Actinidia in the Urals: suitable varieties and recommendations for cultivation
Actinidia is a two-in-one plant. It very successfully combines spectacularity and outward appeal with the presence of tasty and healthy fruits. This liana is not the most widespread culture in the areas of Russian gardeners, but it is confidently gaining popularity due to its unusual appearance, general unpretentiousness in care and ability to adapt to not always favorable climatic conditions, which are very different from its native subtropics.
What is actinidia
Actinidia is a very unusual liana, capable of becoming a real decoration of a personal plot. It is also known to gardeners under the nicknames “northern grapes”, “kiwi”, “Amur gooseberry”, “Far Eastern raisins”. This plant is not only spectacular and decorative, but also very useful. It regularly brings a crop of berries containing many vitamins, macro- and microelements vital for the body.
Actinidia in the garden looks very impressive
In the garden, actinidia is widely used. This creeper has a powerful tree-like trunk, shoots are literally dotted with large leaves of a beautiful shape. The arbors and verandas twisted by her look very impressive. And you can mask some unsightly structure or create a hedge. Actinidia attracts attention even in winter - its intricately interwoven shoots are similar to the work of a talented graphic artist.
Video: what kind of actinidia plant
In nature, there are many varieties of actinidia. The homeland of most of them is the Asian subtropics. But there is also actinidia colomictus, which is common in nature in northern China. It successfully survives not only in the European part of Russia, but also in regions with a harsher climate, rightly ranked as “risk farming zones” - in Siberia, the Far East, and the Urals. Liana is frost-resistant, temperatures up to -45ºС do not harm her. The main danger for it is return spring frosts, which in these territories are not something out of the ordinary. When the temperature drops to -2ºС, the leaves will suffer, but will quickly recover, at -4ºС and they and the flowers will turn black and fall, -8ºС - a critical minimum at which shoots may not survive.
The plant has long been and successfully used in traditional medicine. All its parts are used - leaves, roots, bark, flowers. Cooked decoctions and infusions serve as an effective prevention of atherosclerosis, help fight other vascular diseases, and are used when there are problems with digestion and breathing. It is also an indispensable tool for the treatment of vitamin deficiency.
In general, actinidia is one of the oldest plants that have survived to this day. Botanists claim that this liana existed on the planet at the same time as dinosaurs, but, unlike them, was able to survive the ice age. Accordingly, she has the ability to adapt to the most extreme conditions.
Description and specifications
Actinidia belongs to the category of dioecious plants. If you plant it not only for decoration, but also counting on bearing fruit, it is imperative that you have a "male" bush that will serve as a pollinator. Breeders have bred several new varieties that are marketed as self-fertile, but practice shows that they cannot be called full-fledged as such. Distinguish “male” plants from “female” plants by flowers. In the former, they have many stamens, but are devoid of a pestle.
Flowers on "male" actinidia bushes lack pestle
For the winter, the liana drops its leaves. But before that, they acquire a very bright shade - sunny yellow, crimson-crimson, blood-red. The shape of the leaf plate resembles a slightly elongated heart. In most varieties, it is dark green, but varieties with a leaf tip painted in white, pinkish or cream are also found.
Bright multi-colored leaves only add actinidia decorative
The flowering period is short (2–2.5 weeks), but it is very plentiful. Snow-white or pastel pink flowers are small, but the opened buds spread an amazing aroma, similar to the smell of orange blossom or lily of the valley.
Blooming actinidia spreads amazing aroma
Actinidia fruits look like very large gooseberries or small kiwi fruits. Their taste is very pleasant, sweet and sour, refreshing. The pulp contains more vitamin C than lemons and black currants. Its daily rate is only two fruits. It is best to eat fresh berries, so experienced gardeners recommend letting them hang on the vine until the first frost - then the shelf life will increase significantly.
Actinidia fruits are very similar in shape to kiwi
Rodents, primarily mice, shoots of actinidia are not interested. They can only build a nest in the space between the roots. But on cats, the plant has about the same intoxicating effect as tincture of valerian. They do not eat leaves, but to get to the juice, they gnaw through the bases of shoots and roots.
Video: actinidia and cat
Actinidia is characterized by rapid growth and early maturity. Over the course of a year, the shoots lengthen by an average of 1.5–2 m. The first fruits can be tasted 3-4 years after the planting of the seedling in the ground. The average yield is 5-10 kg of berries from an adult plant.
