Actinidia Dr. Shimanovsky - frost-resistant variety with decorative foliage
Currently, there is a large species diversity of actinidia, characterized by external characteristics, taste and adaptability to weather stresses. The most frost-resistant variety, suitable for the climate of central Russia and the northern regions, is actinidia colomict Dr. Shimanovsky. Gardeners are attracted not only by delicious aromatic fruits. The variety is distinguished by special decorative motley leaves, changing shades depending on the season.
Colomict actinidia, or creeper, is a perennial shrub liana found in nature in the Far East, China, Japan, Korea, Primorye, and Sakhalin, with about 70 species. As an ornamental and fruit plant, it has been cultivated since 1855.
Actinidia Dr. Szymanowski - the result of the work of Polish breeders, named after the creator. In 1995, the variety was introduced into circulation by Schepan Marczynski. In the 2000s, actinidia seedlings Dr. Shimanovsky appeared on the domestic market, gradually conquering the Russian garden space.
Actinidia Dr. Szymanowski - a variety of Polish selection that is gaining more and more popularity in the Russian market
For reference. The view of the colomict got its name because of the colorful bright color of the foliage and in translation means "burning", "blinding." It is often called the Arctic beauty because of its ability to endure 40 degrees of frost.
Video: actinidia colomict
Actinidia Dr. Shimanovsky is a female variety with bisexual features. About 35% of the fruits are tied without additional pollinators. But for a rich harvest, male specimens should be planted nearby.
Actinidia is not only a fruit crop. It is used for vertical decoration of pergolas, arbors due to the ability of foliage to change color. The characteristic color of the leaves appears from the second to third year. Initially, they become white-green from bronze, after flowering they also acquire a pink hue, and in the fall they are painted yellow and violet-red.
Actinidia Dr. Shimanovsky used to decorate the garden
On a note. During the flowering of the creeper, the garden is filled with a magical aroma. A bright outfit of foliage attracts insects for pollination.
The variety is medium late, begins to bear fruit in the fourth or fifth year. The Arctic beauty is a winter-hardy species, tolerates a significant drop in temperature, so it can be successfully cultivated in open ground even in the northern regions.
Actinidia Dr. Shimanovsky is a lianoid shrub growing up to 3-4 m in length. Shoots are thin, smooth, shiny, dark brown. Young shoots rush along the support no thicker than 10 cm, wrapping it counterclockwise. In the absence of support, the upper part of the shoot bends steeply downward and wraps itself around its own stem.
Leaves are alternate, elliptical, long-pointed, biconcinate. It blooms from 5 years, in June for 20 days with white flowers with a diameter of 1.5 cm.
Actinidia Dr. Shimanovsky - bushy vine up to 4 m high
Fruits - dark green oblong-shaped berries, 2.5 cm long, weighing up to 3 g. The flesh of ripened fruits is soft, tender, sweet and sour, with the aroma of apple and pineapple. Berries ripen unevenly at the end of August - beginning of September, easily crumble.
On a note. Colomicta is the record holder for vitamin C content: 100 g of berries contain 1000 mg of ascorbic acid, 10 times less in lemon, 3 times in black currant. Actinidia yields only to wild rose.
Colinict actinidia - record holder for vitamin C
In order for actinidia to please the harvest and decorate the garden, it is necessary to correctly determine the place for future plantings. After all, a colomict is a long-liver, lives up to 50 years, and in a favorable environment - up to 80-100 years.
It is better to plant a vine on the west or southwest side of the garden, with slight shading in the morning. Actinidia does not form ovaries in the shade, and leaves burn out under the burning rays of the sun, losing their decorative effect.
Important! The best neighbors for actinidia are beans, peas, black currants, hazel, calendula, marigolds, asters, petunias. Fruit trees planted next to them adversely affect their soil by their roots.
Usually planted culture along wooden houses, arbors, fences, to protect from the cold northerly winds. Actinidia grows well on light, loose sandy loamy soils with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. Clay and lowland places where cold air stagnates and groundwater passes are not suitable for it.
Colinict actinidia is best planted near a wall or fence
The acquisition of seedlings
Seedlings should be purchased only in garden centers and nurseries, where plants undergo strict control. In addition, sales consultants will help you choose a variety adapted for a particular locality, tell you how to properly care for the crop.
