Adiantum at home: growing without problems
Adiantum is one of the most common ferns that growers grow at home. Thick openwork greens of bright light green leaves, introducing a touch of "spring forest", and the relative unpretentiousness in care - this is what almost all lovers of indoor plants appreciate it.
Origin and distribution
Adiantum, or the venus of hair, is rightfully one of the most elegant ferns. According to legend, he appeared from the hair of Venus thrown to the ground - the goddess of love and beauty.
And it is no coincidence that this fragile-looking plant is compared with the hair of a goddess: its foliage, indeed, looks like a magnificent girlish hair
This plant belongs to the pteris family (ferns), one of the oldest on Earth. Its ancestors appeared 400 million years ago, in the Paleozoic, but still some of them are found on the South American continent, representing giant fern-like trees. A variety of species is widely represented on the globe, especially in the subtropical and tropical zones.
Adiantum can be found both in Western Europe and at the foot of the mountains of North Africa and Central Asia. In Russia, this plant feels good on the Crimean peninsula and the Caucasus.
Most often it can be seen in shaded places along rivers, lakes, streams - where moisture seeps through the nutrient soil.
Adiantum easily develops rocky shores thanks to a well-developed powerful rhizome
The fern is a spreading creeping herbaceous plant with beautiful, as if carved, leaves. Their distinguishing feature is water repulsion: when watering, it flows down in jets without wetting the sheet plate. Because of this unusual property, the fern got its name Adiantum (from the Greek “a” - not, “diaino” - moisten).
Individual leaf segments, often fan-shaped, do not exceed 2-3 cm in length
This airy, delicate fern is not so gentle: it is hardy enough and undemanding at home.
Variety of species
The genus has about two hundred species. Usually, venereal hair is grown as a houseplant, which feels great outdoors only in the spring and summer. However, some of the wild species of adiantum can be planted in open ground. But remember that in winter they still need to provide more benign conditions (move the plant to a cool place protected from drafts). So, the most popular and practical types of care are:
- Adiantum transparent: fern with cirrus broadly oval leaves faded green, concave below. Horseshoe-shaped spores are distributed at the top of the leaf.
- Adiantum is tender: with short root shoots and leaves of varying shapes (broad-lobed, wedge-shaped on petioles of black color). Feels good in a cool room, used for decoration. In nature, lives in the tropical zone of the American continent, on the Greater and Lesser Antilles.
- Adiantum finely pubescent, or finely hairy. Lanceolate, carved leaves, down on both sides, on strong, small cuttings with bristles. Disputes are frequent. Cultivated as a houseplant. It is found in the wild in the mountains of the African continent, in the northern part of the Hindustan Peninsula, on the mountain plateaus of Australia, in Madagascar.
- Adiantum beautiful, or Adiantum formosum, is a fern with a creeping thin root and oval dark green leaves. Petiole of this species has a rough surface. Spores are predominantly concentrated in the upper part of the leaf plate. It lives on the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
- The wedge-shaped adiantum (Adiantum cuneatum) is similar to the previous one, but it has kidney-shaped spores in the recesses along the edge of the leaf. It is found on the South American continent.
- Adiantum Venus hair. Very popular among indoor ferns. Up to 70 cm in height, fern with a creeping long rhizome in dark narrow scales. The leaves are divided into segments, very thin, on the petioles similar to female hair. Soruses shine through the thin body of the leaf. Indoors grown with a bang. Widely distributed on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (in the mountains), in Europe, Crimea mountain ranges, the American continent, on numerous Asian plateaus.
- Adiantum pterygoid is considered one of the most beautiful species of this genus. Graceful perennial plant with double-pinnate leaves in the shape of a fan. It has long been grown in conservatories, greenhouses.
- Adiantum Ruddy: Native to the South American Tropics. It has long (45 cm) creeping leaves with characteristic tooth segments, each of which is no more than a centimeter. Petioles are dark brown or almost black. Adiantum Ruddy is popular in indoor floriculture, several varieties are cultivated at home:
- Victoria Elegans;
- Fragrantissima (aka Fragrance);
- Fritz Lithii;
Photo gallery: the variety of adiantums
- The leaves of the transparent adiantum reach 40 cm, which allows florists to successfully use them in cut flowers
- Adiantum gentle - the owner of long (about 70 cm) and wide (40-50 cm) leaves
- Shallow-haired adiantum has creeping brown rhizomes that allow it to “live” on vertical surfaces
- Adiantum is beautiful not too capricious, so it can fully grow in both warm and cool rooms
- Compared to the beautiful adiantum, the wedge-shaped variety has somewhat larger leaf sizes: up to 45 cm in length and 25 cm in width
- In venereal hair, spores form in the upper part of fan-shaped leaves
- Adiantum pusiform has an antitussive, expectorant, astringent property, therefore it is valued in folk medicine
Venus hair at home: minimum requirements
The whole charm of the adiantum is its unpretentiousness, it is not very capricious, but nevertheless requires at least minimal conditions (by the way, they are the same for all seasons).