Video: actinidia characterization
Varieties suitable for the Ural climate
For growing in the Urals, Colinict actinidia is best suited. It has the necessary frost resistance, well tolerates any whims and sudden changes in the weather. Modern selection offers a wide variety of varieties bred in Russia and abroad.
One of the most popular varieties of Polish selection. The average shoot length is about 2 m. It is characterized by good cold resistance (up to -40ºС). The creators of the variety is positioned as self-fertile, but practice shows that this is not entirely true. Shoots are glossy shiny, chocolate brown. The leaves are variegated, bright green with snow-white, cream, pinkish, blurry spots. In the fall, they change color to yellow, crimson, purple-scarlet. The intensity of the color depends on the planting site of the vine - the more sun, the brighter it is. Variegation manifests itself after two to three years of being in the open ground.
Flowering can be expected from plants older than five years. The flowers are small, snow-white, with pale yellow stamens, spread a pleasant lemon scent. Flowering duration - up to three weeks. The fruit ripening period is 4–4.5 months. Usually harvested in early August. The berries are small, weighing about 2.5–3 g and a length of 2–2.5 cm. The peel is salad-green, the pulp is juicy, tasty, sweet and sour. The aroma resembles a pineapple or apple. Ripe fruits quickly crumble. The average yield is 12-15 kg per adult plant.
Actinidia Dr. Shimanovsky - one of the most popular varieties of foreign selection in Russia
Queen of the Garden
A variety of Russian selection included in the Russian State Register in 1999. It belongs to the category of dessert. Spectacular climbing vine, the shoots of which reach 7–9 m. Winter hardiness is within -35ºС. Productivity is not too high - 1-2 kg per adult plant. Very rarely suffers from diseases and pests. Leaves are brilliant, lime color. Fruits are characterized by a very high content of vitamin C (1700 mg per 100 g of berries). Ripens in the first ten days of August. The berries have a regular cylindrical or barrel-shaped shape with a cut top, reaching a weight of 3.5-4.5 g and a length of about 3.5 cm. The skin is greenish-olive, with a gray tint. On the side facing the sun, a pinkish-red blush may appear. The taste is refreshing, sweet and sour, intense aroma, similar to the smell of apples. Professionals rate the taste very highly - at 4.8 points out of five.
The fruits of Actinidia Queen of the Garden are very tasty, but, unfortunately, they are few
Achievement of Moscow breeders. A medium-ripening variety, experts are considered one of the best. Withstands frosts up to -30ºС. The undoubted advantages are excellent resistance to diseases and pests, consistently high productivity (up to 7–8 kg from an adult vine) and a large berry size (more than 8 g). The fruit is elliptical with a flat, as if cut off base. The skin is dull, greenish-brown. From a distance it may seem dirty. Taste with a slight acidity, the pulp is very delicate, the banana aroma. Tasters he is rated at 4.75 points out of five. Ripe berries quickly crumble. Therefore, it is better to remove unripe fruits - they ripen within 2-3 days. The length of the shoots is 6–8 m, the thickness is 3-4 cm. In old plants, it reaches 8–10 cm. The maximum yield is achieved when growing vines in light penumbra. Flowers are solitary, with snow-white petals.
Actinidia Wafelnaya - one of the best achievements of Russian breeders
Actinidia of medium maturity. Shoots grow slower than most vines. The fruits are small, weighing up to 4–4.5 g, in the shape of an almost regular ellipse. The taste is sweet and sour, the flesh has a rich apple aroma (to some it looks more like strawberries). Lime skin. Tasting score - 4.5 points. The shoots are curly, smooth, brownish in color. The leaves on the front side are bright green, in the sun they can acquire a yellowish tint. The inside is almost white. The edge is carved with small cloves. It rarely suffers from diseases, but, in comparison with other actinidia, it enjoys the increased attention of pests.
Unlike most actinidia, People’s growth rate is not different
Belorussian variety of medium maturity. Recommended for cultivation in all regions of Russia. Its main advantages include a good yield (4–5 kg per adult vine), a high content of vitamin C (1250 mg per 100 g), and the fact that it does not suffer from diseases and pests. A significant drawback is drought sensitivity. The length of the shoots is 5.5–6 m. The first crop of the vine comes in 4–5 years after planting in the ground. It differs in the large size of flowers, reaching 2.8–3 cm in diameter. The leaves are very elongated, in the form of a wedge, with a sharply sharpened tip. The average weight of the berry is 3 g or slightly less. To the top, it gradually narrows. Even fully ripened fruits do not crumble. Bright green peel is covered with longitudinal stripes of salad color. The pulp is very sweet, sourness is barely noticeable. Tasting score - 4.5 points.