Best 2-3-year-old seedlings take root. They should be bought in a container: the actinidia has a vulnerable root system, and if the plants are left with bare roots in the wind or in the sun, even for a short time, they wither away, they can die. Survivors painfully take root, lag behind in growth. Immediately necessary to purchase other varieties for better pollination.
Seedlings must be carefully examined: the branches must be flexible and not dry, leaves without dark spots - their presence indicates diseases. When removed from the packaging, the earthen lump must be solid and all braided with roots.
Actinidia seedlings should be purchased with a closed root system in specialized garden centers
Optimal landing time
For central Russia and the northern regions, the best landing time is early spring. Plants planted before the start of the growing season will have time to take root well and will quickly grow. During the autumn planting, the liana may not have time to adapt to new conditions and die when the temperature drops. In the south, colomict can also be planted in the fall, 2-3 weeks before the onset of cold weather.
Prepare a place 2 weeks before landing. The site is dug, cleaned of weeds. Pits 60x60 cm are dug at a distance of 1.5–2 m from each other. 15 cm thick drainage is laid (broken brick, gravel) to avoid stagnation of water. A layer of fertile soil is poured to the top with the addition of humus (10 kg), superphosphate (100 g), ammonium nitrate (20 g), potassium fertilizer (30 g) or ash (200 g). In clay places, a bucket of sand must be brought in.
The liana grows very quickly, so when planting, they install a trellis: they dig in pillars 2 m high with an interval between them of 2 m and stretch several rows of wire.
Previously, the seedlings, together with a lump of earth, are kept for half an hour in a solution of Kornevin or Heteroauxin, which stimulate root formation.
- Lower the sapling into the hole, cover it with earth, without deepening the root neck - it should be at ground level.
Colomict sapling is planted together with an earthen lump in a prepared hole
- The soil is compacted so that there are no voids left.
- 2 buckets of water are brought under the plant, let it soak.
- Lay a mulching 10-centimeter layer (sawdust, hay).
- First time seedlings are necessarily shaded with paper or agrofibre.
Important! Colomict seedlings, unlike other fruit crops, are not shortened either before or after planting.
The smell of young actinidia attracts cats. Animals gnaw through thin shoots at the base, regale themselves with plant sap, which stimulates them like a valerian. Cats are not afraid of adult plants with a coarsened lower part of the trunk. But the young vine immediately after planting to protect the animals from attack is fenced with a metal or polymer mesh, dug it in the ground. Twigs of juniper and mint will help fight off the smell.
To protect against cats, the seedling is fenced
Video: Actinidia planting
The subtleties of care
The further development of actinidia largely depends on caring for it. It is necessary to observe the irrigation regime, to feed, to carry out preventive measures against diseases and pests.
Watering and loosening
The root system of actinidia goes into the ground to a shallow depth of 25 cm. Therefore, it is important not to allow it to dry out, to water regularly. With a lack of moisture, plants discard foliage.
Actinidia is watered by sprinkling using a spray hose. At the same time, not only the leaves are moistened, but also the soil under the vine. Young plantings are sprayed in the morning and in the evening, if the weather is dry and hot. Adult plants need 50-60 liters of water.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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For better aeration, moistened soil is carefully loosened to a shallow depth so as not to damage the roots, weeds are removed. After loosening, the soil is mulched, which helps to maintain moisture and inhibits the growth of weeds.
The trunk circle is necessarily mulched to preserve moisture and prevent weed growth
It is noted that actinidia is practically not sick on well-fertilized soil. In the first 2 years, the culture does not need fertilizing - it lacks the nutrients introduced during planting. Then, in the spring, ammonium nitrate (30 g), superphosphate (15 g), potassium salt (15 g) are added under the vine. Dry fertilizer close up in the soil. When ovaries are formed, actinidia is fed to Kemira (20 g / 10 l). At the end of September, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (40 g / m2) are introduced.
By the appearance of the plant, you can determine which trace elements it lacks. With a deficiency of potassium, the leaves dry at the edges, a lack of nitrogen and magnesium leads to yellowing of the foliage.
With nitrogen deficiency, the leaves turn yellow, plant growth slows down, productivity decreases
Mineral fertilizers are useful to combine with organic. Chicken droppings (500 g per 10 l) after infusion are bred 1:20 and fertilized watering is carried out. A rotted circle is covered with rotten manure in the fall, which will not only protect the roots from freezing, but will turn into nutritious feeding by spring.
