fluff.
Sow mung bean need to soil, warmed up to at least 15 ° C. The row-spacing can be from 45 to 70 cm, the distance between plants in the row is 20–40 cm. It should be noted that mung bean is a rather sprawling plant, its tall varieties require garter.
Seeds are planted to a depth of 3-4 cm. Mash is finicky to soil and air humidity, especially during seed germination. Therefore, the crops are abundantly watered and keep the soil moist, but without stagnation of water. Seeds germinate slowly, seedlings appear after 10-12 days.
Bean compatibility with other plants when planted
There are a lot of plants with which you can plant beans nearby. It is friendly to radishes, corn, celery, cucumbers, potatoes, tomatoes, beets, spinach and all kinds of cabbage. In the neighborhood with these cultures, mutual stimulation is noted. And also good compatibility is observed with carrots, radishes, cucumbers, pumpkin, lettuce and strawberries.
Beans get along well with many cultures
Significantly fewer crops, the proximity of which for beans is undesirable. It is not recommended to plant beans next to onions, garlic, fennel and peas.
Then you can plant the beans
Compliance with crop rotation rules is important for growing any crop, including beans. It is recommended to plant it after cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, carrots, strawberries, beets, radishes, corn, bitter and sweet peppers.
Bad predecessors for this culture can be called much less. They will be peas, beans, lentils, soybeans, peanuts. And also it is impossible to grow beans repeatedly in one place for 3-4 years.
The process of planting beans is simple, it will be understandable and accessible even to a novice gardener. And experienced and even more so know that it is very important to take into account all the conditions and rules when planting a crop - this is the key to the full development and productivity of plants. It is not difficult to fulfill the requirements, and the beans will delight the eye with their decorative bushes and thank them with a good harvest.