Actinidia Hope is very sensitive to substrate moisture
One of the earliest varieties, the fruits ripen in the first decade of August. Disease rarely affects. The shoots are curly, about 3 m long. The leaves are soft, of an unusual dark olive hue. Fruits are elongated, ellipsoid, slightly flattened laterally, rather small (weight - 2.2–2.5 g, length - 2.5–2.8 cm). The skin is thin, lime, smooth, shiny. The pulp is very sweet, with an apple flavor and a high (2200 mg per 100 g) content of vitamin C. The taste has earned the highest rating possible from professional tasters - 5 points. The yield, unfortunately, is low - 1–1.5 kg per bush.
The fruits of Actinidia Magpie in the Urals ripen earlier than anyone
It is considered one of the most promising breeding novelties, but along with excellent winter hardiness and good immunity against diseases, there is also a significant drawback - low productivity (not more than 1 kg from a bush). The fruits ripen at the very beginning of August. The variety belongs to the category of dessert. Fruits are large, weighing 6–7 g and a length of 2.2–2.5 cm, strongly elongated, slightly ribbed. The flesh is slightly acidic, has a pronounced strawberry aroma, which to some seems like marmalade. The skin is dark olive in color, very thin, almost transparent. Longitudinal light stripes and a slight blurred blush on it fit into the norm.
Grape actinidia has very tasty fruits, but it does not differ in productivity
A variety of early ripening, the fruits ripen in the first decade of August. The average weight of the berry is 4.5–5 g, length is 3.5–4 cm. The skin is colored in various shades of olive. The form is an elongated cylinder with well-felt ribs. The taste is rather sour than sweet, but tasters rated highly at 4.7 points. Pulp with a rich aroma reminiscent of pineapples and apples. Shoots reach a length of 3-4 cm, intensively curl. Even in adults, creeper bark retains a green tint. Plants rarely suffer from frost. Productivity - up to 2 kg per bush.
The taste of Actinidia Homestead is not very sweet, but professional tasters like it
The fruits ripen in the second decade of August. The liana growth rate is not different. The support, which is interesting, it wraps strictly counterclockwise. The shoots are very thin, but the leaves are large, with prominent veins. The flowers are single, in appearance reminiscent of lilies of the valley. Flowering lasts almost a month. Frost resistance - within -40ºС. Fruits in the form of a slightly flattened cylinder. The skin is very thin, olive green in color, can be covered with blurred longitudinal stripes. The berries are quite large - 4.5–5.5 g. The taste is balanced, sweet and sour. The pulp smells faintly of pineapple. The average yield of 5-7 kg from an adult vine.
Actinidia Gourmand is characterized by productivity and good frost resistance
A variety of late ripening, belonging to the category of dessert. It is characterized by frost resistance, rarely suffers from diseases and pests. Young shoots change color from greenish to chocolate brown during the season. The leaves are smooth on the outside, on the wrong side along the veins there is a fringe. Fruits in the shape of a rounded cone. The average length is a little more than 2 cm, weight is 2.5–3 g. The pulp is very sweet, with a rich aroma of pineapple. Ripe berries do not crumble. The skin is brownish-green with darker longitudinal stripes, thin. Taste is estimated at 4.5 points. Productivity is low - 0.5–1 kg per adult plant.
Actinidia Moma is practically not attacked by diseases and pests
"Male" plant, does not bear fruit in principle. It can be used as a “universal” pollinator for any of the described varieties of actinidia. The average height of the vine is 3.5–4 m. The leaves are very decorative - when the plant reaches 3–5 years of age during the season, they gradually change their bright green spring color to almost white summer color, which becomes crimson-pink by the beginning of autumn. The older the liana, the more intense the tone of the leaf plate. The flowers are small, white, collected in an inflorescence of three. The aroma is almost imperceptible, similar to the smell of lemon.
Adam is a suitable pollinator for any “female” colomict actinidia species
In general, bright coloration is a distinctive feature of "male" actinidia plants. Their leaves are much larger and brighter than the "female". Flowering occurs in late spring or early summer.