Table: Adiantum conditions
|Lighting||Windows facing north, northwest|
|Humidity||Necessarily high. Place drainage, peat in the pan; keep them moistened|
|Watering||The soil should always be slightly damp, should not be overfilled either. In summer, irrigate every other day, in winter - 1 time per week|
|The soil||A mixture of equal parts of peat, turf, sand and humus is ideal. Drainage can be added on top.|
|Fertilizers||During growth, they feed fertilizer to ferns every 2 weeks.|
Transplanting and landing adiantum
When planting a flower, it is worth giving preference to a clay pot: it better passes the air needed by the roots. Drainage is poured onto 1/3 of the pot, then it is covered with special soil intended for ferns. As a rule, such a mixture consists of identical parts of turf or deciduous humus, peat and fine sandstone.
The overgrown flower is transplanted mainly after 2-3 years from planting, preferably in the spring. According to the observations of experienced gardeners, adiantum grows better in tight dishes: the roots are clamped, do not grow much, thereby stimulating leaf growth. When transplanting, rotted roots should be removed, carefully, without injuring healthy ones.
Video: step-by-step landing of hair venere
Take care correctly
This beautiful fern does not tolerate direct sunlight. Bright sunlight at low humidity is the main cause of leaf burns. Ideally - partial shade, and in the warm period of time the most relevant place for the adiantum is a loggia sheltered from direct sunlight. The temperature regime should be maintained at 150-200. In summer, no higher than 220. Adiantum also suffers intolerance to drafts and tobacco smoke. Well, if the humidity is always normal, otherwise the tips of the leaves begin to turn yellow.
Seasonal watering and top dressing
Ferns prefer regular watering, but the plant should not be poured either. In winter, due to heating in most home plants, the leaves begin to dry, so you can pour a little water into the pan.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
Watering is best done with soft water, preferably melt or rain, if possible.Galina
This plant also prefers high humidity: it is necessary to periodically spray leaves from the spray bottle with settled water. Fertilizers should be applied in summer and spring. You can get fern dressings in specialized stores.
Adiantum does not bloom. This is due to the fact that in ancient times, when the first ferns appeared, there were no compound plants and insects pollinating them. Reproduction occurs by spores, as in all fern-like. Disputes fly over vast distances, because of this the distribution area of ferns is quite wide.
It is possible to determine the type of adiantum by the spore maturation zone
In winter, a dormant period sets in, as with many plants. At this time, watering is reduced to 1 time per week.
Diseases and Pests
With all the relative unpretentiousness of ferns, adiantums (when watering, light, and feeding are not observed) can hurt and be damaged by flower insects. One of the first signs of venereal hair disease is the dried or yellowing (blackening) tips of its carved leaves, moreover, the plant unnaturally lowers the leaves or begins to dry out.
Never keep the adiantum in a draft!
A plant is affected by pests if:
- a characteristic cobweb appears on the back of the leaves, the leaf curls (spider mite);
- on the trunk and leaves you can see small greenish insects with wings (aphids);
- colonies of brown small insects appear on the trunk (scale insect);
- on the leaves a white coating, similar to flour, the plant becomes slippery, sticky (mealybug).
The causes of pests and diseases, as well as ways to get rid of them, can be found in the table below.
Table: Fern Disease Prevention
|Diseases and Pests||Causes||Preventive measures|
|Leaves turn yellow||Low humidity||Increase humidity: spray, pour settled water into a pan|
|Wither leaves||Wrong watering||Make watering more regular|
|Blacken tips||Draft, plant hypothermia||Change location|
|Leaf turns pale||Direct sunlight||Put the plant in partial shade|
|Spider mite||Room air is too dry||Rinse leaves, increase humidity: spray, add drainage to pan, moisten|
|Aphid||Dry air overflow||Treat with Fitoverm, Derris, Detis|
|Mealybug||Overflow||Wipe the leaves, sprinkle with Actara, Actelik, Fitoverm|
Video: about the wrong care of the adiantum firsthand
Adiantum propagates mainly by dividing the root. Remove any rotten / dried roots so that the plant subsequently grows well and does not hurt. Care must be taken not to damage the plant, its root neck, to ensure an adequate flow of air to it, not to plant too deep in the ground.
In a small hole, transplant part of the adiantum with the root, sprinkle it with earth, not pressing strongly, do not forget to moisten. When choosing a place for transplanted plants, give preference to partial shade. And most importantly, remember about watering. After a week, the adiantum should be fed with special fertilizer.
Only adult plants should be propagated by dividing the root, but if the operation is unsuccessful, you may lose the mother plant
You can grow an adiantum from spores. But the process is quite time-consuming:
- Mature dark spores on the back of the sheet should be collected in a linen bag or on a piece of paper.
- Pour seeds randomly into the prepared pot with soil, slightly sprinkling with soil.
- Cover with plastic or glass.
- As the soil dries, it should be moistened.
- The temperature should remain 200-220C.
- After 2-3 weeks, the first shoots will appear in the form of small shoots.
- Wait until they grow up, creating all the necessary conditions, thinning and seedling.
The life cycle of the adiantum includes the change of asexual and sexual generations
All types of indoor adiantum are unpretentious, if you follow simple requirements: the right temperature, moderate humidity and partial shade. If these components are kept in balance, this fern will delight its owners for a very long time with lush foliage of emerald green color.