It is possible to increase fertility with the help of liquid organomineral fertilizer Zdraven-aqua, which is used for root and foliar top dressing of vines. Due to the presence of the necessary complex of macro- and microelements in it, the development of plants is accelerated, the number of ovaries increases, winter hardiness and resistance to diseases increase.
Zdraven-aqua is a complex organomineral fertilizer containing a set of trace elements optimal for actinidia
Need for support
Actinidia Dr. Shimanovsky is a fast-growing vine, and for the formation of the plant in an upright position, a support is needed, which should be installed immediately after planting. The trellis must be strong and durable - the life of a colomict is long. It is advisable to use a structure that could easily be folded together with a liana - this is especially true for the northern regions, where shelter is needed.
For the liana, it is necessary to install a support immediately after planting
The variety is characterized by high frost resistance, but in severe winters with frosts below -30 ° C young shoots sometimes freeze, partly fruit buds. Such damage is harmless, actinidia is easily restored. In the southern regions and the middle lane, the lashes are not removed from the trellis; the plants are perfectly wintered. Warm non-woven material is insulated with only vulnerable young plantings, having previously mulched the soil around the vine. In the northern regions, to protect against severe winter frosts, actinidia, along with trellis, is lowered to the ground, covered with agrofiber, and snow is poured in winter.
Spring return frosts are more dangerous for actinidia. Lowering the temperature to -2 ° C leads to wilting of leaves and falling of the ovaries, and at -8 ° C shoot death is observed. Therefore, it is necessary to cover the plants with non-woven material before lowering the temperature.
Actinidia may be affected by spring return frosts
Video: actinidia shelter for the winter
Actinidia is formed as a multi-branched vine. The number and length of branches is determined by the gardener, taking into account local conditions. For the first three years, the liana is not cut, allowing it to grow. Then, in adult plants, shoots are shortened annually by 1/2 of their length. Since the ovaries of actinidia are formed mainly on the growth of the previous year, leave 2–4 fruiting vines and 2 branches of substitution of different ages. Also cut out 50% of the annual growth. In plants older than 7 years, anti-aging pruning is performed, old and thickening bush branches are completely cut off. Pruning limits the excessive growth of the vine, provides ventilation and warming by the sun, prevents the appearance of pests.
Actinidia is formed as a multi-branched vine, annually removing old shoots
Important! Trimming actinidia is carried out in the fall, after falling of foliage. In spring, during the sap flow, the liana “cries” on the cut, which leads to the depletion of the plant.
Colomict is propagated with green and lignified cuttings, cuttings and seeds. The easiest and most reliable way - reproduction by layering. In the spring after the leaves open, the young long shoot is tilted with the tip to the ground, fixed with a bracket and sprinkled with soil. Moisturize and mulch with sawdust. A year later, in the spring, the rooted shoot is separated from the bush and transplanted to a prepared place.
The easiest way to propagate actinidia - layering
When propagated by green cuttings in the summer, shoots are cut to lignification, placed in a moistened mixture of peat and sand at an angle of 60 ° according to a 5x10 cm pattern so that the middle bud is at soil level. They compact the soil, water it, cover it with agrofibre. After 2 weeks, the shelter is removed. In autumn, before the cold, cuttings are covered with fallen leaves, non-woven material. In the spring in the phase of the green cone transplanted.
Tip. The green shoot is divided into parts of 15 cm with 3 buds each. The underside of the handle should be cut at an angle of 45 °. The apical leaves are shortened by 1/2, the lower ones are removed to reduce moisture evaporation.
Actinidia can be propagated by green cuttings
Actinidia can be propagated by lignified cuttings. In this case, the shoots are cut in the fall and placed in a cool place. In April, they are divided into parts 20 cm long, planted at an angle of 45 degrees in a mixture of peat and sand, watered and covered with a film. The greenhouse is ventilated, moisten the soil 3 times a week. The following year, rooted cuttings are planted in a permanent place.
The seed propagation method is quite laborious. Washed and dried seeds are subjected to stratification - for 3 months they are placed in a refrigerator or under snow. Then they are sown in loose soil, watered, covered with a film. In a greenhouse, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of 22–27 ° C, ventilate, and remove condensate. Sprouts are planted on seedling beds, be sure to warm them for the winter. The transplant is carried out in the spring.