Video: how to distinguish a "male" actinidia bush from a "female"
How to plant a plant
Actinidia is a long-lived plant. She will decorate the garden for at least half a century. At the same time, the liana does not like transplants too much, so you need to approach the planting procedure very responsibly.
When choosing a site for actinidia, first of all, it is worth considering the life span of the plant. It is quite long, so the liana grows strongly in height and width. It is advisable to first familiarize yourself with the description of a particular variety and focus on the stated dimensions of an adult plant.
Actinidia does not impose special requirements on the quality of the soil, although it grows best on light soils rich in humus and nutrients. The acid-base balance of the substrate is neutral or slightly acidic. Alkaline is absolutely not suitable. But you can "acidify" it with the help of sawdust of conifers, citric or acetic acid, peat.
When planting several actinidia simultaneously, it is necessary to provide each plant with sufficient area for nutrition
Since the birthplace of actinidia is subtropical forests, she loves moisture. But it does not tolerate when water stagnates at the roots. Ground water should not come closer to the surface than a meter. If this is not the case, you will have to pour drainage material to the bottom of the landing pit or build a hill at least half a meter high.
All this in the Urals is quite feasible. The most difficult thing is to provide enough sunlight and heat. Colinict actinidia is shade tolerant, but not tenacious. Light deficiency negatively affects the quantity and taste of the fruit. It looks very interesting liana planted under a tree in the "openwork" shadow. She can use his trunk as a natural support. But the tree should not be fruitful, otherwise its productivity will sharply decrease. Perhaps the liana will even “strangle” him.
Actinidia will tolerate light penumbra, for young vines it is even good
Good legumes for actinidia are any legumes. They saturate the soil with nitrogen and loosen it, improving the air permeability of the soil. At the same time, they form a continuous carpet, preventing the substrate from drying out. Currants and hazel are also suitable - both as neighbors and as previous cultures. Actinidia looks spectacular surrounded by bright colors - petunias, asters, viols, gerberas, marigolds. They are not for her "competitors" in the struggle for nutrients contained in the soil. The most unsuccessful "companion" for actinidia is an apple tree.
Preparation for landing
The climate in the Urals is such that the only possible time for the actinidia to land is spring. Autumn planting is the best option for regions located closer to the subtropics. Winter in the Urals does not always come in accordance with the calendar, and a plant needs to be at least two months before frosts to adapt to new living conditions and safely survive the cold. The liana planted at the end of May is guaranteed to get strong enough before the winter. At this time, the probability of spring return frosts and sudden temperature jumps is significantly lower than in April, and the soil manages to warm up. Actinidia is planted before leafy buds "wake up" in the vine.
How to choose a seedling
Choosing a seedling is a very responsible procedure. Beginning gardeners are advised to purchase plants exclusively in specialized stores or nurseries. This is the only way to guarantee that it is precisely the actinidia of the desired variety. Buying at hand or at agricultural fairs is a big risk. At the same time, it is desirable that the nursery where the plant was grown is also located in the Urals. Such seedlings are already adapted to the climatic characteristics of the region.
Purchasing from trusted suppliers is a guarantee of the quality of planting material
What else should you be guided by when choosing:
- The roots of actinidia are quite fragile, so it is better to give preference to a plant with a closed root system. So you can guarantee that they will not suffer during transportation and will not dry out before landing. Five to ten minutes in the open air is enough for the roots to suffer irreversibly.
- Annual plants take root well in a new place. Moreover, they rarely have an earthen lump. A large seedling (three years or older) is by no means the best choice.
- If actinidia is bought with the expectation of a future crop, the presence of a pollinator is mandatory. For every three “female” bushes, one “male” bush of the same species is acquired (sometimes a 5: 2 ratio is recommended). Interspecific pollination is not possible for this plant.
- Seedlings grown from seeds do not always inherit the varietal traits of the “parent”. This is relevant only for actinidia obtained from cuttings. They can be distinguished by the presence of a trunk similar to a “stump” and lateral buds, from which thin shoots grow. An annual seed plant is the only smooth shoot.
- In actinidia colomict, unlike other varieties, the shoot is painted in a rather dark color - green-brown, red-brown, chocolate. Small rounded growths of a lighter shade are clearly visible. The remaining actinidia shoots are much paler - sand, beige, salad color.
