Abyssinian well: do-it-yourself needle-hole device

The issue of water supply of the suburban area must be resolved, otherwise there is no need to even talk about minimal comfort. If water is needed, and the budget is limited, it is time to recall the low-cost technical construction available to most summer residents. Moreover, the technology with which you can install the Abyssinian well with your own hands is not particularly difficult. Such a well or a needle well, as it is also called, was invented by the Americans in the 19th century, and got its exotic name after the British began to use it in Abyssinia (Ethiopia).

Necessary geological conditions

Initially, the Abyssinian well was called a shallow well with a hand pump that pumps water from a sandy aquifer. This differs from an ordinary well in that the water in it is very clean. It does not become clogged with dirt, drains, spores and the water tank. Having first appeared in Russia of the 19th century, this building is still popular.

However, before you start implementing your plan, you need to take an interest in the geology of your area. As a rule, neighbors who have long owned areas nearby are aware of the location of the soil layers and the depth of the aquifers. They have already made their own choice in favor of a well or a well.

You can find out which is better - a well or a well from the material: voda / chto-luchshe-skvazhina-ili-kolodec.html

The choice of the structure, which is used as the optimal source of water on the site, largely depends on the geology of the area

It is possible to start the construction of the Abyssinian well only if the upper aquifer is located no deeper than 8 m from the soil surface. From a greater depth, raising water using a surface pump can be problematic. If the aquifer lies lower, you should drill a well on sand of a larger diameter or deepen the pump.

The aquifer that the well will be aimed at should be of medium-grained sand or a mixture of gravel and sand. Water can flow freely through such soil, so it will not be difficult to pump it out. The layers located above the water carrier interest us only in terms of their cross-country ability. And the tool that will be used in the work will not be able to break through deposits of boulders and pebbles or hard rocky layers. For such drilling operations, special equipment is needed.

It will also be useful material on how to find water in the area: voda / kak-najti-vodu-dlya-skvazhiny.html

The benefits of this type of water supply

The probability that you can build an Abyssinian well at your site is very high if your neighbors in the country already have such wells.

One of the significant advantages of the Abyssinian well is that it can be constructed both on the site and in the house

The advantages of such a structure can hardly be overestimated:

  • the design is simple and inexpensive;
  • to equip this well does not need much space: the construction does not violate the integrity of the landscape;
  • Neither equipment nor access roads are needed for her arrival;
  • the pump can be mounted both on the site and in the room;
  • all the work will take no more than 10 hours: it all depends on the depth of the water carrier and the hardness of the soil;
  • high-quality filter prevents siltation, which allows a long operation of the structure;
  • no pollution from the surface of the earth gets into the well;
  • the quality of water from such a well is comparable to spring water;
  • the needle well provides a continuous supply of water, which is sufficient for both watering the plot and for domestic needs: the debit of the middle well is approximately 0.5-3 cubic meters per hour;
  • the device can be easily dismantled and installed elsewhere.

Abyssinian wells are not as deep as traditional wells on sand, so the probability of getting dissolved iron in them is reduced. And this means that there is no need for expensive filters when using them.

The Abyssinian well raises water from an aquifer that is deep enough to ensure the normal operation of any plumbing and watering the site

How to work without special equipment?

The Abyssinian well can be easily made using special equipment. But buying such mechanisms specifically for a single well is unprofitable, and inviting specialists is expensive. The construction of the needle well can be done with your own hands and using only the tool that is already available or can be purchased inexpensively.

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Preparation of the necessary tool and material

The kit for the Abyssinian well includes:

  • drill and grinder;
  • hammer and sledgehammer;
  • a pair of gas keys;
  • for clogging the pipe, pancakes from a bar for 20-40 kg are needed;
  • welding machine;
  • garden drill 15 cm in diameter;
  • pipes: ½ inch 3-10 meters long, ¾ inches - 1 meter;
  • 1 inch pipe for the well, which should be cut into pieces of 1-1.5 m and have a short thread on each side;
  • nuts and bolts by 10;
  • stainless steel galvanic weaving P48 16 cm wide and 1 m long;
  • automotive clamps 32 sizes;
  • couplings: cast iron 3-4 pcs. to clog pipes, as well as steel to connect pipes;
  • two meters of wire 0.2-0.3 mm in diameter;
  • check valve, HDPE pipes and couplings, pump station.

In any city there is a market or a hardware store where you can cut threads and purchase all these materials and tools.

Self-made filter

For the filter, you need an inch pipe with a length of about 110 cm, to which a cone-shaped tip is welded. This tip is called the needle for the Abyssinian well. If not, you can simply flatten the end of the pipe with a sledgehammer. Using a grinder on both sides of the pipe, we cut the cracks for 80 cm through 1.5-2 cm in length of about 2-2.5 cm. It is important that the overall strength of the pipe is not violated. We wind the wire onto the pipe, after which we put a mesh on it and fix it with clamps after about 8-10 cm. You can also solder the mesh if you have certain skills.

In America, for example, the filter for the Abyssinian well is made with an internal mesh and a wire that is located above and below the mesh

It is important to know that solders with lead should not be used so that toxic substances do not enter the water. For work, only special flux and tin solder are used.

Drilling technology

We drill soil with the help of a garden drill, building it with a pipe construction. To do this, meter ½-inch pipes are connected by couplings of pipes with a diameter of ¾ inch and bolts of 10. Holes must be pre-drilled in the fastening points. The drilling process continues until wet sand appears, which will drain into the surface of the drill. Everything, further drilling is pointless, because wet sand will go back to the well.

We hammer a pipe with a filter

We connect pipe segments with a filter using couplings, not forgetting to screw the FUM tape onto the thread. The resulting construction of pipes with a filter is lowered to sand, and a cast iron coupling is wound on top of it. Pancakes from the bar are stacked on the cast-iron coupling. An axis is passed through their center, along which the pancakes will slide, clogging the pipe. The axis consists of a 1.5 meter piece of pipe with a diameter of ½ inch and a bolt at the end.

A finished well needle does not take up much space and does not spoil the appearance of the site: if desired, it can be decorated with a canopy, it is very desirable to build a concrete platform around it

With each blow of the pancake, the pipe should be immersed several centimeters. When half a meter above the sand level will be passed, you can try to pour a little water into the pipe. If the water disappears, then the sand has accepted it. An aquifer of sand is capable of absorbing water at the same rate as giving it away.

Pumping the finished well

We install a check valve, then a pump station. We use HDPE pipes and ensure that the entire structure is airtight. Pour water into the alluvial station, and connect a piece of hose to the outlet. You can start the pump. Do not be alarmed when air comes out of the well, and then muddy water. It should be so. Pure water will soon appear, the quality of which can be seen by doing an analysis or just boiling it.

From the well you can bring water to a private house, read about it: voda / kak-podvesti-vodu-v-chastnyj-dom.html

This is what the Abyssinian well looks like if it was installed in the garden and equipped with a hand pump: the summer resident no longer depends on the watering time set by SNT

There should be no gutters or dung pits near the site of active water intake. A small area of ​​concrete, which is built around the well and located just above the surface of the soil, will provide an outflow of rainwater.


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