Actinidia in the Moscow Region: planting, growing and care
Catchy outfits are common to plants or animals that pose a danger to others. Actinidia is beyond the laws of nature. This bright amazing plant with noble foliage and delicate emerald berries has healing properties and will compete with recognized anti-zingotic agents.
Growing Actinidia in the Moscow Region
Actinidia is a relict vine, but due to its exceptional adaptability it has survived a radical climate change and today grows in the Far East, China and several countries of Central and East Asia.
Actinidia can be grown not only in the Far East, but also in the suburbs
The fact that rare varieties of lianas grow in the suburbs, we owe E.I. Sausage.
Since 1958, Ella Johannovna studied actinidia and lemongrass - wild plants of the Far East, the Kuril Islands and Primorye. Samples were collected by the researcher in the form of seeds from the fruits of wild vines and delivered to the capital for breeding work. In the 1980s, in the village of Mikhnevo, the Stupino district of the Moscow Region, 27 author's plant varieties were obtained, which were subsequently listed in the State Register of selection achievements.
Actinidia grow well and bear fruit not only in the east of Russia, but also in the suburbs thanks to domestic breeders
Actinidia prefers acidic and slightly acidic (or neutral) soils, well moistened, but without stagnation of water. It is necessary to set aside a well-lit area, best on the east side and, if possible, on a slope. If the soil in the area is clayey, heavy, you can add river sand to it.
Currant bushes will be a favorable neighborhood for vines, but it is better to plant actinidia from the apple tree as far as possible.
How to plant a vine:
- For landing, they dig holes of 50x50 cm in size, with a depth of one and a half bayonet shovels, with an interval of 1.5–2 meters. Seedlings of different sexes are chosen in advance; it is better to have at least 3-5 female plants per male type.
- First, drainage is laid at the bottom of the landing hole: broken brick, purchased expanded clay, or river pebbles. Soil is poured over the drainage. Gardeners recommend pouring a mound, and planting actinidia in it. It makes sense to practice if there is no slope on the site. So the water will not stagnate and flood the roots.
- Before planting, the actinidia seedling is abundantly watered. Planted in a hole, covered with soil with all the additives, well tamped and watered again.
- The root neck cannot be deepened. Gardeners recommend mulching the near-trunk circle of actinidia after planting with mowed grass.
For actinidia it is better to make an earthen hill so that the moisture does not stagnate
- Like any liana, actinidia needs support for normal development and fruiting. It is advisable to install a solid trellis in advance so that after planting the plants do not injure the roots with the construction of supporting structures.
Actinidia juice is a treat for cats, in the search for which they dig up roots and damage young stems. While the liana grows, it is better to protect it from animals with a metal mesh.
Actinidia love moisture. In dry periods, vertical irrigation is useful - this will save the vine from loss of foliage.
Due to the surface of the roots, deep digging of the soil around the planting site is not recommended. Only surface cultivation and weed control of young seedlings is permissible. Overgrown plants suppress weeds themselves.
When choosing top dressing, you need to remember that actinidia are contraindicated in lime and chloride mineral fertilizers.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The climate of the Moscow Region is generally favorable for the cultivation of actinidia. Most varieties tolerate frosts to minus 30–35 ° C without problems. Gardeners recommend sheltering only young seedlings; adult plants are not removed from trellises and are not covered. If some shoots are damaged in the winter from frost, then later they quickly recover.
For abundant fruiting of actinidia, it is recommended to cut off excess shoots. It is not recommended to prune during the period of active sap flow, this can cause the death of the plant. A suitable period for grafting is the beginning of summer, at which time pruning is almost painless for the mother plant.
Pruning is recommended not only for shaping, but also for better bearing of actinidia
To ensure a constant yield of berries, plants of both sexes need to be planted. Actinidia is a dioecious plant, and gardeners, although they share their experience in harvesting only from females, still note that when replanting males, the yield increases several times.
To the question about self-fertile actinidia varieties, the candidate of agricultural sciences N.V. Kozak replies:
All types of actinidia are dioecious. Moreover, throughout the life of each plant its gender does not change. Therefore, the flowers of female plants must be pollinated with pollen from male plants. And although female flowers have stamens with anthers, their pollen is sterile, that is, it can neither pollinate flowers of other plants, nor its own. So there are no completely self-fertile domestic varieties of actinidia colomict. In the garden of actinidia, it is necessary to plant, for every 5-7 female, 2 male vines (preferably of different varieties), and of a certain type, since colomicta and polygamy can pollinate only within their own species, and only close species of actinidia are suitable for mutual pollination: argument, giralda and purple.N. Kozak, candidate of agricultural sciences Homestead newspaper No. 2 (January 2016)
If you intend to use the plant to decorate the site or the facade of the house, it does not matter what gender the vine is planted: they are all variegated. For the construction of actinidia due to the absence of aerial roots does not pose any danger.
Video: Actinidia farming
What varieties of actinidia can be grown in the suburbs
Today at the Moscow Experimental Plant Growing Station, more than 200 actinidia samples are grown. The State Register of the Russian Federation includes:
- early ripening varieties (Grape, Far Eastern, Abundant, Queen of the Garden, Park, Flat, Pretty, Homestead);
- average maturity (Waffle, Smooth, Graceful, Maritsa, Coin, Early Dawn, Slasten, Magpie, Universitetskaya);
- late ripening (Moma).