Landing pit preparation
Landing pit for actinidia is prepared in the fall or at least a few weeks before the scheduled date. Several bushes are best arranged in a row from north to south. Leave at least one and a half meters between neighboring vines, and between their rows - at least 3.5–4 m. The optimum depth of the pit is about half a meter, and the diameter is 50–60 cm.
At the bottom of the pit, with a layer of at least 10 cm thick, brick crumb, expanded clay, pebbles, ceramic shards are always poured. Other materials can also be used as drainage.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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A layer of drainage is required at the bottom of the landing pit for actinidia
The topsoil extracted from the pit is mixed with humus (10–12 L), simple superphosphate (180–200 g), potassium sulfate (70–90 g) and urea (40–50 g). With the finished mixture you need to fill about a third of the volume of the pit, forming a mound.
When planting actinidia, you need to provide a place to place the trellis. It is desirable that it be collapsible. In this case, the shoots can be removed from it and shelter for the winter. In the Urals, it may well be extremely cold and light snowy, so it is better to play it safe. If it is planned that it will climb a wall or a fence, seedlings are placed about a meter from them. Creepers lack air roots, therefore they are absolutely safe for any buildings. The height of the support should be such that the plant was convenient to care for and harvest. Enough 3–3.5 m.
Actinidia on the trellis looks much more aesthetically pleasing than tangled shoots, moreover, it is much easier to look after it
The process of planting actinidia in the ground takes several steps.
- A pot with a plant is immersed in a suitable container with water for about half an hour. You can add potassium permanganate to a pale pink color (for disinfection) or any biostimulant (to strengthen the plant's immunity).
- The soil in the landing pit is well watered.
- They make a deepening, filling its bottom with a layer of clean nutrient soil, without fertilizers. This will help protect brittle roots from burns.
- Actinidia is removed from the pot, trying to inflict as little damage as possible on the earthen coma. It is placed in a recess made on the top of the knoll in the pit and soil is added in small portions, periodically gently ramming it. Be sure to ensure that the root neck is not deepened.
Actinidia is planted, trying to bother the roots as little as possible
- The planted plant is abundantly watered, spending at least 25-30 liters of water. You do not need to dig holes for irrigation, so that rain and melt water do not accumulate in them.
- When the moisture is absorbed, the trunk circle with a diameter of 50–70 cm is mulched with freshly cut grass, peat crumb, humus (a layer 10–12 cm thick). If there are cats in your or neighboring areas, it is advisable to surround the plant with a metal mesh or to build another barrier. These animals can gnaw shoots and roots.
It is desirable to surround young actinidia plants after planting with a fine-mesh metal mesh, protecting them from cats
- In the summer, a white covering material or gauze folded in several layers is pulled over the liana. This will help her successfully survive the "stress" and protect the soil from drying out. Immature plants do not tolerate direct sunlight.
Video: how to plant actinidia
Crop Care Recommendations
Actinidia colomicta is deservedly considered unpretentious plant care. It has a certain “plasticity”, successfully adapting to climatic and weather conditions. Therefore, its cultivation in the Urals is practically no different from cultivation in other areas.
Too plentiful and / or frequent watering will turn the soil in the near-stem circle into a swamp, but this actinidia does not tolerate at all. If the summer is cool, the plant can do with natural rainfall. In the heat, the procedure is carried out every 6–9 days, spending 50–70 liters of water per adult vine. If there is no rain for a long time, it is advisable to additionally spray the leaves early in the morning or late in the evening.
Чтобы задержать влагу в почве, приствольный круг обязательно мульчируют. Это же поможет сэкономить время на прополке. Каждый раз после полива почву рыхлят, но очень осторожно — корневая система у актинидии поверхностная, корни залегают не глубже 10–15 см.
Мульча помогает задержать влагу в почве и сэкономить время на прополке
На внесение удобрений, минеральных или органических, актинидия отзывается очень положительно. В начале периода активной вегетации для наращивания зелёной массы нужны азотсодержащие удобрения. По площади приствольного круга в процессе рыхления распределяют 15–20 г карбамида, аммиачной селитры, сульфата аммония на каждый квадратный метр либо 20–25 л перегноя, перепревшего компоста.