During seed propagation, sprouts are planted on seedlings
Actinidia Dr. Shimanovsky with proper care rarely gets sick. However, in conditions of high humidity, which contributes to the development of spores of gray rot, a light coating may appear on the outside of the actinidia in spring. For prevention, it is recommended to spray the plants three times in the spring with an interval of 7 days by Fitosporin (15 g per 10 l), after flowering - Skor, before preparing for winter - 3% Bordeaux mixture.
Actinidia can also be affected by phylostictosis. The disease manifests itself as red-brown spots on the foliage. Infection occurs from fungi wintering in litter. Therefore, it is necessary to collect and destroy the fallen leaves, to process in the phase of the green cone, again after 7 days, Horus, Terselom (2 g per 10 l).
Leaf spot, or phylostictosis, causes spores of the fungus wintering in fallen foliage
Of the insects, the leaf beetle causes serious harm to actinidia, which eats away the leaf tissue, leaving only the veins. By the end of summer, the plant becomes leafless. The pest can destroy most of the crop: the berries are smaller, crumble prematurely. For prevention in early spring, Karate plants (2 ml per 10 l), Karbofos (75 g per 10 l) should be treated, and in the fall - Bordeaux mixture (100 g per 10 l).
Actinidia is also attacked by the ticklet moth. Caterpillars gnaw holes in a leaf plate. To destroy the pupae, the soil should be loosened, treated with 0.05% Kinmiks, 0.1% Spark before flowering. After flowering, spray with 0.02% Actellik, 0.2% Fufanon, Tersel (25 g per 10 l).
Moth caterpillar does great damage to the plant by eating leaf plates
The fruits of actinidia ripen Dr. Shimanovsky in late summer - early autumn unevenly, so the harvest is carried out in several stages. Ripe fruits quickly fall off, so they are often removed solid and left to ripen at room temperature. However, the taste is somewhat lost.
Actinidia is consumed not only fresh, but they also make jam, compotes, dried and dried, added to baked goods and desserts. It is not for nothing called the berry of the future, because it contains a whole range of useful substances necessary for human health.
The ripened fruits of actinidia colomict are tender, sweet and sour and very healthy
I have it growing for the eighth year. It was originally planted in an unsuccessful place, suffered for three years. Then she transplanted it, in partial shade it grows now near the arbor. It grows quickly, blooms and sets fruits, so far there are not very many fruits, medium-sized (about 1.5 cm), crumble upon ripening. I did not suffer THAT winter (2003–2004) - it froze over the snow level. Then quickly grew. The only thing I don’t like is that there is practically no diversity. Only during flowering does a slight reddish tint appear in the middle of the leaf - no white-pink strokes have ever appeared.Lamb
I burst out of the vicious circle of unsigned pots with seedlings and the lack of clear information about pollinators by buying Dr. Shimanovsky colomict if the label matches the content. This variety is announced as self-fertile: it can serve itself and donate to a neighbor colomict. And if it turns out to be a neighbor (grade Adam), then he will only add pollen to Szymanowski - it will not be superfluous. Somehow I get it. =) By the way, Shimanovsky, according to the description, is extremely frost-resistant, which was indirectly confirmed by his problem-free wintering in my area.BeginnerNovice
I planted Dr. Shimanovsky in the garden, surrounded by the usual Colomicta cultivar - there is a female plant and there is a male one. So I have a safety net for pollination. If you do not freeze in the cold Ural winters.Andrey S
I have Dr. Shimanovsky's colomictes (self-pollinated) and I don’t know which one, but it looks like a boy. I have been Shimanovsky for about 7 years, but does not suffer from gigantism. Apparently he (her?) Was not up to it. That planted it so, for good luck, almost in the gooseberry bush, and when it was replanting the roots, it cut it off, then the husband, while planning the territory, plowed the ground almost under the very trunks ... When growing in gooseberries, there were several berries when the boy appeared (last year), there are more berries. Both cats are not interested in the surrounding cats; I do not fool with shelter (Moscow Region).Swt
... Dr. Shimanovsky colomict I also tied several fruits when there was no male plant, but in that year when there was the first flowering, for some reason it began to wither and is now weak and oppressed, possibly due to water rats or spring floods, and maybe because of the proximity to the apple tree, but that's another story.Andrii
Actinidia Dr. Shimanovsky - a bright plant with variegated foliage, which can be grown to decorate arbors, arches or fences. Woody vine is used not only in landscape design: its fruits have a delicate sweet-sour taste and are very useful. It is not so difficult to grow a colomict in your personal plot, you just need to create comfortable conditions for it.