Of the varieties growing on the territory of Russia, the very first was obtained actinidia colomicta, from it later other varieties of domestic selection were bred.
Among the main advantages of colomict is the content in its berries of a record amount of vitamin C: an average of 1000–1200 mg per 100 g. In blackcurrant and raspberry berries of this vitamin - 100–300 and 25 mg / 100 g, respectively, in lemon - 50–70 mg Actinidia berries - an effective remedy for radiation injuries, contributing to the elimination of radionuclides from the body, preventing the absorption of radioactive isotopes of potassium and chlorine. These berries are magnificent and varied in their taste. So, the varieties Lakomka and Waffelina are distinguished by a strong actinidium aroma and large (up to 6 g) fruits. Marmeladka has a strong strawberry aroma, Maritsa has sweet fruits with the aroma of figs. Pineapple flavor in the varieties Pineapple, VIR-2, Leningrad large-fruited.Tatyana Savina //lubgazeta.ru/articles/313346 .
Varieties of actinidia popular in the Moscow region - table
|Actinidia variety||Ripening period||Fruit Description||Taste characteristics|
|Pineapple Argument||Matures in early October. Frost resistant. . Not ripen easily.||Fruits are oval, 3 cm long, with a reddish blush, very fragrant||Pronounced pineapple flavor|
|Ganiber||The average ripening period. Withstands severe frosts.||Fruits are oval, olive-green, fleshy, large, average weight 9.5 g.||The berries taste sweet and fragrant.|
|Issai||The fruits ripen in mid-October. The variety is self-fertile, Japanese selection, but if there are pollinators nearby, the berries are larger.||Fruits - mini-kiwi, up to 4 cm in size, oval in shape. The color of the fruit is green, with a golden fluff.||It tastes sweet with sourness, fragrant.|
|Gourmet||Ripens in mid-August.||The shape of the berries is cylindrical, slightly compressed from the sides. Fruits of olive color, thin-skinned. The average weight of berries is 4.4 g.||The taste is sweet, with pineapple aroma.|
|Stranger||Early ripening.||Fruits are cylindrical, slightly compressed laterally, color from light to dark olive. The average weight of berries is 1.9 g.||Pleasant taste, with pronounced pineapple notes.|
|Magpie||The average ripening period.||Fruits are cylindrical, elongated, thin-skinned. Berries weigh an average of 2.5 g.||The taste is sweet and sour with apple notes.|
|Ella||Average ripening, frost-resistant variety.||The berries are yellow-green, cylindrical, weigh 3 g on average, the weight of large berries reaches 5.8 g.||The berries are juicy, sweet and sour taste.|
Varieties of actinidia: photo gallery
- Actinidia Argument Pineapple gives oval fruits with a reddish blush
- Issai fruits - mini-kiwi, up to 4 cm in size
- Fruits Gourmet olive-colored, thin-skinned, with pineapple aroma
- The fruits of Actinidia Magpie are very rich in vitamin C, up to 2200 mg /%
This year drove through the breeding sites of actinidia. Kolomikt had a chance to try in Mikhnevo in MOVIR, and there was a desire to never take her in her mouth again, tasteless. With this son Kolbasina, five years ago, he assured me that a colomict is the most worthy of actinidia, which I can hardly consider completely wrong, because at the Moscow State University I tried a colomict of raisins taste for a long time (for that fresh impression). I tried the Arguts this October in the Kiev botanical garden and would also have fallen in love if it weren’t for Issaya, who has now ripened with me and really reminds me of sweet marmalade. Industrial actinidia argut from America also had a chance to try a couple of past years in a row. Although it is sweet, it has turpentine notes in taste, which is not very pleasant. So far, only one of them has fallen in love, and doubts are besieging, maybe a gooseberry can be put in its place?Lateral
In my opinion, colomictic survival does not depend on the variety, but on the floor, yes. Male specimens are more tender. I grow on palmette and metal trellis on the southeast side of the house. Subject to the minimum requirements for soil and elementary agricultural technology, the culture of colomics, in contrast to arguta, does not create problems. All the necessary information can be easily obtained from the works of E. I. Kolbasina and N.V. Kozak, as well as a network of many posts of the Belarusian practitioner S.F. Nedyalkov.bodge
I want to join all the fans of actinidia. Since 2000, I have been growing 3 varieties of actinidia colomict: Pavlovskaya, September and some other unknown. Plus a boy whose varietal affiliation is also unknown. Most like Pavlovskaya for restrained growth, stable large crops and large-fruited. If we compare it with Sentyabrskaya, which, it seems, is much more powerful in growth strength than Pavlovskaya, then the former constantly observes under-pollination of individual flowers. The fruit is very diverse, which can not be said about Pavlovskaya, where all the berries are one to one. All female creepers interspersed with flowering shoots of a male plant during flowering ... Also this year, three more varieties of colomicta were planted: Champion, Gourmand, and Pamyat Kolbasina. About 15 argut (in the broad sense) and polygamus have also been planted, but it is too early to talk about them.Foxbane
Actinidia appeared in the suburbs and spread thanks to enthusiasts, is grown by the efforts of summer residents and amateur gardeners, and many have already noted the pleasant taste of these berries.