Карбамид, как и другие азотсодержащие удобрения, стимулирует лиану к наращиванию зелёной массы
The second top dressing is natural fertilizer. Wood ash is a natural source of phosphorus and potassium. Her infusion (a three-liter can of 10 liters of boiling water) is watered by a liana in early summer. If the state of actinidia or the growth rate does not suit you, during the season it can be sprayed 3-4 times with a solution of any universal complex mineral fertilizer (Kemira-Lux, Agricola, Zdrazen or others are suitable).
In early autumn, actinidia is watered with a solution of potassium sulfate (10–15 g) and superphosphate (30–35 g) in 10 l of water. If the autumn is rainy, you can distribute the top dressing in the near-trunk circle in a dry form. An alternative is a complex fertilizer containing phosphorus and potassium (ABA, Autumn). Nitrogen can not be introduced at this time - it prevents the plant from properly preparing for winter.
Categorically does not tolerate actinidium chlorine and lime. Therefore, in order to neutralize the excessive acidity of the soil, use dolomite flour, crushed chalk, powdered eggshell. And potassium chloride as a fertilizer is completely eliminated.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Since one of the main functions of actinidia is decorative, the formation of a crown for her is a strictly mandatory procedure. Such a liana looks well-groomed, grows more luxuriantly, forms new lateral shoots faster.
Proper pruning contributes to crown growth
The rules and terms for trimming are as follows:
- If the condition of the plant is satisfactory, shoots were added about a meter long for the first season, pruning can be done already in the second year of being in the open ground. Otherwise, the procedure is postponed for another season. The right time for it is right after flowering or already in the fall, when the leaves fall (no later than a month before the first frost). In spring, pruning is not recommended due to intense sap flow.
- For the first time, all shoots are removed to the point of growth, leaving 3-4 of the strongest and most developed. They are tied to the trellis, giving a strictly vertical position. During the summer, the liana actively forms lateral shoots. Five or six of them are also fixed on the support, but already horizontally. The resulting configuration should look like a fan. Further, these shoots will need to be nipped every autumn, removing 2-3 upper leaf buds.
- In the third or fourth year of life, shoots are formed, from which they will then harvest. They are made much shorter, trimming about half. Position them, as described above, alternately vertically and horizontally.
Regular pruning gives the actinidia a presentable look.
- Do not forget about sanitary pruning. Every year, in spring and autumn, all frozen, dried up, affected by diseases and pests are removed. Also, the liana is gradually rejuvenated, getting rid of shoots older than 12-15 years.
Video: trimming actinidia
Varieties of actinidia, suitable for growing in the Urals, are characterized by high frost resistance. But it’s better to be safe and cover the plant.
- Pre-clean the trunk circle of existing plant debris.
- After that, the mulch layer is renewed, bringing its thickness at the base of the trunk to 20–25 cm.
- The actinidia shoots are carefully uncoupled from the trellis and laid out on the ground, dusting with leaves, hay, wood shavings, spruce branches and tightening several layers of breathable covering material.
- As soon as enough snow falls, they throw the resulting structure, constructing a snowdrift. During the winter, it is renewed 2-3 times, while breaking the hard crust formed on the surface.
Common Diseases and Pests
The fact that actinidia is extremely rare, and with proper care, almost never suffers from pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, can not but rejoice gardeners. Pests also do not have a special love for this plant.
But there are exceptions to the general rule:
- Phyllosticosis. A fungal disease that can be easily identified by dark brown spots with a maroon border on the leaves. Gradually, the tissues in these places dry out, holes appear. Most often, phylostictosis affects old actinidia or plants whose roots are damaged.
Phylostictosis mainly affects old actinidia creepers
- Ramulariosis The sheet plate on both sides is covered with whitish spots with a wide dark border.
Ramulariosis is a dangerous fungal disease from which actinidia can suffer if improperly maintained
Having discovered the first alarming signs, measures should be taken to treat and prevent re-illness:
- diseased leaves need to be removed and burned;
- spray the plant several times with an interval of 7-12 days with a 2% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux fluid.
These are the most common means, but you can use other, more modern fungicides - Abiga Peak, Skor, Topaz, Horus and so on.
Of the pests, caterpillars, leaf beetles, and lacewing pay attention to actinidia. They can cause serious damage to the plant by eating leafy and flower buds from the inside. In order to cope with them, a vine is sprayed 2-3 times with a solution of any common insecticide prepared according to the instructions - Inta-Vir, Mospilan, Iskra-Bio, Tanrek and others.
Leaf beetle is a very pretty bug, but it causes actinidia significant harm
Harvesting and storage
Actinidia yields the first fruits 3-4 years after planting in open ground. In most varieties, fruiting begins in August and lasts at least 1.5 months. Unripe berries during storage can ripen, becoming sweeter.
Actinidia berries ripen gradually, the crop is harvested within 4-6 weeks
Fresh actinidia fruits are stored in a cool (10–12ºС) room with good ventilation and humidity of 60–75%. Make sure that there are no any smelling foods or substances nearby. Berries easily absorb odors.
During the heat treatment, the benefits of actinidia are not lost. Therefore, it is quite possible to cook jam, compote from it, make other homemade preparations. Frozen, dried and dried berries are stored the longest.
Heat treatment does not reduce the benefits of actinidia fruits
The variety of actinidia colomict Dr. Shimanovsky is very popular, caring for it does not differ from other varieties of this species. I have not yet verified my fertility, my growth is very good, in the year of planting the liana drove out about 2 m. Judging by the description, it is late fruit for this species, it begins to bear fruit in the fourth or fifth year. Winter hardiness is high. I don’t know how Szymanowski is, but another self-pollinated variety of Issai, when cross-pollinated, increases the yield and weight of the fruit. I need protection from cats, for me, this is a cylinder made of galvanized wire mesh (squares), 1.5 m high and 0.6 m in diameter. She likes soils that are moist but not swimming, does not like stagnation of water, it is advisable to arrange drainage. They don’t dig the soil around the vines, they don’t like chlorine-containing fertilizers, carbonate soils are not suitable, they need support, they grow well in partial shade and in a bright place.Andrii
First of all I recommend actinidia Gourmand. Very productive, large-fruited variety, and proven. Last year, he collected 4 kg, and this is apparently not the limit for a vine formed on a spacious trellis. Leaves have white and pink spots. Universitetskaya variety is interesting in leaf color (it bears fruit even in Novosibirsk). Its leaves are from light green to bright yellow with a bright burgundy border; its yield, however, is unstable (I have not yet given this variety close to Lakomka, although its vine is older). You are unlikely to have to remove any colomict from the trellis, but still be safe. And take also Adam.Sorokin
A set of "young gardener" for the spring: Adam, Gourmand and Leningradskaya (if not, then Waffle), well, what friends can do.Musya
My september and Dr. Shimanovsky colomics are growing (plus the “man” Adam between them). All from the Polish nursery, there were no problems with them, even though I have a frosty lowland. Both actinidia, in my opinion, are very similar in appearance and taste of fruits, and in appearance of creepers, I do not distinguish between them. Diversity Shimanovsky and Adam, and the September - like not ("like" - because they are planted with me densely, and it is not always possible to distinguish where whose branch). Both actinidia are fruitful and delicious. The fruits ripened in the second half of August. But this year there was something strange: the September one matured almost a month ahead of schedule - in July! Although the summer was not hot. And I liked it even more - we ate Actinidia a month longer: in July - September, in August - Shimanovsky.Lucy2011
I tried the gourmet with Waffle, the first is sweeter, but there’s nothing for which it would be worth praising it intensely, the taste is boring in comparison with other fruits.Lateral
I have had two actinidia growing for seven years - Dr. Shimanovsky and Adam. Szymanowski seems to be bisexual, but anyway, when she bought, she took Adam for reliability. So what? There have never been fruits! In 2015, for the first time I saw flowering, but the berries did not start. Last year, there were no flowers. A bushes like normal, beautiful leaves since August. Grow in the open. Almost in full sun.Liliya
This year, for the first time I tried the berries of actinidia varieties Lakomka (aka Lasunka), the first impression is very positive. This autumn was cold, rainy, and the Argut fruits did not gain the inherent taste and aroma of each variety. In size Gourmand is larger than September.Sergey Lazurchenko
It is quite possible to grow actinidia (especially its variety of colomict) in the Urals, despite the fact that this region deservedly belongs to the category of “risky farming zones”. Among the many varieties of Russian and foreign selection, each gardener will find one that suits him. The main advantages of this culture are decorativeness, cold resistance, good productivity and general unpretentiousness. It is they that contribute to the fact that actinidia is becoming more widespread in